Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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U kpLuna gin,

the Way in which Men first Acquired their Knowl­edge of God and Religion (1838); Essay on Baptism (1843); The Grievances of our Mercantile Seamen (1845).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Taylor, Biographical SkeICI1 D, , Th0111W Clark&^ London, 1839; J. Elms, Thomas Clarkson, a Monograph, ib. 18b4: DNB, z. 484 4b8.
CLASS MEETING: A part of the discipline of

the Methodist Churches, whereby the members of

a congregation are divided into sections or classes,

over each of which is a class leader, appointed by

the pastor, whose duty it is (according to the Book

o f DieciPline of the Methodist Episcopal Church,

pt. i., chap. ii., § 1): "I. To see each person in his

class once a week at least; in order (1) To inquire

how their souls prosper. (2) To advise, reprove, com­

fort, or exhort, as occasion may require. (3) To

receive what they are willing to give toward the

relief of the preachers, church, and poor. II. To

meet the ministers and the stewards of the society

once a week;. in order (1) To inform the minister

of any that are sick, or of any that walk disorderly,

and will not be reproved. (2) To pay the stewards

what they have received of their several classes in

the week preceding." The class meeting is said to

have arisen accidentally in 1742 in connection with

a plan to pay off the church debt contracted by

building the edifice at Bristol. The members were

divided into sections of twelve, and one of each

section was appointed to call regularly every week

upon the others of his section to receive their con­

tributions. They soon began to report delin­

quencies in conduct on the part of those whom

they visited, and the possibilities of the plan in

providing a means of discipline for the congregations

was at once apparent to Wesley. He introduced

the plan in London, and it became a distinctive

feature of Methodism. At first the leaders called

personally upon each member at his own house;

but this was found inconvenient and a common

meeting place was appointed. The leader began

and ended each meeting with singing and prayer,

and about an hour was spent in conversation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. Tyeaman, Life of John Wesley, vol. i., pp.

377 380, London, 1878.

CLAUDE, DEAR: A French Calvinist preacher

and controversialist; b. at Sauvetstdu Dropt, in

the department of Lot et Garonne, 3819; d. at

The Hague Jan. 13, 1887. He studied theology at

Montauban, and was ordained in 1845. He held

charges at La Treiese and St. Affrique, but became

pastor at Nimes in 1654. Here he lectured before

the Academy in 1658 on homiletics and practical

exegesis. In 1881 he presided over the provincial

synod held at Nimes, and opposed so vehemently a

project of reunion with the Roman Catholic

Church brought forward by the Prince de Conti,

governor of Languedoc, that he was inhibited

from preaching in the province. In October, 1881,

he went to Paris, called by Countess Turenne, in

order to refute a treatise by Nicole who sought

to show that transubstantiation had always been

held in the Church. In 1862 ~ he was appointed

professor and pastor at Montauban. When the

government forbade his preaching here also, he

returned to Paris, and was in 1888 called as pastor


of the Protestants to the capital by the consistory

of Charenton. In 1888 and 1889 he took part in

the celebrated controversy with the Jesuit Nouet

and the Jansenist Arnauld on the mass; and in

1878, on the invitation of Mlle. de Duras, he

had a discussion with Boesuet in her presence,

which, however, resulted in her conversion to

Bossuet's faith. On the revocation of the Edict

of Nantes he retired to The Hague. He was an

eloquent preacher and one of the most profound

thinkers of his day. Among his works are:

Rdponse sex deux tra" de Nicole, sur la per­

PEtuit6 de la foi (Charenton, 1685); Relation auc­

cincte de l'" otk aont maintenaret lee esglisea r&

form6es de France (1886); Traitk de l'Euchariatie

(Amsterdam, 1888); Rlponae au livre de M. Arnauld

" ° De la perpdtuiU de la foi" (f,,luevilly, 1870); La

dE,fenae de la Reformation contra le livre intituFk

"prqug6a lEgitimes contra lee Cnlvinistea" (Que­

villy, 1873; Eng. tsansl., by J. Townsend, A Do­

fence of the Reformation, 2 vole., London, 1816);

Traitk de la lecture des Pyres et la justification

(Amsterdam, 1685); Las plaintes des Protestants

cruellemznt opprim6s dens Is roysume de Franca

(Cologne, 1888; Eng. transl., An Account of the

Persecutions . . of the Protestants in France,

London, 1886). Certain posthumous writings were

published at Amsterdam in 1888 and 1889, and

selections were translated into English; some have

proved very popular, e.g., On the Composition of a

Sermon (latest ed., London, 1853).

