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Chrietology THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 64

Christopher, Saint

chap. ii., §§ 10 11, New York, 1894). Or, again,

in one aspect the Logos is to be regarded as the

eternal Humanity in God, the " Archetype of the

not yet created Man," which became incarnate in

Jesus Christ (T. C. Edwards, The God Man, Lon­

don, 1896). (3) W. Herrmann holds that the pre­

existence was not ideal, but personal a contra­

diction indeed, to be removed only when the riddle

of time in which we now conceive reality had been

solved for us (Die Religion im YerhaLtniss xum



Welterkennen and zur Sittlichkeit, p.438, Halle, 1879).

As to theories of incarnation several tenden­

cies are evident. (1) The ethical aspect of the

incarnation is increasingly emphasized. The tra­

ditional christoIogy has been based

z. Incar  on the essential disparity of the divine

nation. and human natures. This was held

to be necessary in order to safeguard

the integrity of the two natures. But however

carefully the statement of the doctrine was pro­

tected, it did not escape the force of the criticism

in the preceding text (see VI., 2, § 2). To meet this

difficulty, therefore, attention has been directed

away from the two nature doctrine on its.purely

metaphysical side to the ethical and religious as­

pects of the incarnation. As in the traditional

view, God and man are here affirmed in all the

integrity of their spiritual being, but the point of

view is changed. It is not so much a question of

nature and essence and hypostasia as of psycholog­

ical experience and character, of inner development

and historical influence, i.e., of the moral and spiri­

tual consciousness of Jesus Christ in which the pur­

pose of God is revealed and realized, and the unity

of God and man are disclosed. Accordingly, the

proof of the incarnation is found in Jesus's con­

sciousness of his vocation, in his grace and truth, his

dominion over the world, and his success in estab­

lishing his community with attributes analogous to

his own. This ethical estimate of Jesus results in a

religious valuation of him. We call Christ God

because he has for us the religious worth of God

(Ritschl). (2) The incarnation is conceived of as

an immanent necessity in the love of God to self­

expression. Again, if man was created in the image

of God, and his perfection was possible only in

union with God, then an incarnation of one who

should enable man to consummate this union was

necessary apart from sin. Thus, incarnation for the

sake of redemption, instead of being an afterthought

of God, an accidental expedient in behalf of man,

was involved in the essential ethical relation of

God to the creation (B. F. Weatcott, " Gospel of the

Creation," in Commentary on the Epistles of St.



John, London, 1885). (3) The proof of the divin­

ity of Christ is becoming less external and dogmatic

than internal and ethical. If in the earlier argu­

ments the greater stress was on the application to

Christ of Old Testament terms referring to God, the

ascription to him of names, attributes, and works

of God, the New Testament designation of him as

Son of God in a metaphysical sense, and the fact

that he was an object of religious worship, in more

recent thought the principal emphasis is laid on

the uniqueness of his moral character, the might of

his mural appeal to the conscience and the will, the



transformation in experience which follows obedi­ence to his leadership; in a word, in him is a revela­tion of that which is most real in God and moat ideal in man love. This ethical impulse to the interpretation of Christ, which among many recent attempts of the same kind was disclosed in Bushnell's incomparable tenth chapter of Nature and the Super­natural " The Character of Jesus Forbids His Pos­sible Classification with Men " has by no means lost its force, and every modern treatment of the person of Jesus pays tribute to this demand. (4) The incarnation is increasingly regarded in an essential relation to the redemptive work of Christ. Not, then, the atonement irrespective of the life of Jesus, but a truth which was deeply voiced by Athanasius in The Incarnation of the Word God comes to man both to reveal and to realize the ideal oneness of God and man. Thus the incarnation is the atonement (cf. J. M. Wilson, The Gospel of the Atonement, London, 1899). (5) Further, the cosmic relations of the incarnation are receiving renewed attention. Here several currents meet and mingle: the Pauline conception of the univer­sal significance of Christ (Col. i. 15 17), the federal, based on the natural, headship of Christ, the pan­theistic trend which discerns in the particular the essence of the universal, and evolution which finds the goal and crown of the creation in the ethical and religious consciousness. Christ is, accordingly, the supreme expression and consummation of the Logos of God in which the whole creation finds its interpretative principle and end. C. A. B.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: I. For O. T. Chriatology consult the works cited under Mssarwa. For N. T. Chriatology consult the works on N. T. Theology, especially: w. Beyechlag, N. T. Theology, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1898; E. Reuss, La Th6ologia chrgtie»na au siMa apoatolique, 2 vole., 8trae­burg, 1884; J. J. Van Ooaterzee, Theology of N. T., Lon­don, 1879; B. Weiss, Bibliaeha Theologie den N. T., Stutt­gart, 1903, Eng. tranal., 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1882 83; H. H. Wendt, Lehre Jeau, 2 vols., GSttingen, 1888 90, Eng. tranal., London, 1892; G. B. Stevens, Theology of N. T., New York, 1899; E. P. Gould, Biblical Theology of N. T., ib. 1900. Consult further: b. F. Mogen, Chraetua der Menachen  ured Gotteeaohn, Goths, 1889; W. F. Gees, Christi Person uad Werk, 3 vole., Basel, 1870 78; H. Bushnell, God in Christ, New York, 1877; I. A. Darner, Chrfatliche Glaubenalehra, ii. 267 eqq., Ber­lin, 1880; P. Schaff, Person of Christ, New York, 1882; A. B. Bruce, Kingdom of God, Edinburgh, 1889; J. A. Beet, Through Christ to God, pp. 215 301, London, 1892; J. Stalker, Chriatolopy of Jesus, ib. 1899; A. M. Fair­bairn, Philosophy of the Christian Religion, pp. 358 379, ib. 1902; N. Schmidt, ProPhet.of Nazareth, New York, 1905.

