Bmwoanerar: Memoir o/ W. E. Chaaninp, with Eadrods from his Correspondence and Manuscripts, by his nephew, w. H. Chsnnina, a vole.. Boston. 1848: Channinp, sa vie et sea arurores, with preface by C. de R.6muest. Paris, 1867, enlarged ed., 1881; C. A. BsrWl, Principles and Portraits. Baton. 1880; C. T. Brooks, William EitAy Channinp, a Centennial Memory, ib. 1880: Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, Reminiscences o/ William El4ry Chamnnp, ib. 1880; The Channinp Centenary. ed. R. bi. Bellows, ib. 1881; W. W. Fens, W. X. Channing and As Growth of Spiritual Christianity, in Pioneers of Relipioua Liberty in America, ib. 1903. Also J. H. Allen, The Unitarian&, is the American Church History Series, New York, 189!<; G. W. Cooks, Unitarianism i» America, Boston, 1902; J. W. Chadwick. William Ellery C)aanninp, Minister of Religion. ib. 1903; and other works mentioned under 17xrrssisxs.
CHARRING, WILLIAM HENRY: Unitarian, nephew of William Ellery Charming; b. in Boston May 25, 1810; d. .in London Dec. 23, 1884. He was graduated at Harvard, 1829, and at the Cambridge Divinity School, 1833. He filled many pastorates, most of them o£ short duration, the longer and more important being at Cincinnati, 1838 41; Rochester, N. Y., 18524; Liverpool, England, 1854 8I (Renshaw Street Chapel, 18541857; Hope Street Chapel, 1857 81, where he succeeded Dr. James Martineau); Washington, D. C., 18815. He returned to England in 1865 and spent the rest of his life there, making several visits, however, to his native land. He was an eloquent speaker, but more successful as a lecturer and ocaaeional preacher than as pastor; an earnest, spiritual, and enthusiastic man, but visionary and impractical. The chief elements of his creed were faith in God, belief in Jesus Christ as the perfect man, and s boundless hope for humanity to be realised through organization and external remedies. Schemes of social reform captivated him, he sympathized with the Brook Farm experiment, and adopted many of the ideas of Fourier. The antislavery struggle in America enlisted his ardent support, and,, while pastor in Washington during the Civil War, be labored untiringly for the Union cause and for the relief of the wounded in the field. He was chaplain of Congress, 1883 84. In 1889 he delivered a course of Lowell lectures at Boston on the " Progress of Civilization." He published many sermons, addresses, and articles, and edited several short lived periodicals; translated Jouffroy's Introduction to Ethics (2 vole., Boston, 1841); prepared a Memoir of his uncle, William Ellery Channing (3 vole., 1848), and edited a volume of his discourses, The PerfecE Life (1873); edited the Memoir arid Writings of his cousin, J. H. Perkins (2 vole., 1851); and, with James Freeman Clarks and R. W. Emerson, edited the Memoirs of Margaret Fuller (2 vole., 1852).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: O. B. Frothingham, Life of William Harpy Channinp, Boston, 1888.
CHARTAL, JEANNE FRAN90189 FREMIOT DE. Bee vI81TATION, Oanza or msmm.
CHARTEPIE DE LA SAU33AYE, shtlii"te pf' de la so"sA', PIERRE DANIEL: Dutch Protestant; b. at Leeuwarden (18 m. e.n.e. of Harlingen) Apr. 9, 1848. He was educated at the University of
Utrecht (D.D., 1871), and after being a pastor of the Reformed Church from 1872 to 1878, was appointed professor of the history of religions at Amsterdam, where he remained until 1899. Since the latter year he has been professor of ethic at Leyden. He is a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Amsterdam and several other learned societies, and, in addition to many briefer contributions to periodicals and a number of sermons, has written: Lehrbuch der Religionsgeachichte (2 vole., Freiburg, 1$87 79, 3d ed., 1905; Eng. transl. of vol. i. by B. 8. Colyer Ferguason, London, 1892); Zekerheid en Troijfel (Haarlem, 1893); and Religion of the Ancient Teutons (Boston, 1901).
