Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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Reforms  1516 it suffered under the appoint 

tioa. ment of abbots in commendsm by the

royal power. Even the Counter­reformation did not help the order much: It had no more any important practical tasks, and the large body of the order proved incapable of re­turning to the austerity of ancient monasticism. Nevertheless, efforts of this kind were not wanting and led in part to the formation of new branches, such  as the Congregatio Lusitsna, confirmed in 1567  by Pius V., the Feuillants after 1506, who spread in France and Italy, and others in the six­teenth and seventeenth centuries. The reform, surpassing in austerity even the Carthusiana, which was introduced by Abbot RancS in the monastery of La Trappe did not attain to much importance until after the French Revolution. From these branches must be distinguished the congregations, improperly so called, which united after the fashion

of provinces, when the lines and the relation of filiation had lost much of their importance, such as the Polish or Pelpline and the Upper German, with the monastery Salem (Salmansweiler) as center. Many interesting details concerning conditions in the seventeenth century are learned from notes of a monk of Raittenhaslach (Drey Raiser reach Cislertz, Cister­eiereser Chronik, iv.,1892, 45 sqq.) in 1605, 1609, and 1615, and in Joseph Meglinger's Iter Cisterciense von 1667 (MPL, clxxxv. 156r1622), and from the jour­ney of Abbot Laurentius Scipio of Osaegg to the gen­eral chapter in the year 1667(Cistercienser Chronik, viii., 1896, 289). In spite of all losses, the number of Cistercian monasteries was still great in the last quar­ter of the eighteenth century. From that time on the order received blows which left only a few scanty remains of this once powerful community. In Austria Joseph II. confiscated a large number of the monasteries; the French Revolution dissolved the order in its mother country; its most vener­able places, Cfteaux and Clairvaux, have since then been partly destroyed. New losses were caused by the decree of 1803 passed by the imperial depu­tation and by the secularization in Prussia in 1810. In 1834 the abbeys in Portugal and 'in 1835 those in Spain were abolished, and the like fate befell the Polish under Nicholas I. On the other hand, a restoration of the former abbey Senanque in the Vaucluse took place in 1854, which was followed by the founding of some others.

At present the order consists of: I. The Obser­vantia comvaunis, comprising (1) the Congregalio S. Bernardi in Itslia ; (2) the vicariate in Belgium; (3) the Austro Hungarian province of the order; (4) the Swiss German province. II. The Obser­vantia medic, to which belong (1) the congregation of Senanque; (2) the Trappenses mitigati of Caaa­mari. III. The Obsewvantis stricts (Trappists), who, however, were entirely separated in 1892 from the jurisdiction of the general abbot chosen by the Observsntia communis. More particulars concerning the present organization and rules of the different congregations are given in the article Ueber die Obserusnzen der Cistereienser in the Cister­cienser Chronik, vii (1895), 117 sqq.


BIaLIMIRAPHY: The only reliable source for the early his 

tory of Cttesua is the Exord%um ord%nia Ciatercienaia (the so called Exord%um partrum), by Stephen Handing, in MPL, clxvi. 1501 10. Of a partly legendary character is the Exordium magnum O. C., MPL, clxxav. 99b 1198. For the time from lllb to 1153 Bernard of Clairvauz and the older biographies of him must be consulted. An important source for the history of the order are the reso­lutions of the general chapters, of which the most oopi­ous collection is is Martkne and Durand, Thesaurus

novas, iv. 1243 1848, Paris, 1717. The basis of all later works on the order is L. Janauschek, Origittum CiateN cisnaium, vol, i., Vienna, 1877, containing the first trust­worthy list of all Cistercian abbeys. Collections of the regulations of the order are contained in P. Guignard, Las Monument primiti/a de la rt?gle Ciatercienne Dijon, 1878; Nomoatimn aeu antiquioree O. C. oonatitutionea a Juliano Paris, Fukardimontie abbafa coZlectas, Paris. 1884, od%tio ndaa . . . usque ad rostra temyora deducts a R. P.