G. Borta r Mwvxr.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: [Devisee. A. R. de lal, d"~ de la vie de M. Ckmde, Amsterdam, 1887; E. and ~`. Hug, La Prance proteatante, ad. H. L. Bordiar. Paris, 1877 88; Lichtenberger, E31t, iii. lee 199, Paris, ls7&.
CLATJDIAftUS MAMERTUS: Viennese philos­opher and theologian; b. at or near Lyons c. 425; d. at Vienna between 470 and 474. His brother Mamertus, before 482 bishop of Vienna, called him there as a presbyter. He devoted himself to church music and appears to have compiled a lectionary. Apollinaris Sidonius celebrated the industry of the two brothers (in Epiatohe, iv. 11). The hymns ascribed to him are by other authors. His letter to Sapaudus (Engelbrecht, Unterauchungen fiber die Slvrache des Claudianus Mamertus, p. 203, Vienna, 1885), in which he laments the decay of the sciences, has historical value. About 470 he wrote his main work,De state animce, in which he showed acquaint­ance with Jerome and dependence upon Augustine. Of the Greek Fathers he cites only Gregory Nazi­anaen; he was unacquainted with the work of Nemisius of Emesa, " On the Nature of Man." Plato was to him king of philosophers, though Plotinus's Enneads influenced him greatly; in the use of the categories of Aristotle, he was a fore­runner of the Schoohnen. His work is used by Cassiodorus (MPL, lxx. 12'T9). Berengar of Tours studied and valued it (MPL, clxxviii. 1889), and Nicolas, secretary to Bernard of Clairvaux, gave him and it the highest praise (MPL, cell. 499 C.). He was one of the most consistent and positive champions of the dualism of soul and body, against the naturalistic conception of the soul as a mere product or " harmony " of the body, held by such

men as Tertullian, Hilary of Poitiers, Casian, and Faustus of Riez. His arguments for a spiritual substance have reappeared substantially in works of Thomas Aquinas and Descartes. (F. ARNOLD.)

BDnjoossrst: The Episfda as Sidonsum is in M(iH,

Aud. ant., viii (1887), fit: 1511emont, Mb­

w,o;rea. zvi.119 128. 741, of. Hiefoire littiraire do 1a France,

ii. 442 448: M. Schultze, C7audianw Mamsrtus fiber dw

weeen der seele. n. lass; F. veberwee. ceschidds

der Philo~9e. ii. 121. Berlin. 1888, ED$. travel.. i. 3b2­

8b4. New York, 1872: De Is Broiee. Mamerti Claudiasi

vift ejusque doebina de anima hominie, Paris. 1890; C. F.

Arnold. Cmeariw von Arsiats and din palliechs Hirehe

.etnsr zees. pp. 89, 131, a25 s2e, Leivme.1894.

CLADDI:US (Tiberlus Claue>ius Germanicus): Roman emperor 41 54 s.a. His name comes

into connection with the history of primitive Chn

tianity through the steps taken by him against the

dews in Rome. Soon after his accession, in op

sition to the policy of his predecessor, Caligula, h

had restored to them religious liberty. M time

went on, he saw himself obliged, at least as con cerned the Roman Jews, to return to a policy o repression. It is to this that Suetonius allude