CHAftTRY: A chapel or an aisle in a church endowed for the purpose of having masses said for the soul of the founder; or of others nominated by him; also the money left for such purposes. The chantry priest was one employed on such a foundation. There were 1,000 cbantries in England when Henry VIII., in 1545, issued his order for their suppression (37 Hen. VIII., cap. 4), on 'the ground that their possessions were generally misapplied. The death of the king soon ensuing, their suppression was apparently not carried out. At all events, in the first year of Edward VI. (1 Edward VI., cap. 14, 1547) a very long act was passed dissolving the chantries, along with free chapels, hospitals, frhternities, brotherhoods, gilds, and other promotions, and devoting their revenues to charitable and educational purposes. The 'reason given for such appropriation was the alleged maintenance of superstition and ignorance by these foundations. The teat of this article is in Gee and Hardy, Documents, pp. 328 357.
CHAPEL: A small building used for divine worship. It may be entirely detached; to supply the needs of people at a distance from the pariah church; or form a separate apartment in a large building, such as a convent or a nobleman's house; or run out of and form part of a large church, with an altar of its own. In this last sense some of the largest Gothic churches have small chapels entirely surrounding the east end or choir, the " Lady Chapel," dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, being usually directly behind the high altar (see A8C>3ITzCmoxa, ECCLE8IAH17CAL). In modern English usage the word chapel is commonly applied to non conformist places of worship, those of the Establishment alone being known as church; but the term " chapel of ease " is occasionally applied to Established places of worship coming under the meaning first given above, and without parochial boundaries.
CHA'P1ZP, EDWIN HUBBELL: American Universalist; b. at Union Village, Washington County, N. Y., Dec. 29, 1814; d. in New York Dec. 28, 1880. He studied four years at the Bennington (Vermont) Academy, began the study of law, but abandoned it in 1837 to become assistant editor
of the Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate,
a Universalist paper published at Utica, N. Y. He was ordained in 1838. He was pastor at Richmond, Va., 1838 39; at Charlestown, Mane.,
1840 45; and assistant to Hosea Ballou in Boston, 184b 48. In 1848 he went to the Fourth Universalist Church, New York, and remained there till death. During his pastorate the society moved from Murray Street to new and more oommodious church buildings on Broadway near Spring Street (1852), and then to the corner of Fifth Avenue and Forty fifth Street (1888), and adopted the name " Church of the Divine Paternity." He was one of the prominent clergymen of New York, and his services were much in demand as lecturer and on special occasions. His sympathies and creed were broad, his preaching was eloquent and popular. He possessed a ready wit end no slight poetical talent; an admirable ordination hymn, " Father, at this altar bending," is from his pen. His publications, chiefly sermons, include Diaoouraea on the Lord's Prayer (Boston, 1860); Moral Aspects of City Life (New York, 1853); Lemon* of Faith and Life (1877); The Church of the Living (trod (1881).
BiDwoaesra:: 8. Elbe, Lice o/ Bdwin H. Chapin, Boston,
CHAPLAIN: A term which, with its equivalents (Let. Capeltanut, Germ. Kaplan, Fr. Deaaerrant), designates members of the clergy assigned to some loads of special service. 1:n the Roman Catholic Church a chaplain is a priest who acts as assistant to the pastor of s pariah. According to both Tridentine and earlier law, each pariah has but one priest in full charge; if it is too large to be properly administered by him alone, he is supposed to appoint a sufficient number of chaplains, with the approval of the bishop.
In the These serve directly under him, are
Roman maintained by him, and may be dis
Catholic missed at bra pleasure. There are cease,
Church. however, in which a benefited founda
tion exists within a pariah, with chapels
or altars at which the incumbent is bound to say a
certain number of masses. Such benefited chaplains
(cape(lani curati) are either bound to assist the
parish priest, or may be specially directed to do so
by the bishop. As benefited clergy, they can not
be removed at the letter's will; but he is not obliged
to avail himself of their services, unless certain
parochial duties are assigned to them by the terms
of their foundation. Such cases occur most fre
quently in chapels situated at a considerable dis
tance from the pariah church, or in hospitals and
similar institutions. In case the pariah priest fails
to appoint chaplains, or dose not appoint enough,
when directed to do so by the bishop, the latter,
is accordance with the law of Devolution (q v.),
may proceed to appoint. In some planes, by either
written law or custom, the bishop has a general
right of appointment on his own motion; and then
the chaplains are removable not by the parish
priest but by the bishop unless they have bene
fioed rights as mentioned above.