IL III. The beet detailed account of the development of doctrine with its environment is still Neander, Chris­tian Church, i. 575 808, 830 840, ii. 405 488, 478 504. Especially valuable are the histories of doctrine, par­ticularly: Harnaek, Dogma, vola i  iii.; I• A Darner, History of the Development aj the Doctrine of the Person a/ Christ, Edinburgh, 1859; F. Nietzsche, Dopmenpe­echichte, Berlin, 1870; A. Reville, Histoire du dogma de la diroiniM de JAua Christ, 3d. ed., Paris, 1904, Eng. Eranel., Hiet. o/ the Doctrine of (ha Deity of Jesus Christ, London, 1870; K. R. Hagenbaeh, Hiet, of Doctrine, vol. i., Edinburgh, 1880; F. Loofa, Dogmanpeechfichte, Halls, 1893; R. $eeberg, Lehrburh der Dogmeageaeh%rhte, 2 vole., Erlangen, 1895 98; G. P. Fisher, Hiat. of Christian Doc­trine, New York, 1898; Hefele, Concalienpeachichfe, vol. i., Eng. tranal., vole. i. ii. Consult also: D. Petavius, De tleeolopicia dopmatibua, 5 vole., Paris, 1844 b0 (collects sate Nicene and Nicene testimonies); G. Bull, De/enaio ficiei Nicmno;, Oxford, 1886 (s standard); E. Burton, Testimonies of data Niasne Fathers to tha Diaisity o/




86 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Ohristolosy

Christopher, Saint



Christ, Oxford, 1829 (also s classic); F. C. Baur, Die chriaUiche Zehre room der Dreieinigkeit and Menachwer­dunp Gottea, 3 vola. Tiibingen, 1841 43; H. Voigt, Die Lehre des AUwnaaiua, Bremen, 1881; W. Mackintosh, Study of the Doctrine of Jesus as Developed from Judaism and Converted into Dogma, Glasgow, 1894; O. PHeiderer, Early Christian Conception of Christ, London, 1905; B. B. Warfield, in Princeton Theological Review, 1905, pp. b29 b57, 1908, pp. 1 37, 14b 188; Schaff, Christian Church. ii. 544 580, iii. 70b 740.

IV. VII. Consult, besides the works on the history of doctrine cited above (especially Harnack, Dogma, vole. iii. iv.): Schaff, Christian Church, vol. iv.; W. A. Arendt, Leo der Grosse, Mainz, 1835; J. Fulton, The Chaludonian Decree, New York, 1892; L. L. Pains, Critical History of the Evolution of Trinitar6aniam, Boston, 1900; J. O. Dykes, in Expository Times, Oct., 190b Jan., 1908; Hefele, Conciliengeachichte, vole. iii. iv., Eng. trawl., vole. iii. v.

