Parts of the records, ad. A. Bernard and A. Bruel, Recuait des ehartes do l'Ab6aye do Cluny tfOtF1l10, b vole., Paris, 1876 94; and G. F. Duckett, Record Evidence anwnp die Archives of Cluny,
4 vole.. Lewes. 1888 88. The early account is M. Merrier and A. Qusrotaros, Bibliotheoa Ciuniaceasie, Paris. 1614. Consult: L. Niepae, Lea Stal7es do Cluny, Gee chartea at la bibLiothlqus, Lyons, 1882; E. 9sakur, Die Cluniacenaer bin sun Mute des 11. JahrhundarG, 2 vole., Halle, 1892 94; Vial ' lotions and Chapters General
of the Order
of Cluni, ItBB1688, London, 1893; Cluny: luminars eacri morweterii Cluniacensis, Paris, 1898; Helyot, Ordrss monoetiquss, voL v:; Heimbuoher, Orden and Ronprapabonsn, L
116 eqq.; Neander, Christian Church, iii. 381, 417 419: Hauck, RD, vol. iii.; RL, iii. 664 b81; Schaff, Christian Church, v. 1, DP. 330 eqq.
COADJUTOR: An assistant to a cleric who it partly or wholly incapacitated; appointed either temporarily or permanently, and in the latter care with or without the right of succession. By the canon law a pariah priest thus incapacitated may obtain an assistant or vicarius from his superiors; but this appointment is temporary and revocable, and the Council of Trent expressly forbids the right of succession to be given though thin has not been held to prevent the pope from making exceptions. The title coadjutor is regularly applied to such an assistant given to a bishop. By ancient law no
CLEYi6R11ES8: A term applieu to mental as opposed to spiritual ,abi'li'ty. It it related to, but not identical with wisdom, is often connected with it (cf. Jas. iii. 13), but generally with the distinction that cleverness it referred to the worldly ride of knowledge and ability, wisdom to the spiritual side. Frequently it hat an ironical undertone, implying the reverse of simplicity and humility.
The Jewish nation owns cleverness as an inheritance from Jacob. Its most brilliant representative in the Old Testament is Solomon. In the New Testament the word expressing the idea is p)lronimoa, the principal passage it Matt. a. 18.
_ p ° . m. ve a rning _~__ mind
successor to a bishop could be chosen in his lifetime, and the duties of an incapacitated bishop were performed either by neighboring prelates or by a specially denigrated internentor (dispenaator, intercessor). Such arrangements were usually made by the provincial council; sometimes the pope was consulted, and this causa episcopatis wan gradually reserved to him. The ancient principle, laid down by the Council of Niceea, that there should not be two bishops in one city wan respected at least formally by the denigration of the coadjutor from the title of home other nee (see Blsaor, TrrunsR). According to the Council of Trent, coadjutors may be appointed only in cane of urgent necessity, and not with right of succession unless the pope, after full investigation, approver the necessity sad the person chaser. The diocesan bishop may make the request, with the assent of his chapter; or the chapter may take the initiative in care of the incapacity or refusal of the bishop, in which case the decision rata with the pope. A coadjutor with right of succession enters on the full jurisdiction immediately upon the decease of his principal, without further formality. (O. M>raESt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Grunsu. Ds eoadjutoribue apiscoporum, Breslau, 1894; Held, Daa Rec6l our Aufstatlunp sine Roadjutora, Munich. 1848; A. L. Richter, Lebrbueh des . Rirrhenrechta, Leip®o, 1888; E. Friedberg, Lehrbuch des . . . Rirehenrechta. D• 172, Leipeio,189b; Bingham, Oripines, books iv. vi.
