Charles's Policy. The Diet of Worms (§ 1 !. Political Events Favor the Protestant Cause (§ 2). Attempts at Religious Unity. Diet of Augsburg 0 3). Efforts for a General Council (§ 4). Renewal of Hostilities; Failure to Secure Unity (§ 6). Abdication (§ 8).
Charles V., emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 1519 56 and king of Spain. (as Charles I.), was born at Ghent Feb. 24, 1500; d. at the monastery of San Jer6nimo de Yuste (124 m, by rail w.s.w. of Madrid), in Estramadura, Sept. 21, 1558. He was the son of Philip the Handsome of Austria and Joan of Aragon, grandson on the paternal side of the emperor Maximilian I. and Mary of Burgundy, on the maternal side of Ferdinand and Isabella, who had united Aragon and Castile into the kingdom of Spain. In 1516 he succeeded Ferdinand and Isabella as king of Spain, and ruler of the Netherlands, of the kingdom of Naples (including Sicily and Sardinia), Milan, L uxemburg, and Franche Comtk. As a member of the house of Hapsburg he was archduke of Austria. Thus as a youth of sixteen he was by far the most powerful sovereign in Europe. In 1519 he was elected emperor in competition with Francis I. of France, largely through the influence of Frederick of Saxony (see FREDERICK III., THE WISE).
From the beginning of his reign as king of Spain Charles was beset with difficulties. It required the most strenuous efforts of Ximenes, chief counselor of Ferdinand, to prevent open revolt I. Charles's in Spain, where Charles's right to the Policy. succession was considered doubtful
The Diet and where, because of his Dutch trainof Worms. ing and Dutch counselors, he was unpopular. He entered upon his imperial administration amid the throes of the Protestant revolution, threatened in the West by the jealousy and ambition of the king of France and in the East by the attacks of the Ottoman Turks, who were encouraged by France to do their worst. The necessity of protecting the Netherlands, his Italian and other Western pcssessions from French voracity, and the Eastern domains of the house of Hapsburg from Turkish aggression, lay at the basis of Charles's policy in ecclesiastical matters. Immediately after his coronation as emperor at Aachen (Oct., 1520) the necessity of vigorous measures for the suppression of Lutheranism became manifest. The Diet of Worms followed (Jan. 28 May 25, 1521), but Charles, influenced by his confessor, Quintana, and having a wholesome dread of civil war, refused to deal as summarily with Luther as the papal nuncio, Girolamo Aleandro, wished. The Edict of Worms, representing the extent to which Charles was prepared to go in the direction of coercion, prohibited the printing, sale, and reading of Luther's books, and the giving of comfort and support to him; but the safeconduct under which he had come to Worms was respected (see WORMS).
On May 8 a secret treaty was made at Worms between the emperor and the pope against France. Henry VIII. of England joined the alliance, hoping to acquire territory lost to France and to increase
Oharles P. THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
bin own importance by having Woleey, bin chief counselor, elected pope. War broke out almost immediately. The duke of Bourbon
s. Political espoused the imperial cause. The pope,
Events Fa expecting the French to win and fear
vor the ing the increase of imperial power in
Protestant Italy, transferred his allegiance to
Cause. Francis, and thus angered the em
peror, who proved victorious and took
Francis prisoner in the battle of Pavia (1524).
The marriage of Charles to the infants of Portugal
rather than to Mary, daughter of Henry VIII.,
caused the latter to withdraw from the imperial
alliance and make peace with France. Availing
themselves of the emperor's absorption in extra
German enterprises, many German princes ignored
the Edict of Worms and openly promoted the
Lutheran cause. In July, 1525, Duke George of
Saxony, the elector of Brandenburg, the arch
bishop elector of Mainz, and the duke of Bruns
wick met at Dessau and formed a Catholic league
to cooperate with the emperor in exterminating
" the accursed Lutheran sect." In Feb., 1526, the
elector of Saxony and the Iandgrave of Hesse
(joined later by seven other princes) formed the
GotharTorgau alliance for the defense of Lutheran
ism. The manifest strength of the evangelical
cause and his breach with the pope caused Charles
to assume a conciliatory attitude, and the Diet of
Speyer (June, 1526; see SPEPEB, DIZ6TS or) left
the German princes free to deal with religious
questions each according to his sense of duty.
