Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house



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Breraoassra:: The Epistoiae st prioilepia are in MPL, ate.; Jsff6, Repeats. i. bZb: F. Gregoroviue. Hint. of the City of Roma, iv. b7 89, London, 1898; J. Langen, Qeschichte der r6misehen Kirehe, iii. 438, Bonn, 1892; Hauck, KD, iii. 589 sqq.; Bower, Popes, ii. 342; Mibnan, Latin Chris­tianity, iii. 237 238; Neander, Christian Church, iii. 378.

Clement III. Antipope 1080 1100. See Gui­BEBT OF RAVENNA.

Clement III. (Paolo Scolari): Pope 1187 91. A Roman by birth, he became cardinal bishop of Paleatrina and was elected pope at Pisa Dec. 19, 1187. In the following February he wan able to enter Rome, which his two predecessors had never visited, and by the end of May the differences be­tween the papacy and the senate were composed. Continuing the policy of Gregory VIII., he also brought about peace with the empire, agreeing to crown the young Henry VI. and terminating the strife between papal and imperial claimants of the archbishopric of Trevea, and demanding in return the restoration of the Staten of the Church to their safest under Lucius III. By these mutual con­cessions peace was restored in Apr., 1189. Clem­ent's principal motive for this attitude was the condition of affairs in the East, where Saladin had defeated the Christian forces at Hattin on July 4 and 5, 1187, and Jerusalem had fallen on Oct. 2. Thin news had aroused a zeal in Christendom which exceeded even that of the first crusade. Clement used every means in his power to forward the undertaking. . The maritime cities of Italy made great preparations; peace was restored between Venice and the king of Hungary, who. claimed Dalmatia; the aged emperor Ferderick I. took the crone (Mar., 1188); and the legate Henry of Albano prevailed upon the kings of England and France to lay aside their differences and support the crusade. The death of the emperor on June 10, 1190, was a heavy blow to Clement's hopes; and he did not live to see the end of the crusade. The conflict with the king of Scotland over the possession of the bishopric of St. Andrews, inherited from his pred­ecessors, was terminated by him in 1188, not alto­gether in favor of the Roman See. The final settle­ment declared Scotland immediately subject to the pope, and freed it from the legatine authority which the archbishops of York had claimed over it. Fresh difficulties arose in another quarter on the death of William II. of Sicily (NOV. 18, 1189). Clement claimed the rights of a suzerain over the

kingdom, and invented with it the illegitimate

Tancred, whom a faction of the Norman barons

had net up as king. This brought on a new

struggle with the Hohenstaufen dynasty, and

Henry VI. was marching on Rome when Clement

died, Mar. 13, 1191. (A. HAUCK.)



BrerxoassPSl: JsffB. Repeats, ii. bib; J. M. Wattericb, Romanorurn pontihcum . roils', ii. 893, Leipeic, 1882; F. Gregorovius, Hiet. of the City of Rome, iv. 817 825, London, 1898; J. Langen, Geaclvichte der rdmischen Kirche, iv. 575, Bonn, 1893; W. von Gieeebreeht, Oeachichfa der deutadien Karoaerssit, vol. vi., Brunswick, 1898; Hefele, Coneilisnpeechichte, v. 737 eqq.; Bower, Popes, ii. 529­b31; Milmsn, Latin Christianity, iv. 448; Nesader, Chris­tian Church, iv. 118 129.
Clement IV. (Guido Le Gros): Pope 1285 88.

He wan born at 8t. Gilles on the Rhone, of a nobly

Provengal family, studied law, and practised it

with distinction at the court of Louis IX. On the

death of his wife he took orders and received rapid

promotion, becoming bishop of Puy in 1258 or 1257,

archbishop of Narbonne in 1259, and cardinal

in 1282. After a four months' interregnum, the

French party among the cardinals elected him

pope Feb. 5, 1265. In the distracted state of

Italy he could only approach Rome with great

precaution, reaching Perugia through the Ghibel­

line towns in the disguise of a mendicant friar.