(Claudiua, xav.). This measure affected the Jewish couple Aquila and Priecilla, who were then resi 

dents of Rome (Acts avui. 2). The reference o

8uetonius to " Chrestus " has given rise to a long 

standing controversy whether he means to impl

that the disturbances were caused by the preaching

of Christianity (about which Suetonius evidently

knew little, if he represents Christ as living in Rome

or whether he refers to a later, otherwise unknown, Jewish agitator named Chrestus. The possibility of the former hypothesis is confirmed by other events in the Apostolic Age (Acts xvii. b eqq, XXi• 27 eqq.); but it is unlikely that such a gross mistake was made by Suetonius, who must have known from Tacitus, with whom he was acquainted, that Christ had already been put to death at Jerusalem in the time of Tiberius. Considering, moreover, the active intercourse between the Roman Jews and Palestine, it is hard to believe that the Messianic controversies should have taken fifteen or twenty years to reach an acute stage in Rome, and that, on the other hand, the Christian community there should have already attained sufficient importance for their relations with orthodox Judaism to cause disturbances of so serious a nature as to necessitate such severe measures on the part of a government is general friendly to the Jews. The exact date of the expulsion is unknown. Orosiua (Hilt., VII. vi. lb) assigns it to the ninth year of Claudius (49 A.D.). Josephus is silent on the point. The vague term " lately " of Acts aviii. 2 offers no objection to this date. Dio Cassias (la. ft) apparently refers to a different procedure; it is impossible to harmonise

the two accounts. VICTOR Scavrmz>s.


Btnraoassra:: H. Lehman% Claudius and Hero and ihre

Zeit, vol. i.. Go" 1868; H. Vogeletein and P. Wager,

QesehidJe der Judas in Rosy, i. 18 eq4.. Berlin, 1889;

B. Bahmidt, Anttinpe doe CAtama in der Btadt Ross,

Heidelberg, 1879: T. Kohn, Rots and das Chriatentum,

Berlin, 1881: s. Kneuoter, AnfasOe du rdmisches Cluis­

feahant, Werube. 1881: $eh8rer. i. 602 803,

iii. 31 38, 74, Bug. travel.. I. ii. 99. II. u. 238 237. 288:

Mueller, Christian Church, i. 76 08.


CyA~, MATTHIAS: German author; b.

at Reinfeld (10 m. w. of Lflbeck) Aug. 15, 1740;

d. at Hamburg Jan. 21, 1815. He studied law at

rd. and spent the moat of his life at Wandsbeck,

ss auditor of the Bank of Bleswick Holstein at

Altona, and as private citisen. Elio writings are

poems and articles published over the signature

Aemua in the Wandslxcker Rote sad other

periodicals. He issued the first collection of these

contributions at Hamburg in 1775, and the last is

1812 (8 vole., 13th ed., 2 vole., Goths, 1902), en­

titling his work Aamus omnia aua aecum porRane,

oder s8mtliche Werke des Wandsbecker Boten.

Claudius was not a theologian, nor were his essays

homiletic or devotional, while his poems are never

used as hymns in the churches. His leading char 

acteristice were practical Christianity, expressed in

e the language of the people, and earnestness, thinly

po  veiled by irony and humor. In tendency he was

e decidedly opposed to the rationalism of his time„

e even though he ridiculed the pedantry of an anti 

quated orthodoxy. He became involved in a con 

f troversy with Friedrich Jacobi, in which he based

s his own position on the Biblical proof of redemp 

tion through Christ, and his general view was that

philosophy and human reason are subordinate in

f credibility to revelation.

Breraoassrsr: The Works were edited by C. Redlich, 2

y vole Cloths. 1882; selection& an in Met'er's Yolksb4cha'.

Nos. 881 883, Leipa:o. 1889. His life was written by

g C. Monckeberg. Hamburg. 1889: W. Herbst, Cloths,

y 1878: K. $tookmeyer. Basel. 1895. Consult also C.

Redlich, Die poebechsn BeitrDys sun Wand' Bobs

pesammeit. Hamburg, 1871.