Turkish invasion in the east and the need of a
German army for the chastisement of the pope
promoted thin policy of toleration. 1n May, 1526,
a secret league was formed by the pope, France,
England, Venice, Milan, and Florence, against the
emperor, who (Sept. 17) declared the pope no
pastor, but a usurper, and appealed from hire to a
general council. In 1527 Charles sent a German
Lutheran army led by Georg von Frundsberg and
a Spanish army led by the duke of Bourbon against
the pope and his allies. The imperial troops forced
their way into Rome at the cost of the lives of
about five thousand of its defenders and for eight
days reveled in pillage, drunkenness, and outrage.
The pope took refuge in the castle of St. Angelo.
Cardinals were dragged through the city and forced
to pay ransom. St. Peter's was used for a stable.
Just before the sack of Rome England and France
had agreed to unite in demanding of the emperor
the release of the French princes held by him as
hostages and the payment to England of certain
indemnities, and to make war on him immediately
in case of his refusal. The sack of Rome and Ihal
treatment of the pope augmented the hostility of
England and France. Henry VIII. hoped, by suc
coring the pope and antagonizing the emperor, to
secure the good offices of the former in the matter
of the divorce from Catherine of Aragon, a relative
of the latter. Charles felt it advisable to come to
terms with the pope. He restored most of the
territory taken from him and received a promise
to convene a general council for the pacification of
Christendom and the reformation of the Church.
In 1528 the duke of Bavaria sought the cooperar
tion of England, France, and Lorraine in an effort
to depose Charles; and Philip of Hess sought
the assistance of France, Silesia, Poland, and oth
ers against the house of Hapsburg.
3. Attempts Charles's decisive victory over the
at Religions French led to the Peace of Cambrai
Unity. (July, 1529), and was followed by
Diet of an agreement between him and the
Augsburg. French king to cooperate in efforts
for religious unification. The Second
Diet of Speyer (1529; see Srzcrrca., DIETa oh) nul
lified the tolerant policy of the first. The man
ifest determination of Charles to crush Lutheran
ism led the Lutheran princes to unite in a protest
whence the designation "Protestants." The fail
ure of Lutherans and Zwingliane to unite for the
defense of the Evangelical cause (nee MexDU$a,
CoNFExENCa or) and the retreat of the army of
Suleiman from the gates of Vienna caused the
emperor, now at peace with France and the papacy,
to feel that at last he was master of the situation.
He was; in fact, now at the height of his power, and
all that was laclong to complete success was the
restoration of religious unity. He planned to visit
Germany, call a diet for religious pacification, sum
mon the different Evangelical parties to present
their views, and have them confuted by Roman
Catholic th&logiana invited for the purpose. He
announced. his intention to leave all peat errors to
the judgment of Christ, and to give due considera
tion to every man's opinions; yet he did not con
ceal his determination to bring all the people of
his empire into one commonwealth and one Church.
Arriving in Augsburg for the diet of 1530, he nought
to intimidate the German princes, insisting that
they should keep their preachers silent during
the cessions of the diet and requesting them to
join him in the Corpus Christi procession. They
atanchly refused compliance. The irenic confession
of faith prepared by Melanchthon (see Avassaxa
CONFESSION AND rfa APOLOGY) was attacked by
the Roman Catholic theologians. Charles objected
to the harsh polemics in which they indulged and
insisted on a more conciliatory statement than they
at first prepared.
The confession of Zwingli and that of the four cities (see TwxxApoLrrAx CONFFSaION) were treated with even leas consideration. Lorenzo Campeggi, representing the pope, urged drastic measures for the extirpation of heresy; but Charles was too much of a statesman not to see that in case of a conflict the Evangelical princes and cities would be supported by France, Bavaria, and other antiHapaburg powers, and again assumed a conciliatory ~a~ttitude. The Schmalkald League (1531; see SCHMALSALD ABTICLEB) soon had as its members all the Lutheran princes and cities and gained the support of France, England, Denmark, Hungary, and the duchy of Geldere; and Charles was again embarrassed by Turkish aggression. By the Religious Peace of Nuremberg (q.v.; 1532) he renewed the toleration of 1526.