In France the chaplains were called deaserwanEs. The old French law distinguishes between parish churches (parorhialea rocleaia) and subsidiary (succur_ sales) chapels which supplement them. The system of the seventeenth century drew a distinction between pariah priests who were independent in their funo
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
tions and chaplains who officiated only by the license of the bishop, revocable at any time. This system struck Napoleon when he was thinking of restoring the Church after the destruction wrought by the Revolution. The Concordat of 1801 laid
down only the fundamental principles, The French especially regarding the bishops, who Desservants. were permitted to name incumbents
approved by the government to the pariah churches. The " organic articles " of 1802 went further into detail, and dealt with the support of the churches. As the payment of pariah priests was undertaken by the State, it was desirable to limit their number, and provision was made for the establishment of one in each district. But as these districts were far too large to be administered by one priest, as many others as were necessary were to be chosen for suceursales, and supported by their pensions and the voluntary offerings of the congregations. Their appointment was to be made by the bishop, and revocable at his pleasure. Imperial decrees of May and December, 1804, rearranged the assignments and provided a stipend of five hundred francs apiece. The desservants made increasing claims to independence; but the bishops were not inclined to give up their powers, and Gregory XVI. sanctioned the existing arrangement until further order. Repeated controversies arose over the position of these priests, who were by far the larger number in France, Belgium, and the provinces on the left bank of the Rhine; and while still theoretically removable, they succeeded in establishing the rule in practise that they should not be displaced except for cause, after an investigation by diocesan officials.
Historically, also, the name chaplain was early applied to priests who served private chapels, in castles and royal palaces. Bishops also had their private chaplains, who served partly as secretaries. The popes, too, have always had their own chaplains, who have as a rule acted as their confessors. By present use these latter are divided into three classes: honorary, ceremonial, and private. (O. MEJERt.)
The clergymen employed in the army and navy of all Christian countries are called " chaplains," and are under different rules and regulations. Thus in the British army they are under a chaplaingeneral of the forces; are not attached to particular
regiments or corps, but to garrisons In Military and military stations at home and and Naval abroad. They are according to their Service. length of service divides into four
classes, corresponding to colonels, lieutenant colonels, majors, and captains, respectively; and after twenty five years' service are entitled to retire on' a pension. They are not all from the Church of England or Ireland, but some come from the Presbyterian and Roman Catholic churches. In the United States chaplains are appointed by the president, and assigned or transferred by the secretary of war, but report monthly to the adjutant general, especially as to the baptism, marriages, and funerals at which they have officiated. During the Civil War there was in the Northern army a chaplain to each regiment,
but at its conclusion all were discharged. Later, thirty were engaged and sent to poets, generally on the frontier. To day there are no regimental chaplains, but only chaplains attached to posts. Much depends upon the post commander whether the chaplain can be efficient or not. In 1907, Major General Frederick D. Grant reports, there were fifty three chaplains in the whole army, from different denominations and ranked as follows: Majors 4, Captains 41, First Lieutenants 8. He adds: " In general their duties are to have charge of religious instruction, visit the nick, baptize children, officiate at marriages and funerals, and by statute they have charge of poet schools in the English branches." The number of chaplains in the United States nary on .July 1st, 1907, was twenty five, with rank as fpllowa. Captains 4, Commanders 7; Lieutenant Commanders 5, Lieutenants (junior grade) 2. Their duties are thus set forth in the regulations of 1905, communicated by the commandant of the New York Navy Yard. (1) The chaplain shall perform divine service and offer prayers on board of the ship to which he is attached, at such times as the captain may prescribe; and on board other ships to which chaplains are not attached, or at shore stations and naval hospitals, when so directed by the senior officer present. (2) He shall be permitted to conduct public worship according to the manner and forms of the church of which he is a minister. (3) He shall facilitate, so far as possible, the performance of divine service by clergymen of churches other than his own, who may be permitted by the captain to visit the ship for that purpose. (4) He may, with the sanction of the captain, form voluntary classes for religious instruction. (5) He shall visit the sick frequently, unless the condition of the sick renders such visits unadvisable. (fi) Under the direction of the captain, he shall supervise the instruction of such persona in the navy as may need to be taught the elementary principles of reading, writing, arithmetic, and geography. He shall, report in writing to the captain at the end of each quarter the character of instruction given, the number of hours of instruction, and the progress made by each person. He shall always report at quarters when on board. His duty in battle is to aid the wounded, and his station at quarters for battle and for inspection shall be as the captain may direct. Chaplains shall report annually to the secretary of the navy the official services performed by them. The pay of these army and navy chaplains varies according to their length of service and rank, and in navy according to whether they are at sea or on shore. In the French army and navy attendance upon the chaplains' services is voluntary, but in all other European countries it is compulsory. In the United States navy the penalty of disturbing a church service is three months' imprisonment.
