Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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3. Canoes. oeiving education in the capitulas school, who had no voice in the chap­ter. The number of both classes was limited only by the amount of the community property. Later, especially in Germany from the thirteenth century, the number of canonriea and prebends was limited in many chapters, at first for various economic reasons and then for the purpose of assuring a richer live­lihood to their members. The custom still, how­ever, prevailed of receiving youths to be trained for canonriea. A special fund was set aside for their support, and they were bound on their aide to the vita communis. They were known as ju­nior»: canonfci non capitularea, domicelli, dorm­celLarea. In chapters with fixed numbers canonici, I eupraaumerarii were those waiting for a prebend

to be vacated The Lateran Council of 1179 had indeed forbidden the conferring of Expectancies (q.v.); but under the lax papal interpretation of the application of this prohibition to capitular positions, and the definite concession of four ex­pectancies to each chapter by Alexander IV. (1254), the practise continued, and admission among the domicellarea was regularly the title to s full canonry in order of seniority.

Qualifications for admission had long been fixed by the chapters themselves before the common law took cognisance of the question. The Clementine required the possession of holy orders, and the Council of Trent.decreed that half the canonries should be given to doctors, masters, or licentiates in theology or canon law, and that in cathedral chapters half should be held by priests. The older statutes of the chapters themselves required (be­sides the possession of a " title ") that the candi­date should have received at least the tonsure, and be free from notable bodily defects, and of unblemished honor, of legitimate, and sometimes of noble, birth; fourteen years commonly, some­times less, was the minimum of age. While all canons were theoretically equal, there were officers among them to which special functions were at­tached. Such were the prcebendce doctorates for those holding doctor's degrees, others destined to provide support for university professors, loros­bendw parochialea connected with a parochial cure, pra;bendee preabyterdea for those in priest's orders who performed the requisite sacerdotal functions when the majority of the canons were deacons or eubdesaona, pr'cebendw exemptca or la3erce to which the obligation of residence was not attached, and prabenda regim, either those to which sovereigns had the right of presentation from having founded them, or which were held by the sovereigns them­selves se honorary canons. Besides the canons, who were frequently hindered by political position or disinclination from performing their spiritual functions, there were often a number of vicarii, manaionarii, or caPellani, who had charge of the services and represented the canons in them.

The organization of chapters in modern times is usually a simpler one, especially owing to their loss of political importance in modern states. They usually consist of a number of ccapitularea or nurre­rarii, who enter upon their rights as soon as they are nominated; the carwnici ezapedantea, juniores, and domicellarea have almost ceased to exist. The requirements are: priestly or (in some cases) any major orders;. the age of thirty in some places, in

others that requisite for the sub­4. Modern diaconate or twenty two, unless they

Organ  must be priests, when it would be

izatioa. twenty four; practical experience in

ecclesiastical service or in an educa­tional position, or at least a notable degree of learn­ing; and in some cases native birth, either within the country or the diocese. Besides the full canons, there are in some countries honorary canons; in Austria and France deserving clerics who hold merely an honorary title without effective member­ship in the chapter, while in Prussia, although the obligation of residence is not imposed, they have


a sort of membership, extending at least as far as participation in episcopal elections. The office of vicar still exists; but in the modern chapter its holders are assistants rather than, as formerly, representatives of the canons.

As to the officers of the chapter, after the redis­tribution of revenues to which allusion has been made and the acquisition of property, the provost generally retained only the right of presiding over the chapter and administering its property. The enforcement of discipline and the conduct of public worship was usually in charge of the dean, who had a certain disciplinary power, to be exercised with

the counsel and assent of the chapter; g. Officera in the Middle Ages his functions were frequently combined with those of the archpriest. Other officials were the primicenus, cantor, or praoerUor, in charge of the services and music; the scholQaticus, in charge of the chapter school, sad often of other schools in the see city or the diocese; the aacriata or thesaurnrius, in charge of the sacred vessels, vestments, and other things used in divine worship; the cellerariua, who in the days of the vita commuraia provided for the housekeeping, and the portarius, who in the same period regulated the intercourse of the members of the chapter with the outside world. In the nine­teenth century reorganization of capitular life this whole system of official administration has been much simplified in some countries, especially in Germany, while others, such as Italy and Spain, retain more of the medieval arrangements. In accordance with the provisions of the Council of Trent, a theologian and a penitentiary are appointed for each chapter.