Hug. BEjalon, 9oleemes, 1892. Consult further: C. de

Viseh, Bibliotheoa aeriptoream saeri O. C., Dousi, 1849,

Cologne, 1858; B. Tisaier, Bibllotheaa padrum C%atercien­

aium, 2 vols., Bonofonte, 18809; Angelus Manrique,

Ciatercienaium . . . annalium tom% iv, Lyons, 1842 59

(reaching to the year 1238; very important, yet to be

CitiesXLsin Palestine

used with critical oars): D'Arbois de Jubainville: etudes

our t'EWt ;nikrieur den abbaya Cieterciennes au It. et au

Is. eie?eJes. Paris. 1850; Frans Winter. Die Cistemsenaer

des norddatlichea Deutschtands Us sum Auftreten der Beb

telorden, a vale., Goths, 1868 71 (an excellent work).

Many contributions are found in Sludien u"d bfitkilunpen

aua dam Bened%ktiner and Ciatercienserordsn, WVrsburg.

1879 eqq., and in the Cietarcisneerahronik. Bregens, 1889

eqq. The literature on the different monasteries is found

in Jsnsuechek, ut sup. Additional material may

found in J. L. von Moeheim. Institutes of Becl. Hirt., ii. 44, London, 1883: R. C. Trench, Lecturer on Medieval Church Hut., pp. 110 eqq., New York, 1878; H. C. 8hel­don, Hist. o/ the Christian Church: the Mediarnaf CAurc)t. DP. 271 287, ib. 1894; W. W. Capes, Rnp. Church in l.ffh and 15th Centuries, passim, ib. 1900; W. R. W. 8tephene, Enp. Church, IOBtI It7t, pp. 213, 266 283, fb. 1901; Cistercian Order, its Ob7set, Us Ruts. BY a r Priest. Cambridge, U. 6., 1906; W. A. P. Mason. Beginnings of the Cistercian Order, in Transactions of the Royal Histonaal ,Society, nv (1906): Schaff, Christian Church, v. i., pp, $37 sqq.


origin (5 1). Cities and villages (5 2). Sites and Names (5 3). Features and Characteristics (5 4).

The Israelitic cities went of the Jordan is moat cases were of Canaanite origin. An astonishing

number of fortified places is named in I. Origin. the Amarna letters and in the Egyp­tian lists. These waned cities were ruled by petty princes, whose authority extended to the neighboring villages. Examples of such strongholds are Jerusalem, Ge$er, Lachish, Megiddo, etc. The Old Testament narrators were well aware that these cities were conquered by the Israelites only at a relatively late period (cf., e.g., the case of Jerusalem, II Sam. v. 8 9). There were, however, cities of Israelitic origin. Many settlements of the invading tribes must have grown gradually into villages and cities, which were later walled in (Josh. six. 50; I Kings xii. 25). In the Greek period the founding of cities was quite usual; in many cases, however, some older city was merely enlarged and renamed. Herod the Great wen especially de­voted to building (see HEHOD wNn $m Fwmtzy). Ca;sarea, Phasa:lis, and Herodeion, Alexandreion, Hyrcania, and other strongholds were built during his reign.

City and village are always distinguished in the I Old Testament; a city is a walled stronghold (`sr hornah, Lev. axv. 30), in contrast to the unpro­tected villages and the scattered hamlets (1.apri'm.

Lev. xxv. 31; kepharim, I Chron. s. Cities axvii. 25). Further, in the cities, the sad seats of the princes and the lords of Pillages. the land, civilisation made more rapid progress than in the open country. At times this distinction was unusually marked, for, in the various migrations which overran the laud, the invaders first occupied the open country, while the cities remained for a long time in the hands of the original inhabitants. Among both the Canaanites and the Israelites the unprotected villages were under the jurisdiction of the cities (cf. the expres­sion " mother in Israel," applied to a city, II Sam. xx. 19, sad "a city sad the villages thereof," Num. xxi. 25, 32, xaxii. 42). In the Greek period the distinction was that the cities (pdeie) had a oon 


stitution and privileges different from those of the villages (kbmai ; cf. kihnapoleia in Mark i. 38).

