THE NEW SCHAF'F BERZOG
which laid strew upon the preexistence of Christ as the eternal divine Logos and of the absolute deity of Jesus Christ from the time of his conception. The physical birth assumed more and more importance in the Christian consciousness. The celebration of Christmas as a special Christian festival spread rapidly from the middle of the fourth century onward in sympathy with the triumph of the orthodox christology.
How much the calculation of Hippolytus had to do with the fixing of the festival on Dec. 25, and how much the date of the festival depended upon the pagan Brumalia (Dec. 25), follow
Relation ing the Saturnalia (Dec. 17 24) and
to the celebrating the shortest day in the Roman year and the " new sun " or the begin
Saturnalia. ring of the lengthening of days, can not be accurately determined. The pagan Saturnalia and Brumalia were too deeply entrenched in popular custom to be set aside by Christian influence. The recognition of Sunday (the day of Phaabus and Mithras as well as the Lord's Day) by the emperor Constantine as a legal holiday, along with the influence of 1Kanicheism, which identified the Son of God with the physical sun, may have led Christians of the fourth century to feel the appropriateness of making the birthday of the Son of God coincide with that of the physical sun. The pagan festival with its riot and merrymaking was so popular that Christians were glad of an excuse to continue its celebration with little change in spirit or in manner. Christian preachers of the West and the Nearer East protested against the unseemly frivolity with which Christ's birthday was celebrated, while Christians of Mesopotamia accused their Western brethren of idolatry and sun worship for adopting as Christian this pagan festival. Yet the festival rapidly gained acceptance and became at last so firmly established that even the Protestant revolution of the sixteenth century was not able to dislodge it and Evangelical Christians even of the more radical types, who reject or ignore nearly all of the ecclesiastical festivals, have never been able wholly to ignore it.
The religious significance of Christmas has been too commonly minimized among Christians, the day among adults being degraded into one merely for the exchange of presents, often neither given nor received in any affection, but out of a sense of obligation or as barter. In too many homes the children, whose day it more particularly is, ar%not taught to link their merrymaking on Chnsa with the gift of God to the world in the person of his Son Jesus Christ. Although some of our denominations hold service on that day, the vast majority of Protestants do not attend, and moat of our denominations keep their churches closed. But as it is unquestioned that the Christian Church was founded by Jesus Christ, it will be well to celebrate the event of his birth, if not on Christmas day, then on some other day. The old gospel story of the Nativity was formerly taken literally and has inspired many beautiful hymns and been the suggestion of many legends and elaborate festivities. By design, on Christmas many important events have
taken place, as the crowning of Charlemagne as
Holy Roman Emperor (800), and William as King
of England (1066). A. H. N>swMArt.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Marti•ne, De antiquis eakaior rilibue, iii. 31 eqq., Venice, 1783; A. J. Bintenau, Deakwardipkeiten, v. 1, pp. 528 eqq.. Mains, 1829; J. C. W. Augueti, Handbwh der chriatZichen ArchBoiopie, 3 vole., Leipeia. 18381837; J. P. Thompson, Christmas and the Saturnalia, is Bibliotheca Saga, mi (186b), 144 eq9. P. Cassel, Wsihswrhfen; Urapranpe, Brducha and Aberpiauben, Berlin. 1882; J. Marbeah, Die Wigs Weihnachtafaier. Frankfort, 1886: A. H. Grant, The Church 3eneone, New York, 1881; J. H. Hobart, Festivals and Feasts, London, 1887; T. K.. Harvey, The Book o/ Christmas; descriptive o/ the Customs, Cereswnrou, Traditions, Superstitions, Fun, Peeling, Festivities o/ the Chriadnas Season, London. 1841, New York, 1888; H. ileener, Relspwnepeachichtlichs Untersuchunpen, vol. i., Bonn, 1889; P. de Legsrda, Mitlheiiunpen, iv. 241 323, Gottingen, 1891; F. C. Conybeare, Hiat, of Christmas, in AJT, iii (1899), I 21; edam, The Key o/ Truth, Introduction, Oxford, 1898; H. Thureton, is American Ecckaawtieai Review, Dec., 1898• A. Tille, Yule and Christmas, London, 1899; H. Ana, Die lateiniechea Mapisrspiel. Untarsuchunpen and Tezfe Sur Voryeschichte den . . . Weihnaehtsspiele, LaiPeia. 1907; R. H. 9ehauf8er. Christmas, its Origin, Celebration and Significance, New York, 1907: Bingham, Oripinte. XX. iv. (investigation of sources): DCA, i. 357 384: DCG, i. 281 282.