Here he held his court for some time, and after

Apr., 1288, mostly at Viterbo. The principal

question of his pontificate wan that of Sicily, in

which he followed the policy of Innocent IV. in

opposition to the Hohenstaufen. On Feb. 28,1265,

he invested Charles of Anjou with the kingdom, in

return for certain money payments and a promise

to abolish the institutions of Frederick II. as far as

they affected the Church. Clement, however, soon

became dissatisfied with Charles's conduct, and

was thinking of negotiating with Manfred when

news came of the battle of Benevento and Man­

fred's death (Feb. 28, 1266). He rebuked Charles

still more strongly for his bloodthirstiness and

avarice, but was obliged by the difficulties of his

position and the traditional policy of the Curia to

maintain his alliance. When the young Con din

appeared in Italy, Clement excommunicated him

after unheeded warnings, and remained undaunted

even after Conradin'n victory on the Arno, the

brilliancy of which was soon obscured by the

fatal defeat of Tagliacozzo. That he contributed

to or approved of Conradin's execution is improb­

able. Charles of Anjou went on in his own way

more high handedly than ever, and Clement had

every reason to fear that the Hohenstaufen would

be the only ones to make war upon the Church

when, just a month after the last of them, he died

on Nov. 29, 1268, leaving the reputation of a just

and noble minded ruler. (A. HAUCK.)

BaLioassrsr: A. Potthaet, Repeats pontificum lioma­rwram, ii. 1642, Berlin, 1875; E. Jordan, Lea R9piatres de Ct&nent IV, Paris, 1893 sqq.; M(iH, Epia6. Pont.,



I iii (1894), 827 sqq.; F. Gregorovius, Hint. of the City o/

Rome, iv. 359, London, 1898; Muratori, 3criptores, III.

i. 594, ii. 421; Hefele, ConeiiieapescAiehk, vi. 28 sqq.;

Bower, Popes, iii. 9 lb; Milman, Latin Christianity, vi.



87 117; Neander, Christian Church, iv. 288 et passim.
Clement V. (Bertrand de Goth): Pope 1305 14. The non of a nobleman of Aquitaine, he wan made




lag RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Moment

archbishop of Bordeaux by Boniface VIII., and elected pope at Perugia June 5, 1305, after the conclave had lasted eleven months. His corona­tion took place in Lyons. Under Philip the Fair's influence he remained in France, residing first at Bordeaux, Poitiers, and elsewhere, and fixing his seat at Avignon in the spring of 1309. He is accused by Villani of avarice, nepotism, and simony; he certainly surrounded himself with the pomp of a worldly sovereign, and was suspected of a crim­inal attachment to the beautiful countess of P6rigord. Another fault was the weakness of character which made him a slave of the cold and unscrupulous king, and to the suppression of the Template (q.v.). At the same time another process was begun against Boniface VIII., which Philip pressed for personal reasons, refusing, how­ever, to push it to extremes and contenting him­self with the bull of April 27, 1311, in which Clement declared that Philip was innocent of Nogaret's deeds of violence and of the plundering of the papal treasure (see BONIFACE VIII.), and annulled Boni­face's excommunications and interdicts, especially the bull Unam sanctum. In the affairs of the Em­pire Clement pursued a vacillating course; he had recommended the election of Philip's brother Charles of Valois, but willingly recognized Henry VIL, and crowned him in the Lateran, June 29, 1312. When Henry, however, fell out with Robert of Naples, Clement took the letter's side, threat­ening the emperor with excommunication. On Henry's death (Aug. 24, 1313) he named Robert imperial vicar for Italy, claiming the supreme exercise of the imperial power during the vacancy for himself. His own death followed a few months later (Apt. 20, 1314). His collection of decretals, which he meant to form a seventh book in the great collection, though first formally confirmed by his successor John XXIL, is known under the name of Clementine (see CANON LAW, IL, 6, J 3).

(A. HAUCK.)