The choice of a site for a settlement was largely determined by the presence of a supply of

water, though Jerusalem is a note 

3. Sites worthy exception. Numerous places

and are named after their fountaine­

Names. En gedi (" Fountain of the Kid"),

En shemesh (" Fountain of the Sun "), and others. Another consideration was that the site should afford a certain protection; elevations were therefore preferred. All larger fortified cities were built upon hills or mountain elopes. It is generally difficult to explain the names of towns; except where the common appellations are used (`ttyin, "fountain"; bath, "house"; `ir, "city"; etc.). The common attempts at etymological explanation may generally be rejected, for the names usually belong to the ancient pre Ieraelitic language, and have often changed greatly is the course of centuries. In the explanations. given in the Old Testament the name has often evidently given rise to the legend (e.g., Gilgal, which is ex­plained to signify the rolling off of a reproach, Josh. v. 9). It may be remarked that many places bore the name of the divinity who was worshiped there (Beth el, " the Beat of El "; Beth shemesh, " the House of the Sun "; etc.). It is unlikely that two names were in use for the same place in the earliest period. Most of such cases found in the Old Testa­ment seem either to have arisen from misunder­standing, or else to have been adapted for harmo­nietic.purposes. For example Jebus Jerusalem is a name freely invented from the tribal came of the Jebueites. Only in the Greek period did a change of names become the fashion (Samaria to Sebaste, etc.).

Aided by the excavations at Megiddo Taenach, Geser, Lachish, and elsewhere, the picture of an

ancient city can be reconstructed to a 4. Features certain extent. Confined to a small

and Char  space, with thick walls made of clay

actsristlcs, bricks or of medium sized rough 

hewn stones, these cities may be com­pared in many respects to those found to day in Palestine. The streets were narrow and tortuous; the houses (see HOUSE) were small; and the gate or gates, close to which was the only open square (Gem. xxiii. 10; Ruth iv. 1; II Sam. xv. 2; II Kings vii. 1, etc.), were built in an angle of the wall. The houses usually had the natural rock for their rear wall; indeed, they were little more than en­larged caves built up is front. The roofs of the lower houses formed the street in front of those built higher up; paved streets are first found in the time of the Herode (Josephus, Ant., XX. ix. 7). A regular,police is not employed even now, but night watchmen are mentioned is the Old Testament (Ps. exsvii. 1; Cant. iii. 3, v. 7; Ira. xxi. 11). The work of cleaning the streets was left to the dogs (Ian. v. 25; see Doos). Trades and shops of the same kind were grouped together in particular streets (see COMMERCE AMONG TAE ANCIENT IaRAEL1TH'8; HeNnIORAlrrs, HEBREW). Every walled city must have been well supplied with cisterns in the rocks, for it was rarely possible to


01rynr tine

introduce water from outside within the circuit of the walls; uncovered pools were common (tee JERUSALEM; WATER SUPPLY IN PALESTINE).


Brsrtooswrar: A. Billerbeok, Der. Patung8bau On allen Orient. Leipeio, 1903; the publications of the PEP, par­ticularly the Survey of Western Palestine, 7 vole., and of Eastern Palestine, 1 vol.; C. R. Condor, Tent Work in Palestine. 1880; idem. HetA and Moab, 1883; (i. 6ehu­thacher Across the Jordan, 1888 idem, The Jaulan, 1888; (i. Armstrong, Names and Playa in the O, and N. T. and Apocrypha, 1887; F. Petrie, Tel e1 Hay, laehieh, 1891; F. J. Bliss, A Mound of Many Cities, 1894; and the Quarterly Statenunta. Consult also the literature under Pernerma and under the articles discussing the several cities.


I. In Germany. II. In the United States.

The New York City Mission (1I).