CLAUDIUS OF TURIN: Bishop of Turin, an

example of the type of statesman bishop under

Charlemagne and Louie the Pious; b. in Spain in

the latter half of the eighth century; d. in Turin

before 832. Although a pupil of Felix of Urgel,

the leader of the Adoptiomata (see A»orrlomw),

he did not share his heretical views. He is neat

found at the court of the king of Aquitaine as a

priest, instructing his fellow clergy in Scriptural

learning. Immediately after his accession, Louis

the Pious sent Claudius to Turin as bishop to

instruct the ignorant population in the Holy Scrip­

tures, and to cope with the piratical Mohammedans

in the maritime Alps. Charlemagne had acquired

large territories is northwestern Italy by his defeat

of the Lombards, and used some of these lands to

endow the church there, which had been plundered

by the Arian Lombards. Feudal service in the

field was required of the prelates in return. Clau­

dius himself relates that he rendered such service

against the Moors, taking his literary work with

him to the campaign. He produced commentaries

in the form of catenae on Genesis (811), Exodus

(821), and Leviticus (825), also on Matthew (815),

Galatians (81fi), and Epheeiane (817). His works

were read throughout Gaul. At the request of the

abbot Theodemir, he wrote a work on the books of

Kink which is mostly a compilation from Augus­

tine, Gregory, Isidore, Bede, and Rabanus. Some

expressions in it brought him under suspicion of

Nestorianisun; and Theodemir laid his commentary

on I Corinthians before the bishops and dignitaries

at court for judgment. Claudius wrote s defense.



of which a copy was seen in the monastery of

Bobbio in 1461, but it has since been lost, and is

only known by the rejoinders of Dungalus and

Jonas. He gave offense also by his attitude to­

ward the veneration of images, which among the

half civilized people of his diocese amounted to

idolatry. He accepted Augustine's views on pre­

destination, but overlooked that side of his teach­

ing which sets forth the Church as the abiding

means of communication between God and man.

He disapproved of the increasing honor paid to the

bishop of Rome, and did not favor pilgrimages to

Rome. He denied that Peter had received power

to bind and loose, and spoke of a double primacy

among the apostles, one given to Peter for the Jewish

mission, and one to Paul for the heathen. These

and other expressions, together with the fact that

he removed not only images, but even the crosses

from his churches, gave rise to deep suspicion, and

Theodemir wrote to him that it was reported he

had founded a new sect contra regulam f def, calholicm.

There is no evidence to support the view that he

was the real founder of the Waldensians; though

he may, in a sense, be numbered among the pre­

cursors of the Reformation. (R. Fosst.)

BraLrOaaAPBy: The beet collection of the works is in MPL,

civ., evi. Consult: T. Forster, Drei Erabiaehbfe roor 1000

Jahren (Claudius von Turin, . . .), GQtexsloh, 1874; H.

F. Reuter, Geachichte der relipi6aen AufklBrunp im dfih

tetalter, i. 18 24, Berlin, 1875; A. Ebert, Oeachirhte der

Literalur des Mittelalkra, ii. 222 224, Leipaie. 1880;

Wattenbach, DGQ, 8th ad., i. 155, 206, 207; %L, iii.

439  437.




NICHOLAS P0ILLEVILLAIR, pwal"le vfl"lair, OF:

A French theological author and ecclesiastical

statesman; b. at Clamangea near Chhlons sulL

Marne, 90 m. n. by e, of Paris, c. 1387; d. at

Paris in 1437. Like Gerson, his teacher, he

was educated at the college of Navarre in

Paris where, by his studies in the classics, he

attained a degree of excellence in rhetoric that

his contemporaries thought almost Ciaeronian. The

influence of ancient literature revealed itself only

in his style, however, as his interests in life were

entirely churchly and theological. At an early age

he entered the arena of ecclesiastical' politics, devo­

ting himself with great earnestness to furthering

the movement for the healing of the Great Schism

(see BCBISM). In 1397 he became papal secretary

to Benedict XIII. In 1405 he accompanied Bene­

dict on a journey to Genoa, and remained there on

the tatter's return to Avignon in the fall of the

following year. There was, however, no formal

separation; and when Benedict in 1408 threatened

the, royal house of France with excommunication,

the odium aroused fell in full measure upon the

head of Nicholas, the supposed author of the

obnoxious bull. Partly out of fear of possible con­

sequences, partly in obedience to along cherished

desire, he abandoned his canonicate at Langres

and retired to a Cistercian cloister, first at Val­

profonds, and then at Fontaine du host. There he

gave himself up to serious Biblical study, which,

he said, he had hitherto neglected. Aside from letters addressed to such friends as Gerson and D'Ailly, he composed a number of treatises dealing with the errors and corruptions that he saw in the Church of his time. De fructu eremi and De fructu rerum adversarium deal with the beneficent influ­ence which solitude and misfortune may exercise on the inner life. De novis festivitotibvs non inatittiendis protests against the harmful multipli­cation of holy days, and De studio theologico extols the life of the active pariah priest above that of the student. In his Oratio ad Galliarum Princi.Pes (c. 1411) he pleaded for a cessation of the civil strife that was sapping the life of France. He threw him­self with energy into the movement that culminated in the Council of Constants, depicting with power and feeling the degenerate state of the Church in his De ruins ecctesiee, or De corrupto ecclesim atatu (1401). His authorship of this work has been denied by some. He was displeased at the action of the Council of Constants in decreeing the depo­sition of the three rival popes, believing that the recognition of Benedict would have brought har­mony to the Church. He was more fortunate than his friend Gerson in retaining the favor of the men in power in France. He sided with Philip of Burgundy against the Dauphin; and when in 1425 their reconciliation seemed at hand, he returned to his earliest occupation as lecturer on rhetoric and theology at the college of Navarre. He holds a high place in the history of the early French renaissance, and as a precursor of the " humanistic reformation." His ecclesiastical ideals, which the brain of a Wydif converted into revolutionary principles, allowed the humanist scholar to remain a faithful son of the Church. (B. BESS.)

Btstrooaerar: An incomplete ad. of the Opera was put out by J. M. Lydiue, 2 vole., Leyden, 1813. The beet so­count of Climangee is by G. Voigt, Die Wiederlxkbunp des kJwsixhsn Aitsrfhu9na, ii. 349 3b8, Berlin, 1881; A. Mints, Nicholas do CUnanpea; as vie at sea 6crita, f3trae­burg, 1848; G. Bchuberth. Nikolaus von C7dmasnpea als verfasaer, Gmeeenhsin, 1888; Hefele, Concilienyeachichte, vol. vi.; ICL,. ix. 298,308; Creighton, Papacy, i. lbl, 221, 301 303, 375.
CLE)ilElY, CARL CHRISTIAN: German Protes­tant; b. at Bommerfeld (a suburb of Leipsic) Mar. 30, 1865. He studied in Tiibingen, Halls, Berlin, and Leipsic (Ph.D., 1889), and after being an assistant pastor in London 1889 90, became privat.docent at Halls in 1892. In 1903 he accepted a call to Bonn as titular professor of New Testa­ment exegesis and systematic and practical theol­ogy, and was also an assistant in the university library 1903 05. In 1899 1903 he was general secretary of the Evangelischer Bond, and since 1902 has been convener of the international committee for the promotion of the Evangelical Church among the Czechs. His theological position is scientific. He has written Die Chranologie der paulinischen Briefs (Halls, 1893); Die Einheitl£ehkeit der pauli­nischen Briefs (Gottingen, 1894); Niedergefahren xu den Tote» (Giessen, 1900); Paulus, sein Leben and Wirken (2 vole., 1904); Schleierttaachers Glattbens­lehre (1905); Die Apoatelgeschichte im Lichte der neteeren text , quellen  and historiach kritischen Forachtcngen (1905); Die Entstehteng des Neuen


Testaments (Leipaie, 1908); and Predigt and b ib­liacher Tent (Giessen, 1908).

CLEMENT: The name of fourteen popes and three antipopea.

Clement L See CLEMENT or ROME.

Clement 1L (Suidger): Pope 1048 47. After the

abdication of the nimoniacal pope Gregory VI.,

Henry III., the German king, then all powerful in

Rome, nominated Bishop Suidger of Bamberg in

a synod held in St. Peter's, Dec. 24, 1046. He

took the title of Clement IL, and crowned Henry

and his consort on the following day. In January

he held a synod with Henry to condemn simony,

though allowing those ordained by simonises to

retain their clerical position. He died Oct. 9,

1047. (A. HAUCK.)

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