CHRISTO SACRUM ("Sacred to Christ"): The
name of a religious society organized in 1792, at
Delft in Holland, by certain well educated young
men belonging to the Walloon deacons' confrater
nity. Its purpose was the defense of the Christian
faith against deistic and Voltairean, tendencies,
and the promotion of universal Christian love, inde
pendent of ecclesiastical affiliations. Though it
disregarded separate creeds, it had a creed of its
own, expressing its own minimum of belief; it
recognized as brothers " all who honestly believe
that all men are sinful and corrupt; that God
requires the punishment of sin; that Jesus Christ
came as a mediator to take this punishment upon
himself, which he alone, being both God and man,
could do; that those who believe in him and in his
satisfaction, and penitently invoke his intercession,
are immediately saved; and that through his as
cension the Holy Spirit operates faith and con
version in them." The society grew by the acces
sion of members of various churches, until a special
meeting place was needed, which was dedicated by
Canziue, one of the principal founders, in 1802.
The services were more like Lutheran or Anglican
worship than Reformed, and everything was done
to enhance the solemnity of the Lord's Supper.
The original intention was to have the members
retain their former church connections; but when
the society was condemned by the Walloon and
Reformed authorities, it gradually took shape as a
separate sect. It numbered as many as 117 mem
bers under Canzius, but when in 1810 he removed
to Leyden it gradually fell off, maintaining a pre
carious existence until 1836, when the building
was closed. (J. A. GERTH vArt Wlrlc.)
131BLIOGRAPHY: Hatender voor de Proteetanten in Nederland, vii (1882), 19b 258; A. Grdgoire, Histoire den rates rslipisusu, v. 331, 8 vole., Paris. 1828 4b: B. Glaeiue, GoaeAiedenie der chriatdijke kerk en podsdieast in Nederland, iii. 378 380, Amsterdam, 1844; J. Reitema, Gasehiedenis der Henrorming an harvormde kark in Nederland, p. 347, Groningen, 1893.
49 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Christmas
I. The Biblical Christology.
1. The Old Testament Christology.
2. The New Testament Christology. Christ the Ideal Man (§ I). Yet also God (§ 2). II. The Ante Nicene Christology.
1. The Early Simple Faith. Heresies (§ 1). The Church Doctrine U 2). The Divinity of Christ Consistently Held (§ 3).
2. Theological Speculation. Justin Martyr (§ 1). Clement of Alexandria (§ 2). Origen (§ 3). Ireneeus (§ 4). Tertullian (§ 5). Dionyeius of Rome (§ 8). III. The Nicene Christology. IV. The Chalcedonian Christology. An Answer to Heresies (§ I). The Cbalcedonian Statement (§ 2).
V. The Poet Chalcedonian Chriatology. Monophysitiam (§ 1). Monothelitism (§ 2). Adoptioniem (§ 3).
Christology is a word derived from the Greek
after the analogy of "theology" (q.v.). It em
braces the doctrine of Christ's person; while so
teriology is the doctrine of Christ's work (the doc
trine of salvation). The word was used by the
English theologians in the seventeenth century,*
and during the nineteenth was reintroduced
from Germany, Christology is based upon the
life said testimony of Christ, as represented
historically in the Gospels, and as reflected
doctrinally and experimentally in the Acts and
Epistles. It treats of the mystery of the in
carnation as a problem of personality, vjz,,
(1) the humanity, (2) the divinity of our Lord,
and (3) their relation to each other in his one per
son. This divine human personality forms the
basis of his work, which is the redemption, 'recon.