I. In Germany: City missions constitute one form of home mission work, necessitated by the peculiar conditions of life in large cities and because the needs and moral shortcomings caused by these conditions can be supplied and corrected most usefully and effectively by a union of existing activities and by a uniform plan of action. A city mission was organized in Glasgow in 1826 by David Nasmiths (q.v.), who as secretary of twenty three Christian societies saw the necessity of uniting them more closely and employing a number of faithful workers in missionary service without con­nection with an individual congregation. His suggestion was followed by the city of London in 1835, under the vigorous cooperation of Lord Shaftesbury (q.v.). In Germany it was J. H. Wichern (q.v.) who, after his return from the Wittenberg Church Diet of 1848, suggested among the friends of the Rauhss Ha= in Hamburg the organization of the " Hamburg Society for the Inner Mission," calling attention to the London City Mission. His association had the twofold task of bringing about a closer union of existing agencies and practising missionary activity in Hamburg after the model of London, with due regard, however, to specifically German conditions, by organizing special com­mittees for the visitation of the poor, for the care of needy artisans, for journeymen and apprentices, for the circulation of good literature, for the union of young merchants, and for the suppression of public immorality. In course of time these sep­arate committees were replaced by local district societies which were in close connection with their respective parishes and became the basis for similar societies in other cities. The first suggestion for similar efforts in Berlin proceeded also from Wich­ern. But real success was not attained here until 1874, when Dr. B. B. BrUckner, general superin­tendent of Berlin, devoted his energies to this work. His efforts were continued in 1877 by Court Preacher Adolf Sttscker and Privy Councilor J. R,. Bosse, the latter minister of public worship and instruction. They were assisted by two theological inspectors and thirteen city missionaries. In Apr., 1906, there were six theological inspectors and sixty two city missionaries, including eight women. During 1905, 95,000 visits were made, including 4,677 because of unbaptized children, 3,539 because of

couples who had discarded the marriage ceremony, and 959 because of children brought into the crim­inal courts. Thirty three hundred children were enrolled is sixty nine Sunday schools and religious services were held in twenty four places. Other organisations which serve missionary purposes in Berlin are the " Young Men's Christian Associa­tion " (since 1882); " St. Michael's Christian Asso­ciation " (since 1883); an association called " Service for the Unemployed " (since 1882); and especially the " City Committee (now called " Main Association ") for the Inner Mission " (since 1899). According to statistics of 1899, seventy other cities of Germany had followed the example of Hamburg and Berlin. There is a distinction made between assist­ants of the congregations (Gemeindehelfer) and city missionaries in the more restricted sense of the word. The former confine themselves to the work of deacons, while the duties of city missionaries are of an evangelizing nature. The latter, therefore, aim to serve classes who are compelled to work on Sun­days, and those who have no permanent home such as fishermen, seamen, the unemployed, and pris­oners. They also combat drunkenness and im­morality, circulate Christian tracts, and lecture to reconcile social distinctions. In 1888, under the influence of the present emperor and empress, there was called into existence the " Evangelical Church Aid Society " to support all efforts for the sup­pression of irreligious and immoral conditions in Berlin and other large cities and in the industrial districts of Prussia. A select committee of this association supports the existing city missions and tries to call others into life. (H. RAHLENHECg.)

13. In the United States: City mission work is done in moat of the large; cities of the United States, the call for such work being specially urgent here because so large a part of the enormous emi­gration from all over the world finds its permanent home in our cities. Many of these people who leave their church homes on the other side of the ocean would drift into utter godlessness were it not for the effort of the city missionary, who seeks them out and brings them into vital connection with some existing church organization. Further­more, the inevitable tendency toward the separa­tion of the well to do classes from the very poor leaves whole sections of some of our cities with only those whose incomes hardly suffice to maintain church services. Unless they are to be wholly abandoned, some outside means must be provided for their religious upbuilding a legitimate field for city mission activity.

There are three ways in which city mission work is carried on in the United States. Individual churches establish missions, which the mother church supports, and for which it furnishes both volunteer and paid workers. Such missions are often organized as churches, having the ordinances, but dependent on the mother church both for the necessary means of support and for ecclesiastical government. In other cases a denomination or­ganizes a city mission society, appealing to the denomination for the needed financial support, and directing the work along denominational tines. In New York City, for example, there are such



societies managed by the Methodist, the Baptist, and the Protestant Episcopal denominations. The third method is that of lmdenominational work. The different denominations smite their forces, and put missionaries into the field, who are not supposed to teach the distinctive tenets of the denominations, but work directly and exclusively for the moral and spiritual regeneration of those to whom they are sent.

Taking the New York City Mission and Tract Society, as the largest and oldest of such oganiza­tiona, as a norm, the following may serve as an illustration of the methods of work

:. The New This society began over eighty years York City ago, and at first was purely volunteer

Mission. in its corps of visitors. The aim was

to visit the churchless population,

and invite them to the house of God, at the eagle

time leaving at each dwelling some religious litera­

ture. In 1833 the first paid agent was employed,

as the work had grown beyond the ability of the

volunteers to accomplish all that was needed. At

present there are between sixty and seventy paid

workers, the majority of them being women, since

women can do much work among the tenement

house population that men can not accomplish.