Charles spent the following nine yearn in Spain, and from thin time onward was unwearied in his efforts to secure the avocation of a general council which should thoroughly reform the eccle
17 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Charles V.
siastical administration, redress the grievances of the Protestants, and make possible the reunion of
Christendom. His overtures to the 4. Efforts Lutheran princes for the settlement
for a of differences by a free council were General repelled, and for the next few years
Council. he had the mortification of seeing
Protestantism advancing more rapidly than ever before. In 1541 he conferred in person with Paul III. regarding a council, and Trent was selected as being outside of, but near Italy and in Catholic Austria (see TRENT, COUNCIL OF). Charles insisted that reformation should have precedence of doctrinal definition, while the pope and his advisers thought the latter the matter of supreme importance. As a compromise it was arranged that alternate sessions should be devoted to reformation and doctrine. Charles's interest in reformation was political rather than moral or religious. He thought efforts at coercion without antecedent reformation would result in war and render unification impossible. He repeatedly invited the Protestants to send representatives to the eoimcil, with promises of safe conduct and fair treatment. At the Fourth Diet of Speyer (1544) a dispute between the duke of Brunswick and the elector of Saxony and the landgrave of Hesse that had resulted in the imprisonment of the former and the seizure of his estates, was settled by the emperor, and he secured the promise of a large German army for a campaign against the Turks. With the help of the English and the Germane Charles gained such advantages over the king of France as to be able to make a favorable peace (Creepy, Sept., 1544). The peace involved an agreement on the part of the two sovereigns to unite in promoting the council and in reunifying Christendom.
At the Diet of Worms (May, 1545) the impossibility of reconciling the Protestants became more manifest to the emperor than ever before, and he
began to prepare for the inevitable g. Renewal conflict. War was immediately ro
of Hostil newel between the duke of Bruna
ities; wick and the elector of Saxony and
Failure to the landgrave of Hesse. It resulted dis
Secure astrously to the former. The elector Unity. of the Palatinate showed Protestant leanings early in 1546 and the death of the elector archbishop of Mainz (Sept., 1545) precipitated a struggle for ascendency between supporters of the emperor and the Protestants. At the Diet of Regensburg (June, 1546) the Schmalkald allies protested against the council and petitioned for continuance of peace. The emperor treated their overtures with contempt and expressed his purpose to vindicate his imperial authority. In July he declared war against the allies as outlaws and rebels. The defection of Maurice of Saxony gave a marked advantage to the imperial cause, and by June, 1547, Charles had destroyed the Schmalkald League and had the Protestants at his mercy. Yet even now he was too prudent to attempt the sudden and violent extirpation of the Evangelical faith. He secured.. the concurrence of the Lutheran princes and theologians in the Augsburg and Leipsic Interims (see INTERIM) in a scheme for the partial IIL 2
and gradual restoration of Roman Catholicism. The return of Maurice to the support of the Lutheran cause, disagreement between the emperor and the pope, and the intervention of France deprived the imperial cause of the advantages that had been gained. In the Treaty of Passau (Aug., 1552) Charles felt obliged to grant amnesty and religious toleration to the Lutherans, and by 1554 the imperial authority had become so weakened that Charles allowed his brother Ferdinand to make peace (1555) with the Lutherans on terms recognizing complete equality of rights for Lutheran and Roman Catholic princes (see AuasRURa, RELIGIOUS PEACE OF).
Deeply humiliated and utterly discouraged, Charles abdicated (1556), leaving to his son Philip his hereditary possessions. He was 6. Abdi succeeded in the imperial office by ration. his brother Ferdinand. He retired to the monastery of Yuste, where, broken in health and depressed in spirit, he spent the two remaining years of his life. Shortly before his death, seeing in Luther the cause of all his worm, he expressed regret that he had not burned the archheretic at the Diet of Worms. Charles was unquestionably a statesman of more than average ability, self possessed, comparatively tolerant, fry from fanatical zeal for the Roman Catholic faith, less treacherous than most of the rulers of his time, and supremely concerned to conserve and extend the Hapsburg possessions and power and to effect religious unification as a means to this end. Circumstances beyond his control made his position an extremely difficult one. From his point of view, it probably would have been advisable to crush Lutheranism in its infancy. A. H. NEWMAN.