In the early period of the vita commun%a the decision as to the reception of new members into the community rested with its head, either bishop or provost, though the aeniores sometimes had a consultative voice. After the dissolution of the common life, the chapter had the right in some cams to confirm or reject a nomination made by the bishop, and in others to nominate independently to certain canonries, while others, again, especially those founded by a bishop, were wholly in his gift. Further modifications were introduced by the papal claim of reservation, and by the patronal rights of founders. The emperors from the thirteenth cen­tury, and later other sovereigns and secular and ecclesiastical princes in their own countries, claimed the jua fmimariarum precum, the right to appoint one person to each chapter after their coronation or consecration. Opposed to this diversity is the principle of the present common law that cathedral canonries are in the joint gift of the bishop and the chapter, while in collegiate churches they are filled by the chapter with subsequent institution at the hands of the bishop.

The chapter is now, since the dissolution of the vita communia and the distribution of what was originally common property, a corporation with a separate legal existence of its own apart from the bishop, competent to deal with both ecclesiastical matters and matters of property, and to ordain and manage its own internal affairs independently, as by altering its former statutes and malting new

ones. By common law the consent of the bishop is not necessary for this, though it is by special

provision in some of the newer re­6. Legal organized systems. The duties of the

Provisions chapter as a whole include the daily

and Duties. performance of divine service, both

mass and choir offices. Cathedral

chapters have the further duty of assisting the

bishop in pontifical functions and in the adminis­

tration of the diocese. The right corresponding

to the last named duty finds expression in various

ways. The bishop is required to have the assent of

the chapter for any alienation of the property of the

cathedral or diocesan institutions, for any notable

change in the system of benefices, for the appoint­

ment of a coadjutor, for any measures which are

prejudicial to the rights or privileges of the chapter,

and for the introduction into the diocese of a new

feast of obligation. He is further required to seek

their counsel in the appointment or deposition of

ecclesiastical dignitaries, in the granting of dis­

pensations or confirmations, in matters which touch

the interests of the chapter, in the more important

questions of diocesan administration, etc. For the

rights of the chapter during the vacancy of a see

or the incapacity of a bishop, see Ssnae Vscexs.

According to the Roman Catholic theory, cathedral

chapters are not essential and fundamental parts

of the constitution of the Church, but the, product

of historic development. Accordingly, church law

leaves a great deal to local usage in regard to the

part to be played by them in the administration

of a diocese; and they are lacking entirely in

many dioceses, as in the " missionary " districts

of North America, while in others (as in Eng.

land, Ireland, and Canada) their organisation is

very loose.

Little need be said here about the survival of chapters in the Protestant churches. For the Eng­lish system, see ENGLAND, Csvxca op, IIL, 1 8. A few scattered chapters, of either cathedral or col­legiate type, still exist in evangelical Germany, such tie those of Brandenburg, Naumburg, Merse­burg, and Zeits in Prussia, and Meissen and Worsen in Saxony. After the Reformation the chapters

which came over to the new doctrine y. In Prot  with their bishops were usually die.. estaat solved: but a few of them succeeded

Churches in maintaining their existence in

spite of the local sovereign, especially those which did not become wholly Protestant and went on as " mixed chapters " (Oenabrlick, Hal­berstadt, Minden), with a system of alternation as to the bishopric between the two religions, lasting even through the Peace of Westphalia. The con­nection of the others with the bishops who had become Protestants did not last long, and most of them were sooner or later incorporated with the territories of the sovereigns who had at first been their administrators; and only those named above survived the general secularisation of 1803. Even these, however, are not properly church bodies, but corporations for the preservation and admin­istration of certain property and revenues; and steps have been taken toward the abolition of the

Prussian chapters. (A. HwuQs.)

Chapter and Verse Division THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 10


BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. Bouia, De capitulia, Paris. 1862; P. Schneider, Die biachojlichen Domkapital Main:, 1855; idem, Die Entvriclcelunp der biachtijtichen ~DomkapiteE Us zum vierzehnlen Jahrhunderte, wOrsburg, 1882; G. A. Huller, Die juriatiache PeraBalichkeiten der Domkapitel in Deutschland, Bamberg, 1860; G. Finaszi, Dei caPilul% cathedrals, Lucca, 1863; P. Hinachius, Kirchenrecht der Katholiken and Proteatanten, ii. 49 161, Berlin, 1871; A. L. Richter, Lehrbuch des kathol%echen and evangelischen Kirchenrechda, 8th ed. by w. Kahl, pp. 440 aqq., 628, Leipaic, 1877 86; W. F. Hook, Church Dictionary, e.YV. Chapter and Dean, London, 1887; E. Hatch, (growth o/ Church Institutions, ib. 1887; idem, Organisation of Early Christian Churches, ib. 1888; E. Friedberg, Lehrbuch des katholiachen and proteetantiachen Kirchearechta, p. 164, Leipaic, 1895; H. D. M. Spence, The White Robe of Churches, London, 1900; H. Schaefer, P)arrkirche and Sti/t, Stuttgart, 1903; A. werminghoH, Kirchsnver/aasunp Deatachlanda im Mittelalter, Hanover, 1005.