VIII. Original documents are, Lutheran: Formula Concordias (convenient in Jacob's edition, vol. i., Phila­delphia, 1893); J. Brenz, De personals unions duarum mar turarum in Chriata,1580; idem, De majeatate domini nostri, 1582; M. Chemnitz, De duabua raturia in Christo, Frankfort, 1578. Reformed: Admonitio Neoatadieneie,1577; L. Dansaus, De duabua naturia a Chemnitio, Geneva, 1581; H. Zsnchi, De incarnations fUii Dei, Heidelberg, 1593; the ehristo­logical writings of T. Beza and Z. Ursinue. For specific discussions consult, Lutheran: F. H. R. Frank, Thsolo­pie der Concordienjormef, iii. 185 ?98, Erlangen, 1886; C. P. Krauth. Conservative Reformation and its Theology, pp. 458 eqq., Philadelphia, 1872; H. E. Jacobs, Book of Concord, vol. ii., ib. 1893. Reformed: H. L. J. Heppe, Reformirte Dogmatik, pp. 351 eqq., Elberfeld, 1881; Schaff, Creeds, i. 285 eqq., 317 eqq. Critical: M. $chneck­enburger, Zur kirchlichen Christolopie, Pforzheim, 1881; idem, Vergleichende Daratellunp des luthsriachen and reformirten Lehrbspri/ja, Stuttgart, 1855. General works are those already cited of Dormer, Rvmill.; Nietzsche, $ee­berg, and Baur; R. A. Lipeius, Dopmatik, pp. 441183, Brunswick, 1893. Consult also H. Schultz, Die LcAre room der Gotdheit Christi, Communimtio idiomatum, Goths, 1881; A. Ritschl, Christian Doctrine of JuatifuaCion and Reconciliation, pp. 418 sqq., Edinburgh, 1872.

IX. On the Giessen Bide, the Saxon Solids decitio, Leipaie, 1824; J. Feuerborn, Seiagraphia de divino Jssu Chriafo . , 1621; idem, Kwwcnypa#ia XporoAoyait? Marburg, 1827; B. Mentzer, Neuesaria et juste de%rbio, Glasses, 1824. On the TBbingen side: L.Oeiander, De omniprcasentia Christi hominie, TObingem,1820; T. Thumm, Majeatatia Jeau Christi BeavBpWrov, ib. 1821: idem, Tars­vaovcypaOia sass, ib.1823; ActaMentseriara, ib.1825. On the ^nman Catholic aide: Bellum ubiquisticum vetus et no­rntsm,1)illindan,1627; Alter urul newer lutheriacherKatrenkrieo son der Ubiquitdt, Ingolatadt, 1829. Historical and critical: J. F. Cotta, Historic; doctrines de duplice atatu Christi, in his ed. of Gerhard's Loci theolopici, iv. 80 eqq., TObingen, 1762 88; J. E. I. Waloh, Einleiturp in die Teliyionstrei­tapkeiten, i. 208, Jena, 1733; F. C. Bsur, ut sup., ii. 450; G. Thomaeius, Christi Person and Work, ii. 391 450, Er­langen, 1857; I. A. Dormer, ut sup., ii. 788 809; R. Rocholl, Realprtiaenz, pp. 198 eqq., Gfitereloh, 1875.

X. 1. For the Racausan Catechism (Eng. travel. by T. Rees, London, 1818) see Socrxus; J. Priestley, Early Opinions concerning Jesus Christ, Birmingham, 1788; I. Kent, Religion innerhalb der Grsnzen der bkaasn Vernunft, Kbnigaberg, 1793, Eng. travel., Religion with­in the Boundary a/ pure Reason, Edinburgh, 1838; W. E. Chaining, Works, 8 vole., Boston. 1874; T. Parker, Discourse of Matters Pertaining to Religion, ib. 1847; A. Coqueret, Chr%atolopie, 2 vole., Paris, 1868; J. Msrtin­esu, Studies of Christianity, London, 1858; idem, Essays Philosophical and Theological, 2 vole., New York, 1879; idem, Religion as Affected by Modern Materialism, Lon­don, 1874 idem, Seat ot Authority in Religion, ib. 1890; F. H. Hedge, Reason in Religion, Boston, 1875; bf. J. Savage, Out of Nazareth, ib. 1904._

2. D. F. Strauss, Die chriatliehe Glaubenalehre in ihrer geachichUichsn Entwicklung and im Kampfe nit der no­dermas Winaenachaft, ii. 193 eqq., Tiibingen, 1841 (a work as destructive of Christian dogmatics as his Leben Jeeu is of the evangelical history); A. E. Biedermann, Christi lie7u Dogmat%k, Zurich, 1889 (more serious, but almost equally revolutionary in its results); E. Marine, Die III. 5

Pera6alichkeit Jeau Christi. Mit beeonderer RilekaieAt out die MyUwlopien and Mysteries der altsn YIiUcer, Leipeie, 1881 (s strange compound of the mythical views of Strauss and the mystical interpretation of Swedenborg).