COAft, TITUS: Missionary; b. at Killingworth, Corn., Feb. 1, 1801; d. at Hilo, Hawaii, Dec. i, 1882. He was a cousin of Asahel Nettleton (q.v.), by whom he was influenced as also by Charles G. Finney; he studied at Auburn Theological Seminary 18313; spent several months in Patagonia examining the country for the American Board 1833 34; railed for Hawaii late in 1834, in July, 183b,took up his residence at Hilo, and spent the i rent of hit life there, with the exception of a brief visit to America in 1870 71. He was a man of great physical strength, endowed with tact and evangelistic gifts. " In three months from the time he first set foot on the shores of Hawaii he began to preach in the native tongue. Before his first year closed the audiences drawn to hear the Word by his peculiar power reached many hundreds. And in sin years from his arrival threefourths of the adult population of his pariah, to the number of more than seven thousand, were gathered into the bonds of Christian fellowship." He was an authority concerning the Hawaiian volcanoes. He published Adventures in Patagonia (New York, 1881); Life in Hawaii, an Autobiographic Sketch, 1886,81 (1882).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Besides the autobiography, consult: Mrs..
L. B. Coon, Thus Coan, s Memorial, Chicago, 1885.
COBB, HENRY PITCHIE: Reformed (Dutch); b. in New York Nov. 15, 1834. He was graduated at Yale in 1855 and studied at Union Theological Seminary 1856 57. He was a Presbyterian missionary to Persia under the auspices of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions in 1860 82 ; pastor of the Reformed Church ' at Millbrook, N. Y., 1886 81, and since 1882 has been corresponding secretary of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Reformed Church in America. He
tearing their Baptism (Amsterdam, 1810) against the views of John Smyth (q.v.), and An Advertisemeat concerning a Book Lately Published by Christopher Latone and Others against the Exi7ud English Church at Amsterdam (1812), which called forth an Animadversion from Henry Ainsworth (1813). He is said to have been the most effective writer among the Separatists.
CLINICAL BAPTISM: The name of clinici was applied, from the third century, to those who were baptised at home is illness by sprinkling, not immersion. Cyprian, the first in whom the word is found, disapproves of it (Epist.,lxiz.) but asserts
the full validity of such baptism. On the r
of the tenth century, after Frankish civilization and religious institutions had suffered from the incursions of the Normans and Saracens, a general movement of monastic reform began,
:. Founds which is associated with the abbey of tion, 9io. Clung in the diocese of Mficon and the present department of SaBne et Loire. This was founded by Duke William the Pious of Aquitaine in 910, and Berno, a Burgundian of noble family, who had already distinguished himself by the reform of two other abbeys, was placed at its head. The act of foundation placed it under the special protection of the apostles Peter and Paul, and of the pope, which meant exemption from all other jurisdiction, temporal or spiritual. This relation, while it protected the abbey from the exactions and ambitions of local magnates, committed it to a constant interest in the development of the papal power.
The Benedictine rule formed the basis of the new
institutions, with the addition of the capituhuzes
of Aix la Chapelle of 817 and the reforms of Bene
dict of Aniane. Special stress was laid upon the
renahciation of private property and the abstinence
from the flesh of quadrupeds, and silence was en
joined. The recitation of the psalms and reading
of Holy Scripture were enforced, and unconditional
obedience to the strict monarchical government
of the abbot required. On Berno's
z. Odo, Sec death in 92? his disciple Odo sucond Abbot, ceeded him. The new abbot, a man
9xy 94r. of Singular spiritual and intellectual
power, undertook a wide reform of
monastic life, on the strength of a privilege of John
XI. (931) which permitted him to assume the over
sight of more than one monastery and to receive at
Clung monks from those houses which had not been
reformed. He succeeded in bringing back a num
ber to primitive strictness, though most of them
remained independent of Clung. With the support
of Leo VII. and Alberic, the secular ruler of the
city, he reformed several abbeys in Rome itself, as
well as other Italian monasteries, including Subiaco
and Monte Cassino. When he died in 941 at Tours
the reform had spread throughout all France, and
as far south as Palermo. His sermons and other
writings with a life by an Italian monk are in MPL,
Under Berno's successor Aymard there were 160 monks at Clung, but as yet only five of the larger abbeys were directly under the jurisdiction of its abbot. Mai olus, its next head, was highly esteemed and favored by the emperor, Otto L, who was credited with a design to place all the monasteries in his German and Italian dominions under Clung. Majolus died in 994, and was succeeded by Odilo, a typical eleventh century abbot in
3. Odilo, his combination of rigorous asceticism
Fifth Abbot, and mystical piety with wise and skil994 ro49. ful management. Under him the reform spread into Spain, and through the influence of Clung the native rule of Isidore was generally replaced by that of Benedict. From Odilo's time dates the definite beginning of a °` congregation," the reformed or newly founded monasteries being placed in permanent dependence upon
the mother house. He had a great influence upon the youthful Otto III., though not equal to that of the Italian reformers
, with whose work the French is now for the first time demonstrably connected (see CwxeLnorrrw). Poppo carried the movement into Germany, becoming abbot of Stablo in the diocese of Liege and of St. Maximin in that of Troves, and wielding a powerful influence under Henry II. and Conrad IL, the latter of whom entrusted to him a number of great imperial abbeys, including St. Gall.