ciliation, and reunion of man with God. It is
the central doctrine of Christianity, was the one
article of St. Peter's creed (Matt. xvi, lg), and forma
the heart of the Apostles' Creed. The leading
evangelical theologians of Europe and America
have come to agree more sad m°m in this estimate
of its importance; and the ever increasing number
of lives of Christ and works on his incarnation and
work strengthens the christocentric character of
modern theology, yet care mgt 1e taken not to
emphasize the incarnation at the expense of the
equally Important doctrines of atonement by
Christ's death, and regeneration by the Holy
Spirit (gee ATONEMENT; REaENEaToN).
* Dr. Thomas
.. that Part ~ Jackson (1695 164p) de y as
godliness God en ~'f a which in displays the great mystery of
of the (ice ~p~ 'n his xpw.,oAsyuma~ >
~~ (London, 1879 ), and junR a ~ h l
( 1716). wrote
($ ) Some French "ter. also (3 vols., London 170
me it. Lich ten)~er
~~ ~' iii. 1 defines it correctly. ..Oa ~mp~ad chant la " [Chn °lsiel •1'easemble des doctrines tou
personne de J
et sues I huma~Ie at ~nsea rapport
The Medieval Church (§ 4).
VI. The Ecumenical Christology.
1. Its Leading Ideas.
2. Criticism Favorable Opinion (§ I). Objection and Criticisms U 2). Real Value (§ 3).
VII. The Orthodox Protestant Chris
VIII. The Scholastic Lutheran Chrietology.
I. The Communicatio Idiomatum.
2. The Doctrine of the Twofold State of Christ.
3. The Threefold Office of Christ.
IX. The Kenoeie Controversy Between Giessen and Tiibingen.
X. Modern Christologiee.
I. The Humanitarian or Unitarian Christology.
2. The Pantheistic Christology.
3. The Chrietology of Schleiermaoher and His School.
fichleiennacher (§ I).
Ullmann (12). Rothe (13). Horace Bushnell (14).
4. The Modern Iienotio Theory. General Outline (§ 1). Gene (¢ 2). Marteneen (§ 3). Kahnis and Lange (14). Julian Mailer U 5). Goodwin and Crosby (§ 8). Criticism (§ 7).
5. The Ritschlian Theory. The Theory Stated (§ 1). Its Merit and Limitation (§ 2).
8. The Theory of a Gradual or Pro. gressive Incarnation.
The Theory (§ I).
Its Merits (§ 2).
Elements of Truth in All Theories (§ I).
The Mystery of Christ (§ 2). Limits of This Article (§ 3).
7. Additional Note. Preexistence (§ 1). Incarnation (§ 2).
I. The Biblical Christology: This embraces (1) the Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament; and (2) the christology of the New Testament, which includes (a) the testimony of Christ in the
Gospels; and (b) the christology of the apostlesJames, Peter, Paul (including the chriatology of the Epistle to the Hebrews), and John (including the Apocalypse). Christ is the heart of the Scriptures and the key to their spiritual understanding,
1. The Old Testament Christology.: The Old Testament is the preparation for the New. The soul of the Old Testament is the promise of the Messiah, which began in paradise with the protevangelium of the serpent bruiser, and culminated in the testimony of John the Baptist, pointing to Jesus of Nazareth as the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. See IKEBBIAH, M=_
2. The New Testament Chrietology: It is the unanimous teaching of the New Testament writings that Christ combines in a most real though mysterious way the double character of a unique dime sonship and a unique sinless manhood in one har_ monious personality; and that by this very constitution of his person he is qualified to be the Lord and Savior of the human race, and the only 1Kediafor between God and man. He represents at once the nearest approach which God can make to i»~ and the nearest approach which man can eke to
God. The orthodox christology, handed down from the early Church
late this "mystery of y, ~at~ d ~~f t state, error, but every is problem of Problems,
fitful for its own intel_r...„„a, benefit .