Bn3rtoaawrav: Rayeatum, edited by the Benedictines, Rome, 9 vole. and appendix, 1886  92; his Tractatua cum Heinrico VIL, ed. J. Schwalm, is in iif0'H, Conat. imper., iv. 1, pp. 338 sqq.; J. Schwalm, Neu@ AktenatQeke cur Qeaehiehts . . . Cfsmene V.. Rome, 1904, i., DD. 492 498. The old Vito are collected in It. Baluse, Vices ;a ;a" Avsnionenaium, i. 1 82, Sb 1b2, Paris, 1893. Consult: Muratori, Scriptoru, III. i. 878, ii. 441; L. Ktinig, Die papstliche ICammer unkr Ckmens V., Vienna, 1894; E. Berohon, HiM. du gape ClEment V.. Paris, 1898; F. La­ooete. Nouveliss Etudes our CIEfnent V., Bordeaux, 1898; Hefele. Concitienpeschichts, vi. 394 eqq.: Pastor, Popes, i. 68 81, 88 84 et passim; Bower, Popes, iii. b8 72; 114ilman, Latin Christianity, vi. 373 d81; Nesnder, Chris­tian Church, v. 70, 841, notes 2 23.
Clement VL (Pierre Roger): Pope 1342 52. Originally s member of the Benedictine order, councilor and keeper of the seals to Philip the Fair, then archbishop of Rouen, he was elected pope at Avignon May 7, 1342. A talented man and a brilliant orator, he was wholly devoted to the French policy, and refused the pressing invitation of a Roman deputation, which iueluded Petrarch, to return to Rome. He vigorously carried on the struggle with Louis the Bavarian, favored by the divisions in the electoral college and by the em­peror's weakness. Louis showed his readiness to

submit to any humiliations, but Clement was

obdurate. In the spring of 1346 he pronounced

the emperor's excommunication and deposition.

At his bidding Charles of Luxemburg was inform­

ally chosen as Charles IV, by the three archbishops,

John of Bohemia, and Rudolph of Barony (July 11,

1346). Louie died Oct. 11, 1347. The failure of

the attempt to set up another claimant in his place

justified Clement's assertion of the necessity of

papal confirmation. Fortune seemed to favor him.

The republican rising in Rome under Cola di Rienzo

(May Dec., 1347) fell to pieces of itself. Queen

Joanna of Sicily, suspected of the murder of her

husband, appeared before him and was acquitted

and allowed to retain her crown. Needing money,

she sold the county of Avignon to the pope for

80,000 florins, Charles IV. renouncing his claims

to it. To please the Romans and to fill his treasure,

Clement reduced the period between jubilees from

a hundred to fifty years. In connection with the

jubilee of 1350, the scholastic doctrine of the super­

abundant merits of Christ was extended to include

those of the saints, and the right to distribute the

indulgences based upon it was formally claimed

for the successors of Peter. Clement died Dec. 6,

1352. (A. HAUCK.)



Bn3nroaswrav: The Epistola ad archiepiscopum Trevirsn­sem is in J. P. 8ehunk, Beitrltge sur mainsiedwn OeacAichta, ii. 474. Mainz, 1789; the Sermo adv. Hainricum, ib. ii. 332 eqq. The older Vita are collected in Baluse, Vito paparum Aroenionsnaium, i. 243 322, Paris, 1893. Consult: M. FreYbers. Die BteRunp der deutschea fkistlich­keit sur Wah1 Karl@ IV., Halls, 1880 C. Moller, Der Bampf Ludvaipe . . mit der r6mi,eehen ICurie, ii. 183 eqq., T86ingen, 1880; F. Gregorovius, Hilt. o/ the City o/ Rome, London, 1899; Hefele, ConeilienpeseAichts, vi. 883: Pastor, Popes. vi. 8 et passim; Bower, Popes, iii. 98 104; Milman, Lain Christianity, vii. 136 198; Neander, Christian Church, v. 41 43.

Clement VII. (Robert, Count of Geneva): Anti­pope 1378 94. He was a canon in Paris, bishop of Thdrouanne, and finally cardinal. The French cardinals who deserted Urban VI. chose him pope at Fondi. He soon lost hope of maintaining himself in Italy, and returned to Avignon. The struggle between the rival claimants is narrated under Urban VI. Its course was unfavorable to Clement, in spite of his attempts by seductive promises to stir up Louis of Anjou and Charles VI., and he died, no nearer the goal of his ambition, Sept. 16, 1394.

(A. HAUCK.)



Basrroassra:: N. Valoie, La Prance et is grand schisms, vol. ii.. Paris. 1898; ides, in RAmieche Quartalec)1893, pp. 170 eqq.; J. Fraikin, Nonciatursa de ClEment VII, vol. i., Paris, 1908; Bower, Popes, iii. 141; Pastor, Popes, i. Passim; Creighton, Papacy, i. 72 144.

Clement VIII. (Egidio Mut(oz): Antipope 1425­1429. He was canon of Barcelona when three car­dinals of the party of Benedict XIII. (q.v.) elected bun to succeed the latter. He was recognized by Alfonso V. of Aragon, but never attained any im­portance and resigned his claims July 26, 1429.