Chaplains are also attached to militia regiments in the United States. They are chosen by the regiments, generally on the strength of their outside reputation, so that it is a distinct compliment and recognition of ability and popularity to be asked. They preach an occasional sermon, and clad in a distinctive uniform appear on the parades of their regiments.
7 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Ohsplsin
Chaplains are attached to parliamentary bodies
and to state and national societies. Their duties
in congress, the state legislatures, and the British
parliament are mainly connected with the relig
ious service at the beginning of each day's session.
In the case of societies they preach before the body
once a year and say grace at the annual banquet.
Prisons, almshouses; asylums, and similar institu
tions also have chaplains, who commonly live in
the building and conduct regular services. Where
a chaplain is a man of the right stamp, he is of the
utmost help to the officers, as he can do much to pro
mote good feeling between them and the subor
dinates, beneficiaries, or inmates, as the case may
be, for he is by education and manner of life the
equal of the chief, and by profession and intercourse
the friend of all the rest. It is good policy in a
government or institution to make this branch of
service attractive to the clerical profession, and to
maintain it by strict discipline.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. Ferraris, PTOmyIlt t)ibttOGlECa Oa'RfmiCa,
s.v " capellanus," Venice, 1782 94; Z. B, van Espen,
Jun eccleaiaeticum univeraum, part 2, tit. 8, chap. 2, Louvain,
1700; D. Bouix,Tractatua de Parocho, pp. 428 aqq.. 944 eqq.,
845 sqq.. Paris. 1856; A. L. Richter, Lelarbuch des . .
Kirchenrechta, ed. W. Kahl, p. 488, Leipsio, 1888; E.
Friedberg, hehrbuch des Kirehenrechta, pp. 175 eqq., ib.
CHAPMAN, (J) WILBUR: Presbyterian; b. at Richmond, Ind., June 17, 1859. He was educated at Lake Forest University (B.A., 18?9) and Lane Theological Seminary (1882), and was pastor of the First Reformed Church, Albany, N. Y:, from 1883 to 1888. He was pastor of Bethany Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, in 1888 93, and then engaged in evangelistic work until 1899, when he became pastor of the Fourth Presbyterian Church, New York City, where he remained until 1903. In the latter year he was chosen executive secretary of the General Assembly's Committee on Evangelistic Work for the Presbyterian Church. His works include: Ivory Palaces of the King (Chicago, 1893); Received Ye the Holy Ghost t (1894); " And Peter " '(1895); Present Day Parables (Cleveland, O., 1900); Revivals and Missions (New York, 1900); Present Day Evangelism (1903); Fishing for Men (Chicago, 1904); and Samuel Hopkins Hadley of Water Street (New York, 1906); Another Mile (1908).
Origin and Development of the Common Life (11). In the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries (§ 2). Canons (§ 3). Modern Organisation (§ 4). Officers (6 5). Legal Provisions and Duties (§ 8). In Protestant Churches (§ 7).