By degrees the reform movement widened to embrace social life outside the monastery walls. The efforts of Odilo to enforce the " Truce of God," a notable blessing to agriculture and commerce, are universally recognized as important. The reformers attacked the problems of
general church life, combating simony, ing Influ clerical marriage, and the uncanonical
once. marriages of the laity. A definite
program, however, was first laid down
by Abbo of Floury and the reformers of Lor
raine, in the full enforcement of the canon law.
Henry III, found powerful support in the leaders
of the movement, especially Odilo and Petrus
Damianus, for his efforts to improve the condition
of the Church; and when the papacy, now raised
from its degradation, took the lead in the general
effort for betterment, it found its main allies in the
monks of Clung. They were not, however, at first
decidedly on the aide of the pope as against the
emperor, and in the conflict between Henry IV.
and Gregory VII. the successor of Odilo, Hugo I.
(1049 1109), remained practically neutral. His
influence was especially great under Urban IL, the
first Clunisc Pope. In 1089 he began the building
of the great basilica, the largest church in the world
after St. Peter's at Rome. The first Cluniac house
was established in England with the help of William
the Conqueror, and, though there were not many
direct colonies in Germany, the spirit of Clung
spread there through the cognate reforms of St.
Blasien and at Hirschau.
The first symptoms of decline appeared under Abbot Pontius, who in 1114 mediated between Paschal II. and Henry Y. and four years later offered an asylum to Gelasius II. fleeing from the emperor, as Ansehn of Canterbury had found one there in 1097. The deposition of Gelasius and the election of his successor Calixtus II. took place in the abbey. Under Pcter the Ven
g. Peter the arable the Conauetudines Cluniacenses
Venerable, were drawn up. In contrast with the
Abbot aristocratic constitution of the Cis
risz 55. tercisne, they emphasize the mon
archical and centralized system of
Clung. Without the permission of its abbot no
novice might be received into the congregation,
and each must present himself at the mother house
within three years from his reception for the abbot's
benediction. Peter arrested the Process of decline,
and the congregation had 314 houses at his death.