(A. HAUCK.)

Bxsrtoaawrat: Hefele, ConeiZienpeeehiehts, vii. 398, 417; Bower, Popes, iii. 212; Pastor, Popes, i. 274 277.

Clement VII. (Giulio de' Medici): Pope 1523 

1534. He was born May 26, 1478, the illegitimate eon of the Giuliano who was murdered in the con 




clement THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 134

spiracy of the Pazzi. He joined the Knights of St. John, and was prior of Capua when his cousin ascended the papal throne as Leo X. Gaining from him a dispensation from the impediment of illegitimacy, and then a declaration that he was not illegitimate after all, since his parents had been secretly married, he became archbishop of Florence and cardinal, occupying a position, of great influ­ence at Rome. On Nov. 18, 1523, he was elected to succeed Adrian VI. His position was extremely difficult, between the conflicting powers of the Empire and France, which he endeavored to play off against each other in order to increase the temporal dominions of the papacy

Policy To  and the power of his family. Charles

ward France V. expected him to continue the

and alliance of his predecessor with the

Germany. Empire; but he first assumed a

neutral position, and then entered

into close relations with Francis I. After the battle

of Pavia (Feb. 24, 1525), he caw himself obliged to

conciliate the emperor, and made an alliance with

him. Charles's power seemed, however, so threat­

ening to Italy that Clement entered (May 22, 1526)

the league composed of France, Venice, Florence,

and Milan. After an interchange of diplomatic

communications, in which Charles spoke his mind

very clearly as to the pope's course and appealed

to a general council, hostilities broke out in the

summer. The league came to a sudden and humil­

iating end, and on May 6, 1527, Rome was taken

and plundered by the German Landslcnechts under

the Constable of Bourbon. The temporal power

of the papacy was threatened with annihilation;

but Charles was unwilling to go so far, and in

November, on Clement's promise of neutrality,

restored him his liberty and his states. Clement

now aimed at restoring to his family the dominion

of Florence, which he attained at the peace of Bar­

celona (.dune 29, 1529). On Feb. 24, 1530, he

crowned Charles at Bologna; the emperor kissed

his feet according to custom, but was more power­

ful in Italy than his predecessors had been for many

a day, and Italian independence was lost.

Clement still hoped at least to see his authority upheld in Germany by the imperial power. Neither he nor the Curia understood the position there; Campeggio's action as legate at the Diet of Nurem­berg (1524) proved entirely unsuccessful, and the foundation of the League of Regensburg in the same year had not much better results, since it led to the formal organization of the Protestant party in the Empire. After the treaty of Barcelona and that of Cambrai (Aug. b, 1529), pope and' emperor seemed likely to work together for the

Events in suppression of Protestantism; but



Germany. when Campeggio appeared at the

Diet of Augsburg in 1530 to propose



confiscation, fire and sword, and the Inquisition,

Charles was not inclined to go with him until after

much further investigation, and renewed his re­

quest for a council to be summoned within six

and held within eighteen months. Clement, disin­

clined as he was, did not dare openly to reject the

proposal, but he threw all manner of obstacles in

the way of its fulfilment. Time went by without



anything being done, even after a fresh personal interview with Charles at Bologna.; and Clement began gradually to draw closer to Francis I. again. He had discussed the marriage of his niece Catherine with Francis' second son Henry as early as the middle of 1531; and this union, consummated Oct. 27, 1533, only set the seal to the alliance which was practically resolved upon in two meetings between pope and king at Marseilles about the same time. Francis had all along opposed the idea of a council, and the pope's unwillingness was only increased by the new association. To be fair, one must admit that it was out of the question for him to call such a council as the Protestants wanted, while such a gathering as he might have approved would have done no good. The council idea was really only a stick which Charles kept to beat the pope with, in the hope of furthering his own political and eccle­siastical plans.

The worst reproach that can be brought against Clement's policy is its utter fruitlessness and purely negative character. During his pontificate the new doctrines made giant strides in Germany, Scandi 

navia, and Switzerland, acquired con­

His Policy siderable power in France and England,

Fruitless and threatened even Italy and Spain.

and Futile. Clement's policy, intended to strength­

en himself and his family as temporal

powers, really helped his ecclesiastical opponents.