Christ strongly asserts his humanity, and calls if about eighty times in the Gospels "the ,fin
(q•v•): not a son of man g other
ndants of mAdam, but the Son ~Man a de.
class Is tours dm ~ et teiles qu•elles oat g~nuea sans le 'cry as the representative of the whole race mg~
IIL .~ ~Iee, as ,*;e de 1 i:;e>;ae chr~ie~°•~ thus in by, the apostles to be
Adam, descended from heaven (d. Rothe.
m ~ v. and
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
I Cor. xv.); the, ideal, the perfect, the absolute man,
the head of a new race, the king of Jews and Gen
tiles, the model man for universal
1. Christ station. While putting himself on a
the par with us as man, he claims at the
Ideal lliaa. same time, as the Son of Man, superi
ority over all, and freedom from sin,
and thus stands solitary and alone as the one and
only spotless human being in the midst of a fallen
race, as an, oasis of living water and fresh verdure,
surrounded by a barren desert. He nowhere con
fesses sin, betrays a consciousness o€ sin, or asks
pardon for sin; and this was not because ha did not
feel the evil of sin, for he pardoned sin and con
demned sins in the severest terms. He alone
needed no repentance, no conversion, no regenera
tion, no pardon. This sinlesaness of Christ is the
great moral miracle of history which underlies all
his miraculous works, and explains them as natural
manifestations of his miraculous person.
On the other hand, Christ as emphatically asserts his divinity, and calls himself not simply a son of God among other children of God by adoption, but " the Son of God" (q.v.) above all others, in a peculiar sense; the Son by nature; the Son from eternity; the Son who alone knows the Father, who reveals the Father to us, who calls him, not " our" Father (as we are directed to pray), but " my " Father. He is, as his favorite disciple calls him, the " only begotten Son " (according to some of the oldest manuscripts, " the only begotten God," Gk. theos); or, as the Nicene theology expresses it, " eternally begotten of the essence (Gk. ousia) of the Father." He is thus represented by himself; and the representation which he makes of himself was affirmed by the apostles. Paul never calls him " the son of man," but frequently " the son of God " (" God's own son," Rom. viii. 3, 32, etc.). To the apostles Christ was a divinehuman being, truly God and truly
2. Yet man in one person; and his words also clod. and acts and sufferings have a corresponding character and effect. Hence he puts forth claims which in the mouth of every other man, no matter how wise and how good, would sound like blasphemy or lunacy, but which from his figs appear as natural as the rays of light emanating from the sun. He represents himself constantly as being sent from God, or as having come directly from God, to teach this world what he had not learned from any school or book. He calls himself the Light of the World, the Way, the Truth, and the Life; he invites all men to come to him, that they may find rest and peace; he claims the power to forgive sins, and to raise the dead; he says, " I am the Resurrection and the Life," sad he promises eternal life to every one that believeth in him. Even in the moment of his deepest humiliation, he proclaimed himself the King of truth, and the Ruler and Judge of mankind. His kingdom is to be coextensive with the race, and everlasting as eternity itself. And with this consciousness he sent forth his disciples to proclaim the gospel of salvation to every creature, forewarning them of persecution,and pledging them his presence to the end of the world, and a crown of glory in heaven.
He coordinates himself in the baptismal formula with the Eternal Father and the Eternal Spirit, and allows himself to be worshiped by the skeptical Thomas as his " Lord " and his " God."
This central truth of Christ's divine human person and work is set forth in the New Testament writings, not as a logically formulated dogma, but as a living fact and glorious truth, as an object of faith, a source of comfort, and a stimulus to a holy life, in humble imitation of his perfect example. The simple narrative of the Gospels is far more powerful for the general benefit of mankind than all the systems of theology. But the mind of the Church moat meditate, and try to grasp this truth; and the New Testament itself furnishes ever new impulse and food for theological speculation. The formulated statement of christology begins as early as Paul and John.