BrBLIOf78APHT: A very extensive bibliography may be found in the British Museum Catalogue under " Charles V. Emperor of Germany." Among the voluminous sources may be mentioned: K. Lane, Corresponds= de* Kaisers Karl V. aua dem ka%aerlirhen Archiv, 3 vole., Leipeio, 18441846; Staatapapiere zur Geachichte lea Kaisers Karl Y., Stuttgart, 1845; ActanaCiieke and Briefs our Geschirhte Kayla Y., Vienna, 1853 57; J. J. I. von D6lfinger, Dokumente cur Geschichte Karle Y., in Beitrllpe, vol. i., Rsgenaburg, 1862. A French version of a Portuguese travel. of the lost autobiography of Charles was published by K. de Lettenhove, Commentairea de Charles Quint, Brussels, 1882, Eng. travel., Autobiography of do Emperor Charles V., London, 1862 (covets, 1518 48). Early lives are by: A. Ulloa, Venice, 1580; Sandoval, Valladolid, 1606; $epulveda, Madrid, 1780; A. de Mueica, Leipeic, 1728. An English classic and standard authority is W. Robertson, Hid. of Charles V., ed. W. H. Presoott, best ed. Philadelphia, 1857, new ed. London, 1882. Consult further: D. G. van Male, Lettrea our la vie 'snthriawe de 1'empereur Charles Quint, Brussels, 1843; W. Bradford, Correspondence of Charles V. and his Ambassadors in England and France. London, 1850; J. J. Hannueah, Kaiser Karl V., seine Zeit and seine Zeitpenosaen, Vienna, 1853; A. Piehot, Charles Quint, Chroufque do as vie intkrieure et de as vie politigue, Paris, 1854; W. Maurenbreeher. Karl V, and die deutache Proteatanten, 16.46 66, Diiaseldorf, 1885; O. C. Krabbe, Kaiser Karl Y, and das Augaburper Interim, Rostock, 1872; A. von Draffel, Raiser Karl V. and die rtmiache Curie, 164./ .I,B, 3 parts, Munich, 1877 eqq.; H. Baumgarten, Geachichte Kayla Y., Stuttgart 1885; W. Stirling Maxwell, Cloister Life of Charles Y., ed. J. Stirling Maxwell, London, 1891; Baumgarten, Karl V. and die deutsche Reformation, Coburg, 1893; O. Wale, Die Denkwflrd%qEeiten Kaiser Kayla V., Bonn, 1901; J. Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire, chap xix.. New York, 19G4; E. Armstrong, The Emperor Charles
~1°aY~ °'bet' THE
NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 18
Y., 2 vole., London, 1902 ; Pastor, Popes, vi. 379, 421; Creighton, Papacy, vi. 109 127 et passim; Schaff, Christian Church, vi. 282 et passim; Moeller, Christian Church, iii. 23 eqq. et paemm (worth consulting) The subject in treated necessarily in works on the Reformation and on the church history of the period.
CHARLES (abe RUNDLE), ELIZABETH: Church of England authoress; b. at Tavietock (13 m. n. of Plymouth), Devonshire, Jan. 2, 1828; d. at Hampstead (a suburb of London) Mar. 28, 1896. She was educated at home, and commend to write at an early age, her work winning the approval of such authors as James Anthony Froude and Tennyson. In 1851 she married Andrew Paton Charles (d. June 4, 1868), a chandler, and did much philanthropic work among the poor of Wapping. After 1894 she resided at Hampstead, where she continued her interest in philanthropy, attending the meetings of the North London Hospital for Consumption, and taking an active interest in the Metropolitan Association for Befriending Young Servants, while as early as 1885 she had founded at Hampstead a home for incurables called Friedenheim. Mrs. Charles was a prolific writer, but her fame rests chiefly on her Chronicles of the SchSnbergCotta Family, first published at London in 1883. This is a historical romance of the time of Luther, and gained wide popularity, running through many editions and being translated into most European and several Oriental languages. Among her other works special mention may be made of her Rest in Christ, or the Crucifix and the Cross (London, 1848); Tales and Sketches of Christian Life in Different Lands arid Ages (1850); The Two Vocations (18b3); The Voice of Christian Life in Song (1858); The Martyrs of Spain and Liberatora of Holland (1882); Wanderings over Bible Lands and Seas (1862); Sketches of Christian Life in England in the Olden Time (1884); Sketches of the Women of Christendom (1880); An Old Story of Bethlehem (1884); The True Viva (1885); The Great Prayer of Christendom : Thoughts on the Lord's Prayer (1886); Wanderings aver Lands and Seas (1887); Martyrs and Saints of the First Twelve Centuries (1887); " By the Coming of the Holy Ghost " (1888); " By Thy Glorious Resurrection and Ascension " (1888); and the autobiographical Our Seven Homes, edited by Mary Davidson (1896).
CHARLES, ROBERT HENRY: Anglican theologian and Ethiopic scholar; b. at Cookstown (21 m. w. of Armagh), County Tyrone, Ireland, Aug. 6, 1855. He was educated at Queen's University, Ireland (B.A., 1877), and Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1881); sad was incorporated M.A. at Exeter College, Oxford, in 1892. He was ordered deacon in 1883 and ordained priest in 1884, and was euoceasively curate of St. Mark's, Whitechapel (18831885), St. Philip's, Kensington (1885 86), and St. Mark's, Kennington, Surrey (1886 $9). In 18981906 he was professor of Biblical Greek in Trinity College, Dublin, and in 1905 was also appointed Grinfeld lecturer on the Septuagint at Oxford. He was Hibbert lecturer at Oxford in 1898, Jowett lecturer in London in 1898 99, and select preacher at Dublin in 1889 1900 and 1902 03, and was elected a fellow of the British Academy in
1908. In addition to numerous contributions to theological periodicals and encyclopedias, he has written Forgiveness and Other Sermons (London, 1888); The Book of Epoch (Ethiopic text; 1903); Ethiopic Version of the Hebrew Book of Jubilees (Oxford, 1894); The Apocalypse of Baruch (Syriac text and translation; London, 1896); The Assumption of Moses (Latin text and translation; 1897); Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, in Judaism, in Christianity (Jowett lectures for 1898 99; 1899); The Ascension of Isaiah (Ethiopic, Greek, and Latin teats and translation; 1900); The Book of Jubilees : or, The Little Genesis (translation; i902); The Ethiopic Version of the Book of Epoch (1905); Greek Version of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs with the Variants of the Armenian and Slavonic Versions and the Hebrew and Aramaic Fragments (Oxford, 1906); Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs (1908); and, with W. R. Morfill, translation of the Slavonic text of The Book of the Secrete of Epoch (1898).
CHARLES, SAINT, SISTERS OF CHARITY OF. See CHAR=, Srsmaas or.
CHARLES, THOMAS: Welsh Methodist; b. at Pantdwfn, near St. Clears (8 m. w.s.w. of Carmarthen), Carmarthenshire, Oct. 14, 1755; d. at Bale, Merionethshire, Oct. 5, 1814. He was educated under Methodist influences in Wales and at Jesus College, Oxford (1775 78; B.A., 1779), was ordained deacon and priest in the Church of England, and held a curacy in Somersetehire; but his opinions and style of preaching unfitted him for service as an English curate, and in 1783 he settled at Bala and soon became a leader of the Welsh Methodists. He made long preaching tours over all North Wales, instituted " circulating schools " and Sunday, schools, and trained teachers at his own expense. The revival which began in 1791 and spread from Bala se a center was a direct result of his labors. He maintained close connections with the English Methodists and extended his efforts to Ireland in 1807. In 1802 he helped to found the British and Foreign Bible Society (see BIBLE SOCIETIES, L, 2). He wrote tracts and books in Welsh for the religious instruction of his countrymen, including a catechism, which in English translation was recommended by the Countess of Huntingdon for use in her chapels, and a " Scriptural Dictionary " in Welsh (4 vole., Bale, 1805 08) which went through seven editions. A printing press which he established at Bala in 1803 issued more than 300,000 copies before his death.
Bn3a:oaaeaar: Edward Morgan, Memoir of the Life and Labours of Thomas Charles, London, 1828; William Hughes, Life and Letkrs of Thomas Charles Rhyl, 1881; Essays, Zwra, sad IatemeEinp Papers of Thomas Chw(es, ad. E. Morgan, London, 1838.