But the predominant position of Clung began to be
taken by the Premonatratensians, and then still
more by the Cistercians. The declaration of Hugo
III. for the imperial claimant of the papacy in
C00luny0061un THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
1159 damaged the position of Cluny still more, and neither the reforms of his successors nor the attempt of No II. in 1269 to estab6. Decline. lish a seat of learning in Paris, the College of Cluny, had permanent effects. The independent position of the abbey was partially abandoned by No I. in 1258 when it was placed under the protection of Louis 1X., which led later to subjection to the trench crown. First the Avignon popes claimed the right to name the abbot John XXII. and Clement VI. put in their own relations and from 1456, when Charles VII. of France appointed John of Bourbon, an illegitimate member of his house, the kings dominated it. From 1528 to 1622 it was held in commendam by the family of Guise. At the Reformation, with the suppression of the English, German, zed Swiss houses and the attainment of independence by the Spanish and Italian, the congregation lost its international character. During the Guise period the abbey suffered severely is the ware of religion; in 1562 the Huguenots destroyed a great part of the fine buildings and dispersed the library. Cardinal Richelieu held it in succession to the last regular abbot, and attempted in 1634 to combine the congregation with that of St. Maur, an act which was reversed ten years later by his successor Armand, prince of Conti. The next abbots were Cardinal Mazsrin (1654 81) and Cardinal Rinaldo d'Eate,, brother of the duke of Modem and protector of France at Rome (1662 72). After him followed an interregnum of eleven years, and then it was held from 1683 to 1710 by the Cardinal de Bouillon. In 1790 it was suppressed by the Constituent Assembly, which sold the magnificent church to the commune for 100,000 francs, and thus brought about its almost complete destruction. The Muse de Cluny in Paris, originally built (1334) as the Parisian headquarters of the abbot, preserves a eplendid.collection of antiquities, a large part of which came from the abbey. (G. GxfYxznsecaEx.)
Bnnrooawrav: Parts of the records, ad. A. Bernard and A. Bruel, Recueil den Marks de 1'Abbaye do Cluny 80t31d10, 5 vole., Paris, 1878 94: and (3. F. Duckett, Record Evidence among the Archives of Cluny, 4 vole., Lewes. 188888. The early account is 114. Merrier sad A. Queretsnue, Bibliot>MOa Cluniacensia, Paris, 1814. Consult: L. Niepae, Lea Statiea de Cluny, lea charter et la bibliof7kue, Lyons, 1882; E. 8sokur, Die Cluniaeenaer bin our Mills den 11. Jahrhundarle, 2 vole., Halle, 1892 94; Viai ' tationa and Chapters General of the Order of Cluni, 18et81688, London, 1893; Cluny: laminate soeri monaaterii Cluniacaneee, Paris, 1898; Helyot, Ordrea monasHquea, vol. v.; Heimbueber, Orders and %onprpaDionan, i. 118 eqq.; Neander, Christian Church, iii. 381, 417 419: Hauck, HD, vol. iii.; ICL, iii, 654 01; Schaff, Christian Church, v. 1. PP. 330 aqq.
COADJUTOR: An assistant to a cleric who is partly or wholly incapacitated; appointed either temporarily or permanently, and in the latter case with or without the right of succession. By the canon law a parish priest thus incapacitated may obtain an assistant or vicarius from his superiors; but this appointment is temporary and revocable, and the Council of Trent expressly forbids the right of succession to be given though this has not been held to prevent the pope from making exceptions. The title coadjutor is regularly applied to such an assistant given to a bishop. By ancient law no
successor to a bishop could be chosen in his lifetime, and the duties of an incapacitated bishop were performed either by neighboring prelates or by a specially designated interyentor (dispercsator, intercessor). Such arrangements were usually made by the provincial council; sometimes the pope was consulted, and this causes epiacofxalis was gradually reserved to him. The ancient principle, laid down by the Council of Nica'a, that there should not be two bishops in one city was respected at least formally by the designation of the coadjutor from the title of some other see (nee Blsaor, TITULAR). According to the Council of Trent, coadjutors may be appointed only in case of urgent necessity, and not with right of succession unless the pope, after full investigation, approves the necessity and the person chosen. The diocesan bishop may make the request, with the assent of his chapter; or the chapter may take the initiative in case of the incapacity or refusal of the bishop, in which case the decision rests with the pope. A coadjutor with right of succession enters on the full jurisdiction immediately upon the decease of his principal, without further formality. (O. MiraaEat.)
BrsLIoassrax: t3. (Irnnau, De coodjutoribue apiecoporum, Braden, 1894; Held, Doe Reckl sur AuWung vines %oadTutors, Munich, 1848: A. L. Richter. Lehrburh den . . Rirrhsnrechts, Leipsio, 1888; E. Friedberg, Lelerbueb des . . . ICirehenruhte, p. 172, Leipsio, 1895; Bingham, Oripinea, books iv. vi.
