Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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1868 eqq.

TSBA .........

TSK .........



ZATW ........ ZDAL........

ZDP .......... ZDPV........

Zech.......... Zeph. .. , . .


The following system of transliteration has been used for Hebrew:

H = ' or omitted at the t = z y =

beginning of a word. n =1~ 13 = p

3=b b =1r b=Phorp

3=bhorb ~=y Y=~

~=g ~=k

3 =ghorg 5=khork

I =r

 ,=d 5=1 f7=a

7=dhord n=m


7=h ~=n h=t

1=w D = s n=thort
The vowels are transcribed by a, e, i, o, u, without attempt to indicate quantity or quality. Arabic and other Semitic languages are transliterated according to the same system as Hebrew. Greek Is written with Roman characters, the common equivalents being used.


When the pronunciation is self evident the titles are not respelled; when by mere division and accen­tuation it can be shown sufficiently clearly the titles have been divided into syllables, and the accented

syllables indicated.

a as in sofa a as in not in as in duration

a " " arm 8 " " nor c = k " " cat

$ cc cr at U " " f,411 a 011 .c` chnl'ch

.. cc fare Q .c, rc rule ew   qu as in queen

e cc cc pen . Q a rc but dh (th) rr u

cc .r the

Elite a bum f it do fancy

i rc cr tin VI " w ping g (hue) cr cr 90

t .r cc machine au " cc put 8 a .r loch (Scotch)

.r a ply ei c. pi hw (wld) `• " why,

a n u no is e. a few j c. J8W
I In accented syllables only; in unaccented syllables it approximates the sound of a in over. The letter n, with a dot beneath it, indicates the sound of n as in ink. Nasal n (as in French words) is rendered n. ' In German and French names a approximates the sound of a in dune.



CHAMIER, sha"my5', DANIEL: French preacher

(Reformed); b. at the castle of Le Mont, near Mocae

(in the district of Saint Marcellin, 23 m. w. of Gre­

noble), 1565; killed at Montauban Oct. 17, 1821.

He belonged to an old Roman Catholic family

of Avignon, but his father had embraced the

Protestant faith and gained many converts in the

south of France, especially at Montklimar, where

he became pastor. Daniel studied at the Univer­

sity of Orange and at Geneva under Beza and De la

Faye (1583 89). He was ordained minister at

Montpellier, and about 1595 succeeded his father

at Montklimar. His intelligence and the firmness

of his character led the provincial synod to appoint

him deputy to the national synod at Saumur and

the political gathering at Loudun in 1598, and

thenceforth he was a frequent delegate to such

assemblies. He succeeded in preventing the ad­

dition of certain limitations to the Edict of Nantes,

and brought the Edict to the Synod of Montpellier

in 1598. In 1801 and 1602 he took part in two

celebrated discussions at Montpellier with the

Jesuits Cotton and Gaultier. In 1603 he prided

over the National Synod at Gap, when an article

was added to the Reformed confession of faith

declaring the pope to be the Antichrist foretold

is the Scriptures. In 1807 Henry IV. granted him

permission as representative of the Church of

Dauphins to establish an academy at Montpellier,

and he became professor, returning, however, after

a short time to Montklimar. In 1612 he became

pastor and professor at Montauban. When Louis

XIII. besieged the city in 1621 Chamfer sent his

students to the walls, shared himself in all the

dangers and misfortunes of the citizens, and was

mortally wounded during the defense. in theology

he held fast to Calvin's dogma of predestination,

even to supralapearianiem; in some other respects

he differed from Calvin, e.g., concerning Christ's

descent into hell and the doctrine of angels. His

works were: Dispute de la motion des minietrea

de l1gliae rsformke (La Rochelle, 1589); Epistohe,

jeauiticte (Geneva, 1599); La Confusion des disputes

pcepiates (1600);. Disgutatto acholaatico theologica de

acumenico pond five (1601); Lo Hortte de Brsbylone

(SSdan, 1612); La J6auitomanie (Montauban, 1618);

Journal du voyage de M. D. Chamfer h Paris et h la

tour de Henri IV. en 1607 (ed. C. Read, Paris, 1858).