4. On the Kenotia theory: J. L. K6nig, Die Menseh­werduny Gottea, Mainz, 1844; G. Thomaeius, Beiblfpe sw kirchlichen Chriatolopie, Erlangen, 1845; idem, Christi Person and Werk, ib. 1856; T. A. Liebner, Die chrieUieka Dopmatik, G6ttingen, 1849; J. H. A. Ebrard, ChrsaUiche Dopmatik, Kiinigaberg, 1851 52; J. P. Lange, Positive Dopmatik, pp. b95 782, Heidelberg, 1851; W. F. Gees, ut sup.; H. L. Martenaen, ChrisUiche Dopmatik, Berlin, 1853, Eng. trawl., Edinburgh, 1888; F. Delitzsoh, Sys­tem der bdbliechen Paycholopaa, pp. 325 eqq., Leipeio, 1881, Eng. trawl., Edinburgh, 1865; J. Bodemeyer, Die Lshre room der Kerwaia, GSttingen, 1880; K. F. A. Kahnis, Die lutherq$che Dopmatik, iii. 343, Leipaie, 1888; L. 8eh5berlein, Die Geheimniaea des Glaubena, Heidelberg, 1872; R. Kiibel, ChrisUiches Lshrsyatem, Stuttgart, 1878; J. J. roan Ooetersee, Christian Dogmatics, London, 1878 (moderately and cautiously Kenotic); F. Godet, in Studies on the New Testament, Edinburgh, 1878; idem, Commentary on . . . John, ib. 1881; E. de Preeeene8, JEaua Christ, Paris, 1888, Eng, travel., London, 1866; idem, La Divinitk de J&ua Christ, in Revue chrEtisnna, iii. 841 eqq.; H. M. Goodwin, Christ and Humanity, New York, 1875; H. Crosby, The True Humanity of Christ, ib. 1881; F. J. Hall, The Kenotie Theory, London, 1898; J. Know, Die snipe Gott7uid Jeeu Christi, Leipaie, 1904; W. LBtgert, Gottea Sohn and Goan Geist, ib. 1904.

For adverse criticism of the Kenoeis theory consult: I. A. Dormer, ut sup., Eng. travel., II, iii., pp. 100 eqq.; idem, in Jahrbticher filr deutachs Theolopit, 1858, 1868; idem, ChrisUicha GlaulxnalsAre, ii. 387 eqq., Berlin, 1880, Eng. trawl., Edinburgh, 1880 $2. The fullest , account in Eng. is in A. B. Bruce, Humiliation of Christ, Leot. iv., Edinburgh, 1881. Dr. Hodge, Systematic Theology, ii. 439, New York, 1871, notices the Kenotic theories of Thomsaiue, Ebrard, and Gese, and condense them.

In general, I. A. Dormer, ut sup. The following Eng­lish works deserve notice, though mostly oonfinad to an exposition and defense of the Chalcedonian dogma: R. J. Wilberforce, The Doctrine of the Incarnation or ow Load, London, 1852; H. P. Liddon, The Divinity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, ib. 1888. The ablest discussion of Christ's person and work is A. M. Fairbairn, Plan of Christ in Modern Theology, London, 1893. Con­sult further: C. Gore, Incarnation o/ the Son of God, ib. 1891; J. Denney, Studies in Theology, chaps. ii. iii., New York, 1895; "Christologie" in Hauck Herzog, RE, iv. 4 58; M. Brtickner, Die Etttetshung der pauliniaclren Christoloyie, Strasburg, 1903; G. KrOger, Das Dogma room der Draieinipkeit and Gott Msnsahhetl, TObingen, 1906 (dedicated to Harnack, written from the Unitarian stand­point); $. Faut, Die ChrdaWlopie salt Schletermacher, i)are Geachichts and ihre BepHindunp, Ttibingen. 1907.