COAR, TITUS: Missionary; b. at K7lingworth, Corm., Feb. 1, 1801; d, at Hilo, Hawaii, Dec. 1, 1882. He was a cousin of Asahel Nettleton (q.v.), by whom he was influenced as also by Charles G. Finney; he studied at Auburn Theological Seminary 18313; spent several months in Patagonia examining the country for the American Board 1833 34; sailed for Hawaii late in 1834, in July, 1835, took up his residence at Hilo, and spent the rest of his life there, with the exception of a brief visit to America in 1870 71. He was a man of great physical strength, endowed with tact and evangelistic gifts. " In three months from the time he first set foot on the shores of Hawaii he began to preach in the native tongue. Before his first year closed the audiences drawn to hear the Word by his peculiar power reached many hundreds. And in six years from his arrival threefourths of the adult population of his pariah, to the number of more than seven thousand, were gathered into the bonds of Christian fellowship." He was an authority concerning the Hawaiian volcanoes. He published Adventures in Patagonia (New York, 1881); Life in Hawaii, an Autobiographic Sketch, 1836 81 (1882).
BIBLIOGRAPHY'. Besides the autobiography, consult: Mrs.,
L. B. Cosa, Titus Coon, s Memorial, Chicago, 1885.
COBB, HENRY NITCHIE: Reformed (Dutch); b. in New York Nov. 15, 1834. He was graduated at Yale in 1855 and studied at Union Theological Seminary 1856 57. He was a Presbyterian missionary to Persia under the auspices of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions in 18802; pastor of the Reformed Church ' at Millbrook, N. Y., 1866 81, and since 1882 has been corresponding secretary of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Reformed Church in America. He
149 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA • Cluny
was chairman of the executive committee of the Ecumenical Conference on Foreign Missions held in New York in 1900 and was a deputy to the Missions of the Reformed Church from Oct., 1904, to May, 1905. He has written Far Hence : a Budget of Letters from Our Mission Fields in Asia (New York, 1893).
COBB, SA1tFORD HOADLEY: Presbyterian; b. in New York Feb. 4, 1838. He was graduated at Yale in 1858 and Princeton Theological Serxrinary in 1862, was pastor of Reformed churches at Schoharie, N. Y. (1864 71), and Saugerties, N. Y. (1871 83), the Westminster Presbyterian Church, Grand Rapids, Mich. (1885r 94), and the Presbyterian Church of Greenwich, Conn. (19001901). He made a tour of the world in 1883 84, visiting the various mission fields, and has written The Story of the Palatines (New York, 1897) and The Rise of Religious Liberty in America (1902).
COBB, 3YLVAlIUS: Universalist; b, at Norway, Me., July 17, 1798; d. in East Boston, Mass., Oct. 31, 1866. His early life was that of a New England farmer's son of the time. He became a Universalist before reaching his majority, began to preach in 1820, was ordained in 1821, and settled in Waterville, Me., where he organized the first Univerealiet church in the State in 1826. He was pastor at Maiden, Mass., 18287, removed to Waltham in 1838, and to East Boston in 1841. Much of his time was given to evangelizing tours which made him widely known as preacher and lecturer. He was a member of the Maine and Massachusetts legislatures. In 1839 he began the publication of The Christian Freeman and Family Visitor, a weekly paper devoted to Universalism sad the antislavery and temperance causes, and continued it till 1862, when it was united with The Trumpet, Mr. Cobb remaining as editor till 1884. In 1858 59 he carried on discussions in The Freeman with the Rev. Nehemiah Adams on the subject of endless punishment, and with the Rev. C. F. Hudson upon annihi)ationiem, which were afterward published in book form. He wrote A Compend of Christian Divinity (Boston, 1845) and The New Testament with Explanatory Notes and Practical Observations (1864).
BI8LIO68APH:7: 8. Cobb, Autobiography, with Memoir by 8. Cobb, Jr., Boston, 1887 (the Autobiography goes to his forEY >ir'st year and is continued in the dfsnwir).