CHAPTER COURTS (Chorgerichte): The name applied, in the canton of Bern after the Reforma­tion, to the tribunals having charge of matrimonial causes and the execution of church discipline. As early as 1470, the town council of Bern had seriously attempted to take in hand the moral condition of the inhabitants, neglected by the Church. In the same spirit, the Reformation here was rather one of practise than of doctrine. Thus, after the issue of the first reforming decree, it was naturally one of the concerns of the Berneae authorities to replace the suppressed episcopal courts by a new tribunal which should represent the civil government but regard questions coming before it from a religious stand­point. On May 29, 1528, the new court began its work. It was composed of six members two from the greater and two from the lesser council, with two preachers. It met in the building belong­ing to the old chapter, whence it probably took its name. In September it set forth principles to gov­ern matrimonial causes, and in November the other matters coming under its jurisdiction. These were offenses against the law of God which could not be punished as violations of express civil statutes ­such things as drunkenness, incontinence, usury, atheism, superstition, witchcraft, blasphemy, and gambling, which latter was strictly forbidden as unworthy of Christian people. An appeal had been intended to lie to the council, but this was abrogated in Jan., 1529. In March of this year the first formal regulations were put forth, evi­dently based on those adopted at Zurich in 1525. The punishments prescribed consisted of depriva­tion of honors and offices, imprisonment, banish­ment not often money fines, which became more usual later. The strictness of the judges caused no little murmuring at first, and the " Great Synod " of Jan., 1532, was obliged to promise that greater mildness should be shown. The attend­ance of the preachers was even for a time partially dispensed with, but in 1536 they were recalled, since so many questions came up in which their judgment, as expositors of God's word, was needed. In the same year Bern conquered Vaud and the other Savoyard lands to the southwest, and pro­ceeded to introduce the Reformation on its own principles. The ministers of Vaud, especially Viret and Beza, wished to set up a system of strict

church discipline on the Geneva model; but this did not agree with the Berneae view of the unity of the State, including the Church within itself, so that ultimately chapter courts were set up in each church district of the conquered territory. The ministers, under Calvin's influence, stood out, ob­atinately for strictly eccleaiast>ical discipline, with excommunication for its principal weapon. Things finally came to an open breach, and the banishment of a number of the clergy. All this attracted greater attention to the system of chapter courts; and greater severity than ever was shown against wanton dress, fortune telling, gambling, and im­moral dances and songs. The rules of the chapter­courta were enforced in the old local tribunals, which were gradually abolished (1561) in the in­terest of administrative unity; the same thing happened (1566) in certain cities, such as Brugg and Zofingen, where the magistrates had for a time dealt with matrimonial causes and general morality.

Viret and his friends had, however, been right in

a way. The chapter courts were, after all, of the

nature of civil government and police. As such,

they had done a good deal for external morality

and order; but they could do little for the pro­

motion of vital piety; their connection with the

Church was loose and external. The duty of ex­

amining and licensing candidates for church offices,

which had been originally given to them, fell to

another body very soon; the clergy managed their

own discipline in their own assemblies; and in the

end the chapter courts had nothing but questions

of marriage and paternity and all external police

des mceurs. After 1704 appeals were granted to

the town council or the Two Hundred; and in

1708 the number was changed to eight secular

judges with two clerical assessors. They had now

a formal code of their own, with purely secular

penalties, which was revised or enlarged at need.

They continued to exist (except in the period of

the Helvetic Republic, 1798 1803) until the re­

vision of the constitution in 1831. By the law of

1874 most of the duties of the chapter courts were

given to the " church councils," which now regu­

late questions of morality in so far as the modern

State permits. (E. B1.tSacxt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. B. Hundeahagen, Die Konftikte in der Bern. Landeakirche, in C. 'lreeheel, Beitrlipe, Bern, 1841­1842; Friekert, Die Kirchengebr6uche in Bern, Aarau,1846; Von StOrler in Archiv des hiatortachan Vereina von Barn 1862; E. Egli, Actenaammlunp zur Oeachichte der Zilrcher Reformation, Zurich, 1879.

CHARACTER: The composite of definite moral and personal traits which serves to distinguish an individual and to mark the type to which he belongs. Morality is essentially a matter of will, and thus of free agency. The will is, therefore, closely associ­ated with character; but it exists, in the true sense of the word only in so far as it is free and accepts the new modification voluntarily, instead of possessing it by nature, or being constrained to it by external influences. The criterion of character, in Kantian phrase, is " not what nature makes of man, but what man makes of himself." Character must, therefore, differ essentially from the original dis­position of man. The different forces and im 

RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA a~pter and Verse Division


pulses of the mental life form the basis, means, and material for will and character, but in themselves they are only anteethical. They may, further­more, be devoted either to lofty or to low ethical ends. Such a naturalistic basis can not be allowed to condition the principle of decision for or against the will of God, nor can it be permitted to control the moral demand and aims. In terms of Christian ethics the fundamental requirements for a noble character are that, as divine revelation demands and renders possible, it should obtain a heart established with grace through faith (Heb. xiii. 9), that it be strengthened with might by the Spirit and become rooted and grounded in self denying love (Eph. iii. 16 aqq.), that it come unto a per­fect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ (Eph. iv. 13; I Cor. xvi. 13), and that it be ready to perform faithfully every duty which its specie[ ability and position in the world requires. The natural dispositions, however, retain their importance for the weal or wo of character, and influences of the temperament may facilitate or aggravate the change for good or bad. On this account the will must influence nature lest it should destroy the formation of character and check the fulfilment of certain individual duties, so that the natural man must accordingly become subject to righteous will. Even where it is im­possible to overcome certain natural dispositions, character must at least oppose them, and assert its authority by discipline. On the other hand, the natural elements of psychic life should be allowed a certain influence on the will, in case their tend­ency is good. Additional influences and factors arise from external conditions and social positions, so that character may be defined, with Scharling, " as the impress of the will on the basis of natural individuality." Thus arises an endless variety and diversity of characters, owing partly to moral and immoral free will, partly to varying tempera­ments, and partly to the manifold relations be­tween the will, natural disposition, and personal experience. True ethical goodness of the character, however, always lies in that will which resigns itself to the moral principles, subjects the natural man to them, and at the same time endeavors to become fit for the tasks assigned to it individually, ever striving to become better adapted to its en­dowment and position. Christian ethics must naturally be directed from the very first toward developing and strengthening the character. Suc­cess here implies not only a mature discretion and insight into the basal principles of morality, but also a thorough understanding of one's own tem­perament and of mankind and the world.

(J. KSsmrarrt.)


CHARISMATA, c8 ris'm8 t8: The term used by theologians to designate the remarkable signs of the divine favor and power which accompanied the work of the primitive Church, beginning with the gift of tongues on the day of Pentecost. The belief in such signs exists to day among large numbers of Protestants as well as in the Roman Catholic Church, with the differ 

ence that the latter sees in the miracles of the saints the continuation of these mirac­ulous powers, while on the evangelical side they are supposed to have ceased at the latest with the first three centuries, either through the fault of the Church or by God's design. The question of the continuance of the charismata is in many modern treatises connected with that of the con­tinuance of miracles, the writers regarding the

gift of supernatural power to effect supernatural

operations as a fulfilment of Mark xvi. 17, 18.

Baur, on the other hand, saw in the charismata

only the gifts and dispositions which the individual

converts brought to Christianity, transformed by

the working of the Spirit into the various forms

of Christian consciousness and life. This view,

which excludes any giving of power to work mir­

acles, as well as any new divine gift or divine re­

enforcement of natural gifts, is demonstrably not

(as Baur claims) Pauline, but can not here be con­

troverted at length. The word charisma itself does

not tell anything as to the nature of the gifts.

Except in one passage of Philo and in I Pet. iv. 10,

it is only found in Paul's use of it, though probably

not formed by him. In most of the places where

he employs it, it denotes an extraordinary evidence

of God's favor; in II Cor. i. 11, his own deliverance

from death; in Rom. i. 11 a gift of the Holy Spirit,

such as comfort or illumination. In other places

it refers to special gifts bestowed upon the Chris­

tian (I Tim. iv. 14; II Tim. i. 6) as signs and tokens

of the grace received by belief in the message of

redemption (I Cor. i. 6, 7), which render him ca­

pable of a particular kind of action, in order to ren­

der some special service to the whole body (I Cor.

xii. 4 sqq.). The place, therefore, that each mem­

ber has in the community he has by virtue of a

charisma, which he is to administer to his brethren

(I Pet. iv. 10). Natural powers as such are useless

to the life of the body of Christ; what it needs

must, like itself, be spiritual. Charismata, then, may

be defined as powers and capacities necessary for

the edification of the Church, bestowed by the

Holy Spirit upon its members, in virtue of which

they are enabled to employ their natural faculties

in the service of the Church, or are endowed with

new abilities for this purpose. According to I Cor.

xii. 18; Rom. xii. 5 8; Eph. iv. 11, the charismata

form the basis of the offices in the Church. There

can be no office without a charisma; but not all

charismata are applicable to the exercise of an

office. Those which correspond to permanent and

invariable needs of the Church form the basis of

offices, the others do not. To the latter class be­

long those of a miraculous or extraordinary char­

acter, like those which are peculiar to the apostles

or to the apostolic period. Since the number of

the charismata must correspond to the needs of

the Church, it follows that the lists in I Cor. xii.,

Eph. iv., and Rom. xii. can not be taken as ex­

haustive. (H. CREMERt.)

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