In 1866 the society was incorporated so as to be

able to hold property.

As churches followed their members to more favored portions of the city, large sections were left without church accommodations, making it necessary for the visiting missionaries to establish tenement house prayer meetings and Sunday­schools. Some of those who were thusinfiuenced for good asked to have the ordinances administered to them, which necessitated the erection of suitable structures for worship, and the carrying on of proper church activities. The first of these churches was built by the City Mission in 1867 in a crowded part of the city. Because of the cosmopolitan nature of the population, preaching and teaching is carried on in English, German, Italian, Yiddish, Arabic, Greek, Japanese, and in English among the Chinese. In New York City overcrowding has gone on to an extent unknown elsewhere in the world. Many a block measuring only seven hundred feet by two hundred contains a population of 2,500 people. In certain districts whole blocks are filled with Israelites, while in others only Italians are to be found, and in yet others only Bohemians or negroes a condition which increases both the need and the difficulties of sty mission work.

In course of time the New York City Mission found it necessary to employ regularly trained nurses for those who for various good reasons could not go to a hospital. Furthermore, as time passed and experience grew it was found that many other things besides the preaching of the Word and the instruction of Sunday school scholars was called for. The result was the establishment of what are called is modern parlance " institutional churches," aiming to minister to the threefold nature of mss to his body, his mind, and his spirit. This necessitates kindergarten work, library and gymnasium facilities with appropriate attend 


ante, fresh air work in the summer, and clubs of various kinds both for boys and girls.

Regularly ordained men administer the ordi­nances, and the women missionaries aid in the work of house to house visitation. Since trained workers can do the best work, the City Mission years ago established a regular training school. A building was purchased and fitted up where those in training live together under the case of a superintendent. The course is one year, and includes lectures and practical work. The total coat for each student is only $125.00 a year.

At present the City Mission owns property to the amount of about $600,000 free of encumbrance. This includes three coetly and well equipped church buildings, a Christian workers' home where the women missionaries live, a training school, and a sort of settlement house on the lower west aide of the city, which has already in it au organized Italian Church. The annual expenditure is about $65,000 a year, which comes from purely voluntary sources. The doctrinal basis of the churches formed under the care of the society is the Apostles' Creed. The churches, of which there are two German, two Italian, and two English, govern themselves in all matters spiritual, though the directors of the City Mission hold the veto right over any action that the churches may take. This right has never been exercised. The property is held by the society, but the churches have the use of it without payment other than the usual offertory taken for actual expenses. This does not suffice for the defraying of all outlay by any means, and the City Mission provides the balance. Since its establishment the City Mission has received about $375,000 in legacies besides large gifts for the erection of its church edifices.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: On I. consult: E. G. Lehmann, Die Sfadb

mission, Leipeic, 1875; E. Kayser, Die evanpelieche Stadt­misason, Goths, 1890; E. Evers, Die Berliner Stadtmia­aion, Berlin, 1902 T. aehi;fer, Leit/aden der inneren Mia­adon, Hamburg 1903 end the periodical Fliepende BlBtter aua dam Rauhen Hauae, 1849 1907. On II. consult: S. L. Loomis, Modern Cities and the Religious Problems. New York, 1887: W. S. Ufford, Freak Air Charity in the United States, ib. 1897: E. Judson, The Institutional Church, ib. 1899: J. Strong, Religious Movements for So­cial Betterment, ib. 1900; W. H. Tollman, The Better New York, ib. 1904. The beet sources of information are af­forded by the reports of the various societies, annual and in none cases monthly, e.g., of the New York City Mission and Tract Society, The Brooklyn City Mission and Tract Society, The City Mission Society of Boston, The Albany City Tract and Mission Society; also the Circulars of In­formataon of the Armour Mission in Chicago. For London consult: J. M. Weylland, Thane Fifty Years, London, 1884 (deals with the London City Mission); C. Booth, Lice and Labour, 14 vole., ib. 1903 (in three aeries; one of these deals with the religious forces working upon city prob­lems).
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