The loss of England was a consequence of this

policy (see CRAMMER, Taonqwa). This, the per­

petual insistence of Charles upon a council, the

discord of his Florentine relatives, and the general

failure of his plans so preyed upon Clement as to

hasten his end, which came Sept. 25, 1534, leaving

the papacy notably poorer in both temporal and

spiritual power for his rule. (A. Heuc$.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bullarium Roma»um, vi. 26, Turin, 1860; P. Balan, Monuments aa'culi xvi., Innsbruck, 1885: idem, La Politico di Clemente VII, Rome, 1884; w. Hellmg, Die politiache Beziehuregen Clement@ VII. zu Karl V.,

i Laipeio, 1889; 8. Ehees, Rbmiacht Dokumente zur Go 

schichte der EheacheidunpHeinrichaVlll., Paderborn, 1893;

idem, in RSmiache Quartalachri ft, 1891, p. 292, 1892, p.

220; Hefele, Couc6liengeach%ehte, ix. 325 eqq.; Rsnke.

popes, i. 74 98, iii. 28 98; Bower, Popes, m. 302 310;

Creighton, Papacy, vi. 275 eq4.: Milman, Latin Chris­



tianity, vii. 220 273; Neander, Christian Church, vii. 47­

49, b2, bb b8.

Clement VIII. (Ippolito Aldobrandini): Pope 1592 1605. He was elected in a short but stormy conclave (Jan. 10  30), as the candidate of the " cardinals' party," which aimed at vindicating the independence of the Curia against Spanish influ­ence. This was the teak of his pontificate; he accomplished it slowly but surely. In French politics he took the side of the League against Henry of Navarre, and proceeded with great cau­tion toward his reception into the Church, giving him solemn absolution on Dec. 17, 1595. His good understanding with Henry IV. helped to free the papacy from the power of Spain and to restore French influence in Italy. Henry's support made it possible for Clement in 1598, on the extinction of the direct line of the house of Este, to resume possession of the duchy of Ferrara as an ancient =ion and in return the pope allowed the toleration sf the Huguenots by the Edict of Nantes.




186 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Olemsat

Other important events of his reign are the dip­lomatic decision of the controversy between the Jesuits and the Dominicans on the question of grace, and the burning of Giordano Bruno (q.v.) for heresy in Rome (Feb. 17, 1800). He enlarged and defined the rules for the censorship of books, and revised the breviary by the~bull Cum in eccleaia (1802); for his work in revising the Vulgate see Bisl.>n VERSIONO, A, IL, 2, 1 b.

(A. HAUCK.)

BMAoaawrax: Buliarium Rofianum, iz. 618. Turin, 1886: A. Degert, Le Cardinal d'Ossat, to role, sea n4pocia­tiona h Rome, Pte. 1894; Ranks, Popes, ii. 39 eq4., iii. 27274; Bower, Popes, iii. $28.

Clement I%. (Giulio Rospigliosi): Pope 1887­

1889. He was born at Pietoia Jan 28, 1800, made

cardinal in 1857, and chosen pope June 20, 1887,

as the candidate of the French party. In order to

oppose a united Christendom to the Turks, he

urged Louis XIV. to the peace of Aix la Chapelle

(1688). Acting in harmony with Louis, he attempt­

ed to reconcile the warring factions in the church

of France by the Paz Clemmtina (see Jeats>rat,

CoxxEnlus, JerrsExisns), though a fresh outburst

of strife was destined to follow his death on Dec.

9, 1689. (A. HAUCK.)

Bmrsooawrar: Bultarium Romanmn, :vii. 612, Tutin, 1889; Bower. Popes, iii. 332: Ranks. Popes, ii. 330 eqq.; De Bildt, Christine de BuBde et k aondave de Ctdrrent 1%. (1889 1670), Paris, 1908.

Clement %. (Emilio Altieri): Pope 1870 78. After a five months' conclave, he was elected on Apr. 29, 1870, as a compromise candidate, because he was eighty years old. He left political ques­tions mainly to Cardinal Paluzai, who was adopted by him and took the name of Altieri. Paluzzi was to blame for the outbreak of the conflict with Louis XIV. over the droit de r4gole (see REGALE). An­other international question was stirred up by the unsuccessful attempt to withdraw the privilege of extraterritorial immunity from the foreign am­bassadors in Rome. Clement died July 22, 1878.