B. The Ante Nicene Cln iatology, from 100 A.D. to the Council of Nicaea, 325. 1. The Early Simple Faith: The ecclesiastical development of the fundamental dogma started from Peter's confession of the Mesaiahship of Jesus (Matt. xvi. 16), and from John's doctrine of the incarnate Logos (John i. 14). It was stimulated by two opposite hereaies Ebionism and Gnosticism; the one essentially Jewish, the other essentially heathen; the one affirming the humanity of Christ to the exclusion of his divinity, the other running into the opposite error by resolving his humanity into a
I delusive show (Gk. dokesis, phmntasnaa;
1. Heresies. see DOOETIaM); both agreeing in the
denial of the incarnation, or the real
and abiding union of the divine and human in the
person of our Lord. There also arose in the second
and third centuries two forma of Unitarianism or
Monarchianiem: (1) The Rationalistic or Dynamic
Unitarianism represented by the Alogi, Theodotus,
Artemon, and Paul of Samosatar which either de
nied the divinity of Christ altogether, or resolved
it into a mere power (Gk. dynarnis), although its
representatives generally admitted his supernatural
generation by the Holy Spirit. (2) The Patripas
sian and Sabellian Unitarianism, which maintained
the divinity of Christ, but merged it into the es
sence of the Father, and so denied the independent,
preexistent personality of Christ. So Praxeas,
Noi;tus, Callistus (Pope Calixtus L), Beryllus of
Boatra, and Sabelliue. See the articles on the here
sies named and their representatives.
In antagonism to these heresies, the Church taught the full divinity of Christ (against Ebionism and rationalistic Monarchianism),
2. The his full humanity (against Gnosticism
Church and Manicheiem), and his independent
Doctrine. personality (against Patripassianiam and Sabellianism). The dogma was developed in close connection with the dogma of the Trinity, which resulted, by logical neces9ity, from the deity of Christ and the deity of the Holy Spirit on the basis of the fundamental truth of Monotheism.
The ante Nine christology passed through many obstructions, loose statements, uncertain conjectures and speculations; but the instinct and main current of the Church was steadily toward the Nicene and Chalcedonian creed state
61 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA ChrLtolosy
menta, especially if the worship and devotional
life as well as the theological literature be con
sidered. Christ was the object of
8. The worship, prayer, and praise from the Divinity of very beginning, as moat be inferred Christ Con fpm such passages of the New Testa
gig, ment as John xx. 28; Acts vii. 59, 60,
ix. 14, 21; I Cor. i. 2; Phil. ii. 10;
Heb. i. 6; I John v. 13 15; Rev. v. 6 13; from
the heathen testimony of Pliny the Younger con
cerning the singing of hymns to Christ as God
(" Carmen Christo quasi, Des dicers," Epist., x. 97);
from the " Gloria in Excelais," which was the
daily morning hymn of the Eastern Church as early
as the second century; from the " Tersanctua ";
from the Hymn of Clement of Alexandria to the
divine Logos (Pcedagogus, iii. 12); from the state
ments of Origen (Contra Celsuna, viii. 67) and
Eusebius (Hilt. eccl., v. 28); and from many other
testimonies. Christ was believed to be divine, and
adored as divine, before he was clearly taught to
be divine. The ante Nicene rules of faith as they
are found in the writings of Irena:us, Origen,
Tertullian, Cyprian, etc., are in essential agree
ment among themselves and with the Apostles'
Creed, as it appears, first in the fourth century,
especially at Rome and Aquileia. (Cf. Rufinus, De
symbolo.) They all confess the divine human
character of Christ as the chief object of the Chris
tian faith, but in the form of facts, and in simple,
popular style, not in the form of doctrinal or logical
statement. The Nicene Creed is much more ex
plicit and dogmatic in consequence of the preceding
contest with heresy; but the substance of the faith
is the same in the Nicene and Apostles' Creeds.
(For these Ante Nicene Rules of Faith, cf. Schaff,
Creeds, ii. 11 45.)