CHRISTOPHER, SAINT: A saint highly honored from very early times both in the Greek and Latin churches. According to the mai;tyrologies of Ado, Usuard, Notker, and others, as well as the Martyro­logium Romanum, he lived at Samoa in Lycia, averted many to Christianity, and died a martyr under the emperor Decius, or, according to some accounts, under an emperor (or king) called Dag­nus. No Samoa in Lycia, however, is known, and Dagnue is otherwise unheard of; the name may be a corruption of Daza, the original name of the em­peror Maximin II. (305 314). The later forma of the Christopher legend are in the highest degree fantastic. For example, a manuscript of Fulda describes him as of gigantic stature, with the head of a dog, and decks out his life and death with most silly wonders. Somewhat more attractive and credible is another version, containing appar­ently elements of old Germanic mythology, accord­ing to which the giant Christopher at first served the devil, then in order to know Christ, one said




Christopher, Saint THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 88

Chromatins

to be stronger than the devil, undertook the duties

of a ferryman. Finally a child, whom he was

carrying across the river on his shoulders, disclosed

himself as the Savior, forced the giant beneath

the waves by his ever increasing weight and so

baptized him, giving him the name of Christopher

(" Christ bearer "). The veneration of Christo­

pher was general in the East, in Italy, Spain, France,

Germany, and other lands. Mention of his wonder­

working relics is frequent, as of his head, said to

have been carried from Constantinople to France

after the capture of the city in 1204, and of his

leg, said to have been kept in Constantinople till

1453. He was au attractive figure to medieval

art and poetry, and is represented as a huge fellow

wading through waters, carrying a child on his

shoulders, and with a green staff in his hand. His

picture is frequent in the vestibules of churches as a

sort of guard. Brotherhoods of St. Caristopher, es­

pecially for the care of travelers, are mentioned up

to the Reformation. His day in the Greek Church is

May 9, and in the Latin July 25. (O. Z sc>3s.Ent. )

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The older Vita are to be found in ASB,

July, vi. 12fi 149; in B. Paz, Thesaurus anacdotarum

nwiasimua, II. iii. 27 122, Augsburg, 1721; and in Ana­

lecfa Bollandiana, ad. C, de f3medt and others, 1.121 148,

z. 393 lOb. Paris, 1882, 1891. All the different elements

of the legend are combined by Jacobus de Varagine (q. v")

in the Golden Legend. Consult: J. Grimm, Deutsche

MyOwlopie, pp. 49509, GBttingen, 1844; H. P. Hunt,

Vie de S. Chriatophe, 6oiaAOna, 1881; A. f3inemue, Die

Legends vow heiligsn Chriatoph urmT die Plaatik and Ma­

lerei, Hanover, 1888; Lc Grand S. Christophe de Palatine,

son hisRoiro authentique et as poluufarim daps isa deux

mondea, par ores Lorraine bibliophiles, Nantes, 1890; A.

Muaeafia, Zur Chriatoph Lepende, Vienna, 1893; $. Rich­

ter, Der deutsche Christoph, Berlin, 1898.

CHRISTOPHER, DUKE OF WUERTTEMBERG,

AND THE REFORMATION IN VMRTTEMBERG:

Christopher, duke of Wiirttemberg, 1550 68, was

born at Urach (22 m. s.e. of Stuttgart) May 12,

1515; d. at Stuttgart Dec. 28, 1568. When he

was six months old, his mother, Sabina of Bavaria,

fled to her native laud, and in 1519 his father,

Uric, was driven from his country. The boy

came into the hands of Charles V. and his brother

Ferdinand, but was well educated by Michael

Tiffernus. At the court of Charles V., from which

he fled in 1532, and in France, where he spent eight

years, he grew up a statesman and soldier. His

father, who in 1534 regained his country and re­

formed it, made him governor at Mompelga,rd, and

in 1544 brought about his marriage with Anna

Maria, daughter of the margrave George of Bran­

denburg Ansbach. The reading of the Bible and

the writings of the Reformers gave Christopher a

firm and clear Evangelical faith, which he proved

in filial reverence and love toward the often severe

father and obstinate mother and in restless activity

for his people and the Evangelical Church.

On Nov. 6, 1550, he succeeded his father as duke

and soon obtained a leading position among the

Evangelical princes. He presented the Confessio



W irtembergica, prepared by Brenz, to the Council at

Trent, and sent Brenz and other theologians to

defend it, but they were not heard. He then

prohibited the mass in the parish churches, abol­

ished the Interim, removed the images, altars, field 

chapels, and all remains of the former religious serv­ice, turned the male monasteries into schools with Evangelical abbots, but allowed the nuns to die in their monasteries; those, however, who left were provided for. He gave a new discipline to the Evangelical Church of Wurttemberg, introduced poor boxes in 1552, and appointed four The Refor  district physicians for the care of the

