Chinri t, Order of THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 86
university. In Shsagtung there is a similar partnership between the American Presbyterian and the English Baptist Missions.
The relations between officials and all missionaries since 1900 have been much improved. Although occasional outbreaks still occur, earnest efforts are now made to prevent them on account of their possible consequences. It can not be doubted that the result of the war between Japan and Russia will exert an important influence upon Christian work throughout the Chinese Empire.
In Beach's Geography and Atlas o f Protestant
Missions (New York, 1903), 88 Protestant societies
7. Btatis axe reported as working in China (33 e, American, 22 British, 12 Continental,
and 1 international), with a total of 2,785 workers, of whom 610 were ordained men, 578 unordained, 772 wives, and 825 other missionary women, living in 653 stations, and working 2,478 outstations. There were 162 male physicians and 79 women physicians, with 259 hospitals and dispensaries treating more than 691,000 patients annually. H. O. Dwight's Blue Book of Missions for 1907 indicates that the number of workers was rapidly increasing, as it gives from the reports of 59 societies an aggregate of 3,146 missionaries. The aggregate of native workers is 8,243, and the total number of Christians 249,878. Fukien, at the beginning the most difficult province, has the largest number of converts, with continuous accessions. There were 1,819 day schools with 35,412 pupils, and 170 higher institutions instructing 5,150 students. According to tables published in Shanghai in 1904 by Dr. Richard, there were in 1901 4,126 Roman Catholic churches and chapels in China, 904 European missionaries, 471 native priests, 3,584 schools, 60 colleges, and 720,540 Christians. Considering the brevity of a century in comparison with the age long periods of Chinese history, the exceptional difficulties to be overcome, the ignorance, the conservatism, and the contempt of the Chinese race for everything from\,abroad, the results of a hundred years of Protest t missions are in every way remarkable as a pro and a promise of what is yet in the future. AaTaux H. Snfrra.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: For history: 8. . Williams, The Middle Kingdom, New York, 1899 ( mprehensive and standard); A. H. Smith, Chinese C ' lice, New York, 1900. On geography: H. P. B Geography and Atlas o/ Protestant Missions, New York, 1903; E. L. Oxenham, Historical Atlas of the Chinese Empire, London, 1898.
On the language and literature: W. A. P. Martin. The Lore o/ Cathay, New York, 1901 (beet); R. K. Douglass, Language and Literature o/ China, London, 1875; T. Welters, Essays on the Chinese Language, Shanghai, 1889.
On the religious sources: For Confucianism, SBE, iii., ri.. :avii., xxW i.; J. Legge, Chinese Classics, 7 vole., London, 1881 87. For Taoism: Lao Tese. The Canon of Reason and Virtue, by P. Carne, Chicago, 1903; W. G. Old, The Classics of Confucius, 3hu King, London, 1.908. For Buddhism: SBE, xiz; 8. Beat, Buddhist Literature in China, London, 1882, and Catena of Buddhist Scriptures, London, 1871, also Dhammapada; Texts from the Buddhist Canon, London, 1878; E. Chavannea, Lea Inacriptaona chinoiaea de Bodh Gaya, Paris, 1898. On the religions in general: P. D. Chantepie de la $suasaye, Lehrbuch der Religionapeachichte, i. 57 114, T>3bingen, 1905; $. Johnson, Oriental Religions . . China, Boston, 1877 (full, but discursive); J. H. Plath, Die Religion and der Cultua der alfeu Chineaen, Munich, 1882; R. K. Douglaa Confucianism and Taoism, London, 1879; J. Legge,
Religions of China, Confucianism and Taoism, London, 1881; A. Reville, La Religion chinoiee, Paris, 1889; C. de Hades, Lea Religious de la Chine, Paris, 1891; E. H. Parker, China and Religion, London, 1905. On Confucianism: H. A. Giles, Confucianism, in Religious Systems of the World, London 1901; idem, Religious of Ancient China, ib. 1908; E. Faber, Digest of flea Doctrines of Confucius, Hongkong, 1875, and Mind of Mencius, Shanghai, 1882. On Taoism: A. de Pouvoirville, Le Taoiame et lea aocikt& eecrEtea chinoiaea, Paris, 1897; I. W. Heyeinger, Lao Taze, the Light of China, Philadelphia, 1903; E. H. Parker, China and Religion, London, 1905. On Chinese Buddhism: E. Lamaireeee, Le Bouddhiams en Chine . . , Paris, 1893; J. Edkine, Chinese Buddhism, London, 1880; $. Beal, Buddhism in China, in Non Christian Religious Systems, London, 1884 (Beal is the authority on Buddhism in China); E. J. Eitel, Handbook . . . of Chinese Buddhism, London, 1888; J. J. M. de Groot, Religious System of China, vole. i. v., Leyden, 1892 1907 (still in progress); Tai ahang kar4 yiup glen: Treatise of the Exalted one on Response and Retribution, from the Chinese by Teitara Suzuki and Paul Carne, Chicago, 1908; J. D. Ball, The Celestial and his Religions; or, the Religious Aspect in China, ib. 1908.
On missions: Statistical: J. $. Dennis, Centennial Sur
vey of Foreign Missions, New York, 1902. General:
Memorials of Protestant Missionaries to the Chinese, Shanghai, 1887; Conferences on Missions, at Shanghai, 1877 and 1890, at Shantung 1893 and 1397 (Reports pub• liahed at Shanghai); J. Gilmour, Among the Mongols, London, 1884; W. Campbell, Missionary Success in ... Formosa, London, 1889; Church Work in North China, London, 1893 (on Anglican missions); M. G. Guinness, Story Of the China Inland Mission, 2 vole., London, 1893; China Mission Handbook, Shanghai, 1898; G. L. Mackay, From Far Formosa, . . Island, People and Missions, New York, 1898; R. Lovett, Hint. of London Missionary Society, chaps. six. xavi., London, 1899; J. C. Gibson, Mission Problems and Mission Methods in South China, London, 1901; L. Miner, China's Book of Martyrs, Boeton, 1903; J. Ross, Methods of Mission Work in Manchuria, London, 1903; M. Broomhall, Pioneer Work in Hunan, ib. 1908 W. A. P. Martin, Awakening of China, New York, 1907; W. E. Soothill, A Typical Mission in China, New York, 1907.
For the Boner troubles: A. H. Smith, China in Convulsion, New York, 1901; M, Broomhall, Martyred Miaaionariea of the China Inland Mission, London, 1901; E. H. Edwards, Fire and Sword in Shansi, London, