BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. J. Conybeare and J. S. Howson, Life and Epistles of St. Paul, chap. xiii.. New York, 1889; Schaff, Christian Church, i. 230 242, 436 444 (reviews the opinions); Neander, Christian Church, i. 18188 et passim; M. Lauterburg, Der Begritt des Charisma, in A. Schlatter and H. Cromer, BeitrGvpe zur Forderunp chrisUichar Thto
CnisAty THE NEW BCHAFF HERZOG 19
lopis, Gfltereloh, 1898; ICL, iii. 82 89; DCA, i. 349 3b0;
commentaries on Acts, Romans, Corinthians, and Ephesiane.
CHARITY, BROTHERS OF (Fratres caritatis): A name common to several benevolent orders of the Western Church during the Middle Ages. It is applied especially to the society founded about 1280 by a landowner Guido at Joinville, the Fri'rea de la CharitE de la bier~e Marie, to which Clement VI. gave an Augustinian rule and which took charge of the great Parisian hospital Las Billets from the fourteenth century until about 1840. In 1540, almost contemporaneous with the rise of the Jesuits, an order was founded in Grenada by the Portuguese Juan Ciudad, called John of God (b. 1495; d. Mar. 8, 15b0), which was generally known under the name of Brothers of Charity. After a life of dissipation and wild adventures in the army of the Hungarian King Ferdinand I. in his campaigns against .the Turks, John was converted by a sermon of the famous Juan d'Avila, and underwent the moat excessive penances, on which account he was regarded as a madman. Learning by his own experience how the insane were treated in the hospitals of those days, he resolved to devote himself especially to the nursing of these unfortunates and others in special need. In the house which he rented at Grenada, and which became the first scene of his self sacrificing work of love, he received only the sick from the poorest classes. Boon he gathered around himself and his first two associates, Martino and VeIasco, a number of sympathetic laymen. After ten years' activity he died, and Martino took charge of the institution, which as yet had neither a written rule nor a monastic organization. The number of houses soon increased, especially after the establishment of the large hospital at Madrid, which was richly endowed by Philip IL, to which others were soon added in different cities of Spain, Italy, and, after the seventeenth century, in France and Germany. The bull of authorization issued by Pies V. (Jan. 1, 1572) elevated the lay society to an order with the Augustinian rule, and placed their houses under episcopal jurisdiction, although the brethren were permitted to elect their directors (majorea, not priorea or abbatea) and to present some of their number for the priesthood. A general chapter held at Rome by Sixtus V. prepared the outlines of the constitution of the order. These articles were first published in 1589, and were enlarged under Paul V., Alexander VIL, and Clement XI. (cf. the final redaction dating from 1718, in Holstenius Broekie, Codex regutanan, vi. 293 382). The statutes included in their requirements a thorough medical knowledge on the part of the hospital staff. The secular head master and the chief tender of the sick had to be an experienced physician and surgeon, respectively. Of the eleven provinces in which the order is found, ten belong to the old world, one to America. The number of houses is at present about 120. (O. Zbcsrxat.)
BranroaawraT: The early Vito of John of God are given in ABB. Merck i. 814 8b8. Consult the more modem trash meats: z. BagGer, vie de s. Jean de Dieu, sex i'AiNoire de ja fondaboa e! du d6oeTopprnaent de son ardro, Paris,
1877; C. Wihnst, Lebenebeeehreibaap do@ . *. . Johannes
won lion, Regensburg, 1880. Further, on the order, ooasult: Helyot, Ordres monaediquea, iv. 131 147; Heimbua)uu, Order and %oaprspationen, ii. 491 498.
CHARITY, CHRISTIAN: As distinguished from mere compassion, which may be but a transitory emotion or a desire without accomplishment, charity requires the operation of the will; it presupposes a permanent willingness to help one's neighbor in his need. If love comprehends the whole of Christian moral obligations (Rom. xiii. 9), charity is its manifestation toward our fellows, whether in temporal or in spiritual need. It is a permanent attribute of God (II Cor. i. 3), because human misery is always before his eyes, and has been operative in him from all eternity, in his plan of redemption. Under the old covenant, God, revealing himself as merciful and gracious, required his people to show mercy toward their needy brethren (Zech. vii. 9). It has, however, a deeper foundation in the New Testament. As the children of God by their brotherhood with Jesus Christ, the disciples could not but imitate the mercy of God (Luke vi. 38); he who failed is this regard showed that he was unworthy of membership in the new kingdom (Matt. aviii. 33; James fi. 13). The ethical organisation of men is founded upon charity, and destroyed by its' absence (Luke x. 37; Heb. ii. 17, iv. lb). Thus the true Good Samaritan is not only the model, but the source of all real charity, and his disciples show their fellowship with him by it (Matt. ix. 13; Rom xii. 4 b). It is the characteristic difference between the Christian and the non Christian world, which knows little of it. Nothing in primitive Christianity so struck the outside observer; even the emperor Julian was obliged to admit its force, while he strove is vain to imitate it. Step by step it did away with heathen customs infanticide, removal of the weak and sickly, brutality to slaves; it built hospitals and asylums everywhere.
In the Roman Catholic Church, according to the development of ethics since Ambrose in the form of a system of virtues and duties, charity is considered under both heads. Thomas Aquinas reckons it among the so called " theological virtues," and says that it is the highest of the virtues which go out to our neighbor. He enumerates seven corporal works of mercy (feeding the hungry, giving drink to the thirsty, clothing the naked, ransoming the captive, sheltering the homeless, visiting.the sick, and burying the dead), and seven spiritual (admonishing sinners, instructing the ignorant, counseling the doubtful, comforting the sorrowful, bearing wrongs patiently, forgiving all injuries, praying for the living and the dead).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The standard work is G. Uhlhorn, Die dwiatliche LiebeathBtipJbsit, 3 vole., Stuttgart, 1887r90, Erg. trsneL of vol. i., New York, 1883.
CHARITY, SISTERS OF: A name applied loosely to various female communities in the Roman Catholic Church devoted especially to the care of the sick and the poor. Some associations of this kind will be treated in the article Womm, CoxolteaAmioNS or. For the Irish Sisters of Charity see ENarrsa Len»ce. It will be necessary here to
treat only of the two best known and moat influential of these communities.
1. The Sisters of Charity of St Vincent de Paul
The title of Confr&ie do la charitE pour l'aaaistance apirituelle et corporelle den pauvrea naaladea was given by Vincent de Paul (q.v.) originally to the association of women which he organized in 1617 in his small parish of ChStillon les Dombes, in the diocese of Lyons, and which, after approval of its statutes by the archbishop, spread also to other places. After the final transfer of its headquarters to Paris (1818), he founded similar associations in the capital and its neighborhood. He entrusted the direction of these Dames de to Charit,E, after the death of his patroness the Countess of Gondy (1625), to the devoted Louise Marillac, under whose guidance the development of the rapidly growing association into a community of unmarried women began in 1633, in which year the first of such members were admitted to the confraternity. On the Feast of the Annunciation in the following year a number of these Filler aervantea den pauvrea de la cluariM (later commonly known as Saurs Grim from their gray habit) took their vows at the village of La Chapelle near Paris. Eight years later they were transferred to the city itself, where, by the time of the death of Vincent and Louise Marillac (both in 1660), they had already twenty eight houses. The rule drawn up by the founder was confirmed by Clement IX. in 1668. It includes the obligation of rising daily at four o'clock, making a meditation twice daily, willingly tending all the sick, even the moat repulsive, and rendering unconditional obedience to superiors. Life vows were not taken by the sisters, but after a probation of five years a vow of obedience was pronounced which was to be renewed from year to yeas. The order was placed in a sort of dependence on the " Priests of the Mission," or Lazariets, whose superior was to be their director. The order spread during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries principally in France and Poland, and reached the number of 500 houses. With the other religious orders it was suppressed at the Revolution, but continued its self sacrificing labors none the leas, until it was formally reestablished by Napoleon in 1807, and began a new and wider growth. 1n France alone it had about 400 houses in 1890; but the laicizing of the hospitals carried out by the government in the last few yea,ra has considerably weakened it since. Its total membership in all countries is supposed at present to be about 30,000. [The sisters of charity of St. Vincent de Paul were established in the United States in 1809 by Elizabeth Seton (q.v.). In 1907 this branch of the order numbered 4,698 professed sisters and had charge of 27 asylums, 33 orphanages, 27 academies, and 103 parochial schools.]
2. The Sisters of Charity of St. Charles: A community of similar nature and purpose grew up under this name in 1626 in the great hospital of St. Charles Borromeo at Nancy. The general of the Premonatratensiaas, Epiphaniue Ludovicua, abbot of Eetival, drew up in 1652 a rule for it, according to which the members were to take the three usual monastic vows, together with a fourth
binding them to devote themselves for life to the care of the sick poor and friendless children. From the mother house at Nancy they spread first through France, and in the nineteenth century through a large part of Germany and Austria. At the end of this century they numbered about 450 houses with nearly 3,000 members, divided into four congregations at Nancy, Prague, Trebnitz, and Treves. (O. ZOCKLEaxt.)
BIHlroo$ApBT: F. Bournsud, Les Sours, 1633 1900, Paris, 1900; F. F. Buss, Dar Orden den barmhersipsn Schueatern, Schaffhausen, 1847: D. Wulf, Dae eepenareiehe Wirken den 3ehwestein, Mijnster, 1861; Sisters of Charity, Catholic and Protestant, London, 1866; Q. Uhlhorn, Die rhristtiche Liebeath&ipkeit aeit den Reformation, pp. 210 227. Stuttgart, 1882: F. Herv6 Brain. Las Grande Ordres du femmes, Paris, 1889; C. de )tiohemont, Histoire de Mme. it Gras, ib. 1894; L. Bsu$ard, La Vbnbnble Louise de Marillac, Paris, 1898; B. R,. Parkas, Historic Nuns, London, 1898; Carrier. Religious Orders, pp. 448 482; Heimbnaher, Order und.IConprqpatio$sn, ii. 430 4a8.
Ecclesiastical Policy of the Frankish Hinge (; 1). Charlemagne'e Policy (§ 2) Coronation an Emperor ($ 8). His Services to Learning (14). The Iconoclastic Controversy (1b).
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Lat. Carol= Magnus), founder of the Holy Roman Empire, was the son of Pepin, the first of the Camlirman line of Frankish kind, and grandson of Charles Mantel, the powerful mayor of the palace under the last Merovingian kind. He was born c. 742, perhaps at Aachen or Ingelheim; d. at Aachen Jan.
28, 814. With his father and younger :. Ecclesi brother, Karhnan, he was anointed asticsl king of the Franks by Pope Stephen II. Policy of in 754. He ruled jointly with Karhnan the Frank after Pepin's death in 768, and alone ish ?hags. after Karlinan's death in 771. He was
crowned emperor of, the Romans at Rome by Pope Leo III. on Christmas Day, 800. In both civil and ecclesiastical matters Charlemagne carried out with consummate ability the policy of his father. From Clovis, the first Merovingian king (481 511; see Fx"ge), onward the Frankish rulers pursued the policy of endowing and extending the Roman Church as a means of consolidating and strengthening the civil administration. The conquest of heathen peoples was not thought complete until they were Christianized and the newly acquired territory had been provided with a well ordered and comprehensive ecclesiastical establishment. Resources devoted to ecclesiastical equipment and endowment were supposed to yield the beat possible results in assimilating and loyalizing the communities in which they were expended. Where land was abundant it coat little to endow with landed estates archbishoprics, bishoprics, abbacies, etc., especially as the incumbents owed allegiance to their benefactors and could be relied upon for any kind of needful service.
The Lombards (q.v.) had long been a thorn in the side of the papacy. In 739 Pope Gregory III. had entreated Charles Mantel to come to his relief, but Charles was not ready for so great an undertaking.
a THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
In 753 Stephen II. gained permission to visit Pepin for secret conference. Pepin sent his young sons Charles and Karhnan to meet him
, and received him (754) with the utmost cordiality. The conference was epoch making. With the concurrence of his nobles, Pepin made with the pope an offensive and defensive alliance, recognized the pope's ecclesiastical headship, and undertook to deliver the papal territory from Lombard oppression and to promote the papal cause in all Frankish possessions and dependencies; while the pope commended Rome and the Romans to the protection of the king, crowned him patricfus IZomanorum and king of the Franks, crowned his two sons, and undertook to support the Frankish kingdom in every possible way. A successful campaign against the Lombarda (754) led to the bestowal on the pope of the territory claimed as the patrimony of Peter (see PAPAL STATES) and the exarchate of Ravenna, but the conquest did not prove permanent, and it was left for Charlemagne to complete it (774).
From his childhood Charlemagne was carefully instructed by his father in warfare and in statecraft, and in early youth was associated with his father in the government of the realm. When crowned at St. Denis (754) he was
2. Charle made to promise to Peter and his
magne's vicar or his successors to be a friend to
Policy. their friends and an enemy to their
enemies. As ruler his policy was to
extend his kingdom as widely as possible by con
quest and to bring the whole domain into a well
ordered sad homogeneous organism by diffusing
throughout Christian civilization. His five cam
paigns against the Lombards (773, 774, 776, 780,
and 784) had for their object the emancipation of
the Church from Lombard oppression and encroach
ment and the inclusion of their territory in his own
domain. The bestowment of a portion of the
territory upon the Roman See and the apparent
recognition of the alleged Donation of Constantine
(q.v.) involved no surrender of his own sovereignty.
His eighteen expeditions against the Saxons (770
784) had for their object the subjugation of their
territory to Frankish rule and the Christianization
of the entire population. He regarded the latter
work, with the establishment of a full ecclesiastical
system dependent on the Roman See, as necessary
to the permanence and effectiveness of the former.
His five campaigns against the Saracens in Italy
were for the protection of Frankish territory and
of Roman Christianity. The same may be said
of his seven campaigns against the Arabs in Spain.
Many of his wars were for the protection of fron
tiers already established; but when territory was
once definitely acquired and incorporated in his
realm his first thought was to provide for the speedy
Christianization of its population by covering the
territory with Christian institutions and by com
pelling the people to submit to baptism and con
form to the cultus of the Church. Free forma of
Christianity fared little better with Charlemagne
and his predecessors than paganism, uniformity
and articulation with the Holy Catholic Church
being regarded as essential for the purposes of the
State. The infliction of the death penalty for
attempts to evade baptism, for desecration or destruction of church property, and for the celebration of pagan rites was based upon his conviction that the Chriatianization of the entire population was essential to the accomplishment of his political ends.
In 799 Pope Leo III., sorely beset by a hostile faction and driven from Rome, made his way to the king's court at Paderborn. He was received with all honor and sent back with a
3. Corona royal guard and assurance of ample
tion as protection. Near the end of 800 Emperor. Charlemagne visited Rome to complete the restoration of order and of the pope's authority, and on Dec. 25, while engaged in a religious service, he was crowned emperor by the grateful pope. This coronation was prized by Charlemagne as involving a recognition by the Roman See, the moat influential surviving representative of Roman dignity and authority, of his right to be regarded as the legitimate successor of the Caesara and as a solemn expression of the pope's determination to make common cause with him in the work of building up a world wide empire in which the Roman form of religion should have exclusive away. It is evident that he had no thought of subordinating the civil to the ecclesiastical authority. After the coronation as before, he legislated as freely in ecclesiastical as in civil matters. His capitulariea and laws abound in minute regulations for every department of ecclesiastical life and work:
Of primary importance was the educational movement begun by Pepin and carried forward with unremitting zeal and vast expenditure by Charlemagne. He had a deep per
4. His Serv sonal interest in all forma of knowl
icea to edge, and throughout his reign was Learning. diligent in his efforts to learn. The most eminent scholars of Britain and of Italy were drawn into his service. Something like a university was maintained in the court, and by an educational system under the guidance of Alcuin (q.v.) he sought to diffuse civilization throughout his realm. The monasteries and the churches were the chosen channels for the spread of enlightenment. It is probable that no other ruler ever accomplished so much for the diffusion of learning. A statement by Einhard (Vita, xxv.) that the emperor could not write can not fairly be taken to mean more than that he neglected to acquire a skilful use of the pen, preferring the services of amanuenses. He ie said to have had a speaking knowledge of Latin, to have understood Greek, and to have had some acquaintance with Hebrew.
Charlemagne followed in the footsteps of Pepin in his attitude toward the worship of images. The Caroline Books (q.v.), put forth in the name of Charlemagne and with his authority,
g. The combated the decisions of the Second
Iconoclastic Nicene Council in favor of image
Controversy. worship, approved by the pope, while
at the same time condemning icono
clasm. Images are declared to be useful for the
ornamentation of the churches and the perpetuation
16 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Chariemaga e
of holy deeds, yet they are by no means necessary. Christians having fellowship with Christ ought always to have him present in their hearts and to be able to look beyond the sensible into the spiritual. The Scriptures and not images are the proper outward means for gaining acquaintance with Christ. The Synod of Frankfort (794), called and controlled by Charlemagne, condemned the adoration and service of images (see IMAGES AND IMAGE WORSHIP, IL). The negotiations between Charlemagne and the empress Irene looking toward the marriage of the two sovereigns and the reuniting of the East and the West, which were brought to an end by the overthrow of the empress (802), no doubt had in view the world wide unification of ecclesiastical as well as civil administration.
Charlemagne paid little heed to moral or ecclesiastical considerations in contracting and annulling his marriages, and' had no idea of limiting himself to one wife at a time. Besides several regular marriages, he sustained semimarital relations with a number of women, whose children he recognized and provided for.
A. H. NEWMAN.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A convenient list of sources is given in Potthast, Wegweiaer, pp. 192 194, 1234 3b. The Opera Omnia, including letters, are in MPL, aavii. xcviii. The Capitularia, ed. G. H. Peru, are in MGH,Leg., i (183b), 32 194, and the Legea Langobardorum are in the same, iv (1868), 485 514. Other important early sources are given in MGH, Script., i. ii., 1826 29. Several short documents are given in the original in S. Mathews, Select dfediaval Documents, pp. 10 14, Boston, 1892; a eapitulary is in Eng. travel. in E. F. Henderson, Documents, pp. 189 200; several documents are in Thatcher and McNeal, Source Book, pp. 35 38. Excellent illustrative extracts are given in English, with a bibliography, in Robinson, European History, pp. 128 149.
The fundamental life is the Vita Karoli Mapui by Einhard: it is in ASB, Jan., ii. 877 888: also, ed. Pertz, in MGH, Script., ii (1829), 443 483; ed. G. Waltz, in Script. rer. Germ., Hanover, 1880; in MPL, xevii. 25 62; a good edition is by A. Holder, Freiburg, 1882; there is an Eng. tranal. by S. E. Turner, New York, 1880, and in Thatcher and McNeal, Source Book, pp. 38 48. Modern treatments of the life are: P. A. Thijm, Karl der Grosse and seine Zeit, M>Ynater, 1888; E. L. Cutts, Charlemagne and his Times, London, 1887; J. I. Mombrt. Hint. of Charles the Great, London, 1888 (scholarly, discusses the sources); J. 1. Humbert, Haet. of Charles the Great, ib. 1889: R. Foss, Karl der Grosse, Giiteraloh, 1897; T. Hodgkin, Charles the Great, New York, 1897; H. W. C. Davis, Charlemagne, New York, 1900.
Shorter treatments or discussions of various phases of his life and activities are: A. Ebert, Allperneine Geachichte der Literatur lea Msttelaltera, ii. 3 108, LeiPaie, 1880; A. West, Alcuia and the Rise of the Christian Schools, New York, 1893; E. F. Henderson, Germany in the Middle Ages, pp. 58 eqq., New York, 1894; F. Gregorovius, Rome in the Middle Ages, vol. ii., book iv., chaps. 4 7, vol. iii., book v., chap. 1> London 1894 95; J. A. Ketterer, Karl der Grouse and die Kirche, Munich, 1898: C. L. Wells, The Ape of Charlemagne, New York, 1898; J. Nover, Karl der Grosse and seine Paladins, Glogau, 1900; J. Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire, especially chap. v., New York, 1904; J. B. Mullinger, The Schools of Charles the Great, ib. 1904; H. Prutz, The Age of Charlemagne, vol, viii. of History op All Nations, ed. J. H. Wright, Philadelphia, 1905; Milman, Latin Christianity, book iv., chap. iii., book v., chap i.: Neander. Christian Church, vol. iii., pas=im; Schaff, Christian Church, iv. 236 249; Mueller, Christian Church, ii. 90 98. Consult also: $. Abel and B. Simaon, Jalarlriicher lea frenkiachen Reicha. 2 vole., Leipaic, 1883; Wattenbach, DGQ; and the literature under Arccrx.