Bxzr.xoas&PzT: J. Quick, Memoir a/ D. Chamfer. with Notices o/ his Deaeendante, London, 1862, also in Read's edition of the Joursat, us.

III, 1

CHANCEL: In the narrowest sense the sanc­tuary of a church, i.e., an enclosure beyond or within the choir containing the altar. As the dis­tinction between clergy and laity developed, it became customary to reserve an ever larger apace for the former, and separate it from the body of the church, as by a screen. Their apace then came to be designated as the chancel, and the word is often employed in modern usage for all beyond the nave and transepts. Bee ALTAR.

CHANCERY, APOSTOLIC (Cancettaria Apos­tolica). See CuxrA, § 3.

CHARDIEU, shah"dye', ANTOINE DE LA ROCHE  French Reformed theologian; b. at the castle of Chabot (near Macon) 1534; d, at Geneva Feb. 23, 1591. His trend toward the Reformed was strengthened during his study of law at Tou­louse, and after a theological course at Geneva he became the pastor of the Reformed congregation of Paris, 1b56 62. When in the night of Sept. 4, 1557, a Protestant meeting was attacked and 140 persons were imprisoned, Chandieu published his Remonstrance au Rot and his Aloologie des bona ChrBtiens contra lea enrternis de 1'Egliae catholiqate. In consequence, he was arrested, but was soon released at the intervention of Anthony of Navarre. In 1558 he went to Orleans, but soon returned to Paris. He took an active part in the deliberations of the first national synod of the Reformed Church in France which was held at Paris May 26 28, 1559, and assisted in preparing a confession of faith. He presided at the third national synod at Orleans, Apr. 25, 1562, where Morelli's doctrine regarding the general right of voting at ecclesiastical elections was condemned. The controversy never­theless continued, and Chandieu wrote a rejoinder, La confirmation de la discipline ecclAaiastultte obaer­v6e en tsgliaes rsformeea de France (Geneva, 1568). At the eighth national synod, held at Nimes, May 6, 1572, the matter of Morelli, who was seconded by Pierre Ramus, De Rosier, Bergeron, and others, was again taken up and again condemned. After the massacre of St. Bartholomew (1572), Chandieu fled to Switzerland, and lived first at Geneva and afterward at Lausanne and Aubonne, everywhere advocating and defending the cause of his country­men, many of whom lived in Switzerland. In the religious war of 1585 he was field chaplain to Henry of Navarre; but in May, 1588, he returned to his family at Geneva, where he died three years later, lamented by the Protestants of Geneva and France

oh.nAl.! ChaaainB


and by Beza. Chandieu was a prolific author, writing under the pseudonyms of Zamariel, Theo­psaltes, La Croix, and, after 1577, of Sadeel. Among his works special mention may be made of the following: Meditationes in Psalmum xxxii. (Geneva, 1578; Eng. tranal. by W. Watkinaon, London, 1579); De verbo Dei seripto (1580); De vera peccatorum remissions (1580); De unico Christi sacerdotio (Geneva, 15$1); De veritate naturce hu­mance Christi (1585j; De sPirituali mandueatione corporis Christi (1589; Eng. travel., London, 1859); and De sacramentali mareducatione corporis Christi (Geneva, 1589). A collected edition appeared at Geneva in 1592 under the title Antonii Sadcelis viri nolrilissimi opera theologica. Of great impor­tance was his Hiatoire des pers6eutiona et martyrs de l'gglise de Paris depuis l'an 1667 jusqu'au temps de Charles IX. (Lyons, 1563j, in which he de­scribed his residence at Paris (15570). He also distinguished himself as a poet, and in 1563 defended his Church in verse against the attacks of the poet Pierre de Ronsard. (THEODOR SeaoTrt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Bernus, Le Miaiatre A. de Chandieu, in Bulletin de is aocikth de Z'hiatoire du proteatant%e»ie franraia, aavii 11888), 2 eqq ; J. $enebier. Haatoire Z%tlkraira de Genwe, i. 322 eqq., Geneva, 1788; E. and It. Haag, La France proteatante, ed. H. L. Bordier, iii. 1049 eqq., Paris, 1852, Lichtenberger, EBR, iii. 33 41, Paris, 1878.