A chapter is an ecclesiastical corporation of a collegiate nature, whose principal function is to provide for public worship in the cathedral or other church to which it is attached. The origin of chapters may be traced back to the early period when the bishop had for a council or senate his presbyterium, i.e., the total number of the priests and deacons belonging to his own particular church. The further development has been largely influenced since the fourth century by the extension of monastic institutions in some degree to the secular
clergy. Eusebius of Vercelli and Augustine established a community life for their clergy under one
roof, and at Hippo there was even a r. Origin monastic vow of poverty. These exand Devel amplea were imitated in Africa, Spain, opment of and Gaul; in the last named the exthe Com pression mensa canonica was used
mon Life. as early as Gregory of Tours. The
phrase is explained by the fact that all the clergy of a church were inscribed in a special list (matricula or canon), from which regularly appointed clergy were known as canonici. This use of the term occurs in the canons of the Synod of Laodicea (c. 380), and in the sixth. century was general in the Frankish kingdom. The mensd canonica, accordingly, was the common table of the clergy of a particular church, and the vita canonica their life in common. There was originally no reference in the term to any rule of life, as some have thought from another use of the word canon. By the middle of the eighth century, this community life for the clergy had become very general throughout the Frankish kingdom, usually following the regulations laid down by Cbrodegang of Metz for his clergy. At the Synod of Aachen in 816 Louis the Pious caused a new code of rules to be drawn up, based on Chrodegaag's, as that had been on the Benedictine rule, and relating to churches other than cathedrals which had several clergy, later known as collegiate churches. According to both rules, the clergy lived with the bishop or other superior in a prescribed house (claustrum), and were required to recite together the canonical hours and to render obedience to their head. In this capacity, besides the bishop, the archdeacon appears in Chrodegang's rule, the provost in that of Aachen. The organization differed from the monastic system in being conditioned by differences of clerical rank and by the permission of private property. In the ninth and early tenth centuries, this became the approved form of clerical life in cathedrals and other larger churches, and the name chapter was applied to the organization. In the rule of Cbrodegang capitulum designated originally the chapter to be read at the daily gatherings of the clergy, then the place in which the reading occurred, then the gathering, and finally the community as a whole.
As a result of the gradual redistribution of the revenues which had originally served for the maintenance of the community life, and the permission of separate residences (mansiones) for individual clergy, the vita canonica decayed during the eleventh century in many churches where it had formerly obtained. There were, however, numerous efforts directed to ire restoration, in the spirit of the new ascetic movement and on the theory that the pos
session of private property bad caused z. In the the decay. Supported by men like
Eleventh Hildebrand, Peter Damian, and Ger
ead hoh of Reicheraberg, and favored by
Twelfth the popes, these efforts were decidedly
Centuries. successful, and led to an enforcement
of the common life by the Lateran Council of 1059 under Nicholas IL, which extended the community principle to property. In the later
Ohwvte= THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG a
eleventh and the twelfth centuries the former secular canons were in many localities replaced by regular canons, living under a stricter rule, especially that known se of Saint Augustine, though it is not his composition, but a collection of excerpts from mainly pseudo Augustinian sermons. These Auguetinian canons, in their turn, were not seldom replaced from the twelfth century on by Premonstratensiane. But the ascetic tendency was not strong or enduring enough to reform all the chapters. The independence given by the possession of property prevented their reconstruction on the original model; and the worldliness of the higher clergy made such regulation oppressive,, so that the institution once more fell into decay in the thirteenth century.
The functions of the preabyteriunt as the bishop's council were assumed, during the period of the prevalence of the roils canonica, not by the whole body of the clergy living in community, but by those of the higher orders; and, on the other hand, room was found for the cooperation (in important matters affecting the diocese) of the clergy of the other churches in the see city besides the cathedral, and for representatives of the lay population of the city. The actual current administration was indeed conducted ,by the cathedral chapter; but when the distribution of revenues above alluded to made a division between the interests of the bishop and those of the chapter, the former was very apt to neglect to consult the latter, or to rely, for support in his measures, on the other clergy and prominent laity. The Decretals of Gregory IX. enforced the right of the chapter to a consultative voice; and it was finally established as .common law that the chapter was the only body with an independent right to advise the bishop in the conduct of diocesan affairs. From the beginning of the thirteenth century the chapters succeeded in excluding the other clergy and the lay nobility from any voice in the election of bishops.
A full or capitular canon was one who had a vote in the chapter, a stall in the choir, and commonly, though not necessarily, a prebend, i.e., a fixed income derived either from a share of the community revenues or from certain specially assigned property, tithes, etc. In contrast with the full rights of the canmiici, aeniorea, who were in major orders, was the position of the junioresclerka in minor orders or youths re