mation in sick. The marriage law was regulated

Wurttem  by act of Jan. 1, 1553; the activity of berg. the higher church authorities by the visitation act. The religious service, in the simplicity given to it by Blaurer and Schnepff (qq.v.), and the catechetical instruction of the youth were regulated by the Kleine Kirchenordnung of 1553, which was superseded by the Grosse Kirchen­ordnung of May 15, 1559, including also school, sanitary, and poor regulations. The duke treated the church property of the Evangelical Church with perfect disinterestedness, divided the large parishes for the better care of the congregation, established new parishes in the Black Forest, cared for the repair of the churches, and enacted in 1559 that church registers should be kept. He insisted that the teaching of the Confessio Wirtembergica should be maintained, and issued harsh injunctions against Schwenckfeld and all " sectaries." His harahnem = was felt especially by the Baptists and by Bartho­lomaus Hagen, preacher at Dettigen, who was suspected of Calvinism but was convinced of his error at the Stuttgart Synod in Dec., 1559. The university received new regulations in 1557. The scholarship founded by his father was applied to the education of theologians who had received a humanistic preparation in the monastic schools. Students of other faculties, who were prepared in the pedagogical schools at Stuttgart and Tubingen, were assisted from the funds of the church property. By the school regulation of 1559 popular education was promoted; the sacristan now acted also as teacher.

Christopher yeas anxious for the reunion of the different religious parties, proposed in 1552 a national council, and avoided all malicious fault­finding. Calvinism he disliked much, especially as it made its inroad into the Palatinate, but he re­spected the religious courage of the elector Frederick of the Palatinate and did not favor his exclusion from the religious peace. He promoted Protestant­ism iii Austria by supporting the Slavic press at Urach under the former imperial captain Hans Ungnad. He offered a refuge at Tiibingen to the former papal nuncio Petrus Paulus Vergerius. In 1557 he solicited the king of France for the op­pressed Waldensians, in 1559 for the Protestants; in 1561 he sent Beurlin (q.v.) and Andrea to Paris, and even went in 1562 with Brenz to Zabern to attend a colloquy with the Guises to win France over to Protestantism, but saw himself at last shamefully deceived, though Catherine

Christo  de Medici offered him the office of pher's In  a supreme viceroy. In the interest

fluence of Protestantism his active mind was

Abroad. long busy with matrimonial plane

for the daughters of Renata of Ferrara

and for Queen Elizabeth of England. He aided the

Reformation by his advice and by sending theo 






87 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Christopher, Saint

Ohromatiua



logians to the Palatinate, in the raargravate Baden­

Pforzheim, in the domain of Count Helfenstein,

in the country of Oettingen, in the free towns of

Rothenburg, on the Tauber, and Hagenau, also in

the remote duchies of Julich Clever and Brunswick­

Wolfenbiittel, whose Duke Julius, his cousin, fol­

lowed him implicitly. The ecclesiastical reservation

carried through by Ferdinand at the Religious Peace

of Augsburg (q.v.) Christopher opposed as an

impediment to Protestantism and a denial of the

principle of religious liberty. His hopes, however,

in Maximilian IL, the son and successor of Fer­

dinand, his friend, who had been influenced by the

spirit of the Reformation, were not realized. He

helped exiled Englishmen in 1554 55, the Walden­

sians in 1557, and in a quiet manner, not to excite

the wrath of the emperor, in 1568 William of Orange

in the war of liberation in the Netherlands. For

his people and the Evangelical Church of Germany

Christopher's death came too soon. His efforts

for his people's welfare, his zeal for the Church and

Protestantism, bas pure intentions mark him as one

of the ablest princes of Germany. His reign and

that of his son Louis (1569 93) foam the golden

age of Wiirttemberg. G. BO$$ERT.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. C. Pfister, Herzog Christoph von Wilrt­lemberp, 2 vole., Tiibingen, 1819 20; B. Kugler, Chria­toph, Herzog von Wdirttemberp, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1868 70; C. F. $tfilin, Wilr#e»tberpfaehe Geachachte, vol. iv., Stutt­gart, 1873; E. Schneider, Wiirttemberpiache Reformatione­peach%chie, Stuttgart, 1887: Wiirttemberpiaehe Rsrcherepe­echichtc, Stuttgart, 1893; E. Schneider, W!'artkmberpiarhe Geachichte, Stuttgart, 1896; V. Ernst, Brae/wecAaei des Herzopa Chriatoph, 3 vole., Stuttgart, 1899 1902.


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