COBLENZ ARTICLES. See Ears, CON(i1rF$8 oh. COCCEIUS, JOHAftl(ES, AND HIS SCHOOL.
i. Johannes Cooaeius. Doctrine, (§ a>.
Life andChsraoter (§ 1). II. His SohooL
Literary Works (§ 2).
L Johannes Cocceius: Dutch theologian; b. at Bremen Aug. 9, 1603; d. at Leyden Nov. 4, 1669. He was the son of the municipal secretary Timann Koch. Early in life he showed extraordinary ability in the ancient languages, and his knowledge of Greek was deepened through his association with Metrophanes Kritopulos, who for s time lived at Bremen. Among his theological teachers was Ludwig Crocius. In 1625 he went to Hamburg to continue his Hebrew and rabbinic
studies under a learned Jew. In the year 1629, to complete his theological education and "to escape the dissolute life of the German universities," Cock (so he wrote his name until that year) went to Franeker, Holland. He had as teacher there, besides Maccovius and Amesius [William Ames], tire great Orientalist Sixtinus Amana, at whose suggestion he published Talmudic studies which
brought him the recognition of Grotius.
:. Life After a short visit to other Dutch uniand versities he returned to Bremen and
Character. accepted in 1630 the professorship of
Biblical philology at the Gymnasium
Illustre. The University of Franeker called him in
1636 to the chair of Hebrew. His commentaries on
passages about Antichrist and his "Introduction to
Ephesiane " brought him a theological professor
ship in 1643. As successor to Fr. Spanheim the
elder in 1650, he moved to Leyden. His peaceful
character, which even opponents such as the worthy
Voetius duly acknowledged, made an agreeable
impression in that age of unmeasured wrangling.
Though full of pure piety, be withdrew from the
common life of the church, for as a German he
never felt at home in the precision of strict Dutch
As an author he was extremely productive. The "Collected Works" of Cocceius, completed later, appeared in eight volumes, Amsterdam, 1673 ?5; a 2d ed., revised and corrected, Frankfort, 1689, repr., 1702; inferior ed., 10 vole., Amsterdam, 1701, and 2 vole., Opera anecdote, 1706, principally letters. Previously unprinted letters appear in the Thesaurus of Hottinger, xvi. 34. His works may be arranged as follows: (1) Commentaries, which treat of the principal books of the Bible, viz., Job, Ps.,
Eccles., Cant., Jer., Mal., John, Rom.,
s. Literary Gal. Col., Tim. Titus, Heb., Jude, Works. Rev. (2) Works on Biblical Theology;
Summa dodrina de f axlere et testamenW Des, Leyden, 1fi48, enlarged ed.,1664; Summa theologise ex Sacris Scriptoria rePdita, Leyden, 1662, reprinted, Amsterdam and Geneva, 1665; vol. vi. of his " Collected Works," Amsterdam ed., contains his Aphorisms per univeraam theologiam; finally his last work, Ezplicatio catecheneos Heydellxrgensis, setting forth his system of doctrine. (3) Dogmatics and Ethics; Disputationes . . . de via salutzs ; Brevis repetitio quorundam illustnum tocarum Yeteria et Novi T eatamenti, qui de A atiehriato agunt; an anti Socinian polemic in justification of an edict of Sept. 19, 1653, Equitis Poloni (Jones SchlitingP)AlOOlog2.a . . ezaminata; several tracts directed against the Jesuits Walenburg and Masenius, Sacra Scripture; lootentia demonstrate, Jac. Macenis factata probatio Scripturaria, Admonitio de prsacipio futei ecctesi(R reformatce, De ecclesia et Babylone disquiaitio, and a number of tracts on the Sabbath. (4) Academiaal Lectures, the most important of which are inaugural addresses given when taking his positions as professor or as rector in the different universities where be labored. (5) Philological Works; among which may be mentioned Duo tituli thalmudici sanhedrsn et maccoth; Defenaio alters auctoritatia verbs ditwni Veteria Testaments ; the great Lexicon et ommentarius