8. Theological Speculations: In the apostolic Fathers only simple practical, Biblical statements are found, with reminiscences of apostolic preaching for the purposes of edification. Ignatius of Antioch calls Christ God without qualification (Ad Ephes., vii. 18; cf. Ad Rom., vi.). Polycarp calls him "the eternal Son of God " (Ad Phil., ii. 8), and associates him in his last prayer with the Father and the Spirit (Martyrium. Polycarpi,, xiv.). The theological speculation on the person of Christ began with Justin Martyr, and was carried on by Clement of Alexandria and Origen, in the East; by Irenssus, Hippolytus, and Tertullian, in the West.
Justin Martyr (d. 166) takes up the Johannean
Logos idea, which proved a very fruitful germ
of theological speculation. It was prepared by the
Old Testament personification of the word and
wisdom of God, assumed an idealistic shape in
Philo of Alexandria, and reached a realistic com
pletion in St. John, although it is not
1. Justin likely that John's had anything more
Martyr. in common with Philo's idea than the
name "Logos." Following the sugges
tion of the double meaning of the Greek logos (ratio
and oratio), Justin distinguishes in the Logos two
elements the immanent and the transitive; the
revelation of God ad infra, and the revelation
ad extra. He teaches the procession of the Logos
from the free will (not the essence) of God by gen
eration, without division or diminution of the divine
substance. This begotten Logos he conceives as a
hypostatical being, a person distinct from the
Father, and subordinate to him. He coordinates
God, the Son, and the prophetic Spirit, as objects
of Christian worship (APoI., i. 6). Peculiar is his
doctrine of the logos spermotikos, the " ° seminal
Logos," or the Word disseminated among men,
i.e., Christ before the incarnation, who scattered
elements of truth and virtue among the heathen
philosophers and poets, although they did not
Clement of Alexandria (d. 220) sees in the Logos the ultimate principle of all existence (without beginning, and timeless), the revealer 2. Clement of the Father, the sum of all intelli
ot Ales gents and wisdom, the personal truth,
the author of the world, the source of
light and life, the educator of the
race, who at last became man to make us par
takers of his divine nature. Like some other
ante Nicene Fathers (Justin Martyr, Tertullian,
and Origen), he conceived the outward appear
ance of Christ's humanity in the state of humilia
tion to have been literally without form or come
liness (Isa. liii. 2, 3); but he had made a distinction
between two kinds of beauty the outward beauty
of the flesh, which soon fades away; and the moral
beauty of the soul, which is permanent, and shone
even through the servant form of our Lord (Pada
gogus, iii. 1).
Origen (d. 254) felt the whole weight of the chriatological problem, but obscured it by foreign speculations, and prepared the way both for the Aria,n heresy and the Athanasian orthodoxy, though more fully for the latter. On the one baud he closely approaches the Nicene homoousion by bringing the Son into union with the essence of the Father, and ascribing to him the attribute of eternity. He is, properly,
8. Ortsen. the author of the Nicene doctrine of eternal generation of the Son from the essence of the Father (though he usually represents the generation as an act of the will of the Father). But, on the other hand, he teaches subordinationiem by calling the Son simply " God," and " a second God," but not "the God" (ho these or autos theca). In his views on the humanity of Christ, he approached the semi Gnostic Dooetism, snd ascribed to the glorified body of Christ ubiquity (in which he was followed by Gregory of Nyesa). His enemies charged him with teaching a double Christ (answering to the lower Jesus, and the higher Sour of the Gnostics), and a merely temporary validity of the body of the Redeemer. As to the relation of the two natures in Christ, he was the first to use the term " God man " and to apply the favorite illustration of fire heating and penetrating the iron, without altering its character.
The Western Church was not so fruitful is speculation, but, upon the whole, sounder and more self consistent. The key note was struck by Irenaeus (d. 202), who, though of Eastern origin, spent his active life in the south of France. He carries special weight as a pupil of Polycarp of