(A. HAUCK.)

Bmntoaasrar: Ballarsuea Roausnum, vol. :viii., Turin,

1869; Ranks, Popes. ii. 417 eqq., iii. 44b 4b3: Bower, Popes, iii. 332.

Clement %I. (Giovanni Francesco Albani): Pope 1700 21. He was born at Urbino, and was elected pope when comparatively young, only fifty one, on Non. 23, 1700. Though he had not been formally the French candidate, he maintained close relations with France. His learning and his political acu­men are indisputable; but his foreign policy was unlucky. At the beginning of his reign, his pro­test against the assumption of the kingly title by Frederick I. of Prussia showed the traditional incapacity of the Curia to understand the circum­st  of Protestant countries. In the war of the Spanish Succession, while maintaining an appear­ance of neutrality, he secretly favored the Bourbon side. As this came more and more to light,' his relations with the emperor were increasingly strained so far that he even threatened him with excommunication. The entry of imperial troops into the Papal Statue compelled him to make peace with Joseph I. (Jan. 15, 1709), acknowledging Charles III. as king of Spain and promising to



invest him with the crown of Naples. This em­bittered Louis XIV. and Philip of Anjou against him. Another trouble was the coa8ict over eccle­siastical jurisdiction in Naples, which lasted even beyond the peace of Utrecht. In the controversy between the Dominicans and the Jesuits over the advisability of allowing the Chinese converts to retain certain pagan customs, he decided in favor of the former; the Jesuits. apparently submitted, but the conflict continued. In the Janeeniat con­troversy, on the other hand, he strongly supported the Jesuits (see JnxsieN, CORNELIUB, JANBENIBM; QvESrtxr.). He achieved considerable results as a reformer of the internal administration of his states and of the Roman clergy, supported learning and art, and was a liberal benefactor of the poor. In 1713 he issued the famous bull Unigenitue against Jansenism. He died March 19, 1721.

(A. HAUCK.)

Bnrxooawrav: Epistda et bravia asleda, 2 vole., Rome, 1724; Buliwium Romanum, vol. aai., Turin, 1871; Rank's, Popes. ii. 428 eqq., iii. 483 488. 471 173; Bower. Popes, iii. 33b 338. The bull Unipanitus is given in Reich, Docu­ments, pp. a88"a89.

Clement %11.. (Lorenzo Corsini): Pope 1730 40. He was born April 7, 1652, and rose in life as a protftd of the Albani family, taking Clement XI. for his model as pope, though without his gifts. He did not attempt to mingle in the wider politics of Europe, but made unsuccessful attempts to assert ancient feudal claims to Parma and Piacenza (1731) and to incorporate with the Papal States the small but ancient republic of San Marino (1739). The power of the Church was limited byCharles III. and his minister Tanucci in Naples, and by Philip V. in Spain; and in France the literary and scien­tific opposition to the papacygrew more pronounced. His services to foreign missions were considerable, and his domestic policy creditably followed that of Clement XI. He died Feb. 6,1740. (A, He>?cs.)



Bisraoossray: Builatium Romanmn, vole. ariii., aiv., Turin; Pastor. Popes, i. 380: Ranks, Pope, ii. 431; sower, Popes, iii. 340.

Clement %M,. (Carlo Rezzonico): Pope 17589. He was born in Venice March 7, 1893, made car­dinal in 1757, and on July 6 of the next year elected pope. It is impossible to decide whether he was a convinced friend of the Jesuits or simply their tool, either directly or indirectly through the influence of Cardinal Torreggiani. Though the order had been suppressed in Portugal, France, Spain, Naples, and Sicily, he solemnly confirmed and approved it by the bull Ahoatolicum pasceredi munua (Jan. ?, 1765), and in that beginning Arci­marum aaluti declared under an interdict the countries which had expelled the Je811jt8, glowing them alone to say mass and administer the sacra­ments there during it. The bull called out vehe­went opposition, and the popular outburst in favor of the society on which he had counted did not occur. Some of the cardinals implored him to moderate his support of it, but without effect. As a blow at the Bourbon courts, he took notice of some reforming measures adopted by the duke of Parma,, an unimportant member of the family. A sharp and threatening brief (Aliud ad dpoatolatua, Jan. 30, 1788) was addressed to him; it rebuked





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