CHANDLER, EDWARD: Church of England

Eishop; b. in Dublin about 1670; d. in London

July 20, 1750. He studied at Emmanuel College,

Cambridge (M.A., 1693; D.D., 1701); was con­

secrated bishop of Lichfield 1717, and in 1730 was

translated to Durham. He gained his reputation

by his Defence of Christianity from the Prophecies

of the Old Testament (London, 1725), a reply to

A Discourse on the Grounds and Reasons o f the

Christian Religion (1724) by Anthony Collins (q.v.).

Collins replied with The Scheme of Literal Prophecy

Considered (1726), and Chandler then published

A Vindication of the Defence of Christianity from

the Prophecies of the Old Testament (2 vole., 1728).

The chief point of their debate was whether or not

there was general expectation of the coming of a

messiah at the time of the birth of Jesus, Collins

denying this and Chandler affirming it. Chandler

has been charged with having bought his see, and

with dying " shamefully rich."
CHANDLER, SAMUEL: English Presbyterian; b. at Hungerford (26 m. w.s.w. of Reading), Berk­shire, 1693; d. in London May 8, 1766. He was educated at Bridgewater and at Gloucester, where he formed lifelong friendships with Bishop Butler and Archbishop Seeker. He finished his studies at Leyden; became pastor of the Presbyterian church at Peckham, Surrey (a suburb of London), 1716; assistant at the Old Jewry, London, 1726, and in 1728 pastor. He was a learned and talented man, and is sand to have refused offers of preferment in the Established Church. In 1760 be preached a sermon on the death of George IL, in which he compared the deceased king to David. This called forth an anonymous pamphlet in which David was described as a bad man, and the comparison objected to as an insult to the late king. Chandler made a brief reply in 1762, and then prepared

A Critical History o f the Life o f David (2 vole.,

London; 1766), which is his beat known and moat

valuable work. His other publications were nu­

merous; and are for the moat part controversial,

directed against the Deists or the Roman Cath­

olics. Four volumes of sermons were published

posthumously (1768). In theology he was a aemi­

Arian, or, as he expressed it, " a moderate Cal­


CHANGE OF CONFESSION: The change from one Christian Church to another. The expression is not equivalent to change of religion, and the subject has practical interest mainly as concerns conversions from Roman Catholicism to Protestant­ism and vice versa in certain European countries where legal complications are involved.

Where only one confession is recognized by law, there can be no change of confession. Thus there was none before the time of the Reformation; not only was it true that every secession from the Church was considered an offense, but no such thing was recognized either by ecclesiastical or secular law. In Germany rules of procedure. in cases of confessional change first began to be for­mulated after the Evangelical princes and the German Empire ceased to acknowledge the law against'heretics by the Religious Peace of Augsburg in 1555, and after the Empire decreed at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 that under certain conditions Protestants in Roman Catholic territories and Roman Catholics in Protestant territories might be tolerated and possess civil rights. These rules were further developed under the modern principle of toleration, according to which the State recog­nizes in the Churches only more or less favored associations, and treats them accordingly from the legal point of view.

The Roman Catholic Church, however, still clings to the state of affairs before the Reformation, and still considers itself the only existing Church. According to the Roman view, every one who goes over to Protestantism is a heretic, and every one who changes from Protestantism to the Roman Catholic Church returns from an error of faith, to the knowledge of truth or rather to the churchly authority which possesses this truth. The ban is im­posed upon every one who leaves the Church; even every born Protestant is under the ban; and every one who goes over to Catholicism is required not only to make the Catholic confession of faith, but also to confess that as Protestant he was a heretic, and to renounce his heresy and ask for absolution.

The Protestant Churches admit the right of change, although a person who makes use of this right is regarded as unfaithful. The declaration of an intention to make a change, regular attend­ance at the services of another church, or at its communion table, are considered sufficient to sever old connections. Whoever comes over from an­other Church is not required to abjure his former faith, but simply to make a confession according to the new doctrine, whereupon he is admitted to the Lord's Supper as the signum communionis.

It is the task of the State to regulate the exist­ence of different confessions aide by side, as well as to protect the liberty of conscience of the in 





dividual. Accordingly the legal ordinances con­

cerning change of confession proceed from the

State. The law of Prussia forbids the making of

proselytes, but this is interpreted to mean that no

religious party has the right " to seduce members

of another confession by force or cunning to join

its own Church," and that " nobody is allowed

to disturb the peace of a family or impair its rights

under the pretense of religious zeal." In Austria

Protestants were, until 1868, forbidden to con­

vert Roman Catholics. The modern State has

generally fixed a certain age before which con­

version can not take place, in order to exclude dis­

putes as to the capacity of judgment of the con­

vert. The State leaves the conditions of admission

to the church organizations, but sometimes regu­

lates the form of withdrawal for the sake of keeping

accurate ecclesiastical statistics. The person who

leaves has sometimes been required to announce

his withdrawal to the pastor, and sometimes a cer­

tificate of dismissal is required. The Austrian

interconfessional law of May 25, 1868, and the

Prussian law of May 14, 1873, require only a dec­

laration before the proper state official, who notifies

the Church. (A. Hnucx.)


Life (§ I). His Views as Stated by Himself (§ 2). His Doctrines, Influence, and Character (§ 3). Works (¢ 4).

William Ellery Channing, the most celebrated and

influential Unitarian theologian America. has pro­

duced, was born at Newport, R. L, Apr.  7,

1780; d. at Bennington, Vt., Oct. 2, 1842.

His father was an honored judge and a moder­

ate Calvinist; his mother, a refined and

pious woman. Under such influences he early

manifested a deeply religious nature, and chose

the clerical profession. He traced his conversion

to the influence of the funeral of his father, and

a religious revival which then swept over New

England. After his father's death he passed under

the tuition of his uncle at New London, the Rev.

Henry Charming, and then went to Harvard Col­

lege, being graduated in 1798. For

z. Life. two years be acted as private tutor

in Richmond, Va., and while there

had such mental agony from religious doubts that

he was physically enfeebled, and returned to New­

port in 1800 " thin and pallid," with a constitution

permanently impaired. At home he associated

much with the Rev. Dr. Samuel Hopkins the

famous Calvinist, and pupil of Jonathan Edwards­

for whose character he felt the deepest reverence.

In 1802 he returned to Harvard, where he had

been elected regent. The same year he was licensed

to preach, and at once distinguished himself by

his fire, his unction, and his elegant style. On

June 1, 1803, he was ordained and installed pastor

of the Congregational Church in Federal Street,

Boston, his only pastoral settlement. Here he

introduced a new era in preaching, and enlivened

the pulpit by themes of Christian philanthropy

and social reform. A new edifice was erected in

1809 to accommodate the increased congregations.

At the close of his sermons Charming was often

physically exhausted. In the earlier period of his ministry he was as indefatigable in pastoral visitation as in his pulpit.

Not long after this time, it became apparent that many of the Congregational churches of New England, especially in Boston and its neighborhood, had, through various influences, become Anti­trinitarian and Anti Calvinistic (see CONGREGA­TIONALISTS, L, 4, § 8 ; UNITARIANS). In the separa­tion which followed, Charming allied himself with the so called " Liberal " party, and became its ac­knowledged head. In a famous sermon at the installation of Rev. Jared Sparks as pastor of the Unitarian Society in Baltimore in 1819 he gave a clear statement of the points wherein he diverged from the orthodox churches of the time. He is commonly called a Unitarian; but, in his own lan­guage, he wished to regard himself as " belonging not to a sect, but to the community of free minds, of lovers of truth, and followers of Christ, both on earth and in heaven. I desire to escape the narrow walls of a particular church " (Sermon at the instal­lation of Rev. M. J. Motte, 1828). This catho­licity of spirit secured him the esteem of men of all schools and parties. In a letter of May 8, 1841, he declared: " I have little or no interest in Uni­tarianism as a sect. I can endure no sectarian bonds. With Dr. Priestley, a good and great man who had much to do in producing the late Unitarian movement, I have leas sympathy than with many of the ` Orthodox ' " (Memoir, ii. 105). In a letter of Aug. 29, 1841, addressed to an Englishman,

he expressed the noble sentiment: z. His Views " As I grow older . . . I distrust seo­as Stated by tarian influence more and more. I

Himself. am more detached from a denomina 

tion, and strive to feel more my con­nection with the Universal Church, with all good and holy men. I am little of a Unitarian, have little sympathy with the system of Priestley and Belsham, and stand aloof from all but those who strive and pray for clearer light, and look for a purer and more effectual manifestation of Christian truth " (Memoir, ii. 106). From this confession some have inferred that toward the close of his life he leaned more to orthodoxy; but this is em­phatically denied by his nephew and biographer, and by E. S. Gannett, his colleague and successor. In another letter written three months later (Nov., 1841), he says: " I value Unitarianism, not because I regard it as in itself a perfect system, but as freed from many great and pernicious errors of the older systems, as encouraging freedom of thought, as raising us above the despotism of the Church, and as breathing a mild and tolerant spirit into all the members of the Christian body " (Memoir, ii. 121).

Charming opposed, on the one hand, the still, cold, Puritan orthodoxy of his day, and combated vigorously the traditional views on the Trinity, the atonement, and total depravity; on the other hand, he opposed equally the rationalistic and radical Unitarianism, and sought a middle way. He was averse to creeds and precise doctrinal statements, and laid stress on freedom and individuality in belief and religious experience. He insisted upon

o Chaplain

the expression of Christian belief in virtuous action and humanitarian ayfmpathies. He dwelt much upon love as expressing God's purpose in the mis­sion of Christ and as the supreme manifestation of Christian character. He emphasised the human element is Christ and Christianity, which was too much overlooked by Calvinism, and paid one of the

most beautiful and eloquent tributes

3. His Doc  to the perfection of the moral character trines, In  of Christ. He held up his example as fluence,and the great ideal to be followed. He Character. found in Christ a perfect manifestation of God to men, and at the same time the ideal of humanity, who spoke with divine authority. He firmly believed in his einlessneee, miracles, and resurrection. He was " always in­clined," he wrote as late as Mar. 31, 1832, " to the doctrine of the preexistence of Christ" (Memoir, ii. 133). He was, therefore, not a humanitarian, like Priestley, but rather an Arias, as his nephew calls him. His talent and generous cast of mind were averse to controversy, and he paid little atten­tion to metaphysical questions. He preferred to dwell upon " Christ's spirit, his distinguishing moral attributes, the purposes of his mission " (letter of Mar. 31, 1832, Memoir, ii. 133), and the problems of practical Christianity. He remained a supernaturalist to the end; and his last utter­ances on the Gospels and the character of Jesus are among the strongest and noblest. Of the resur­rection he said (letter, Nov. 20, 1839, Memoir, ii. 145): "The resurrection of Christ, related as it is to his character and religion, and recorded as it is in the Gospels, is a fact which comes to me with a certainty which I find in few ancient histories." In a letter, July 8, 1841, regretting omissions in a recent sermon of Theodore Parker, he wrote: " Without miracles the historical Christ is .gone.

. 1n regard to miracles I never had the least difficulty. The grand miracle is the perfect divine character of Christ, and to such a being a miracu­lous mode of manifestation seems natural. It is by no figure of speech that I call Christ miraculous." Charming, however, was not so much a theologian as a preacher and a philanthropist. He was no dreamer, but a practical reformer. He labored for the purification of life and society, and entered heartily into schemes for the abolition of slavery, of intemperance, of prison abuses, and of war, and for the circulation of the Bible. He had an exalted idea of the nobility of human nature, and an undy­ing faith in freedom and progress.

Channing's works have been published in various forms (complete ed., 8 vole., Boston, 1848; 1 vol., 1875; London, 1880; etc.), and have been widely circulated in English and translations. The best

known are Evidences o f Christianity,

;. Works. addresses delivered at Cambridge,

1821; a treatise on Slavery, 1841;

discourses on the Character of Christ; and critical

essays on Milton, F&Won, Bonaparte, and $elf­

culCure. The centenary of his birth was celebrated

at Newport on Apr. 7, 1880, and memorial meet­

ings were also held in New York, Brooklyn, Wash­

ington, and several cities of New England. The

corner stone of the Charming Memorial Church at

Newport (dedicated Oct. 19, 1881) was laid at

this time. (P. Scasast) D. 8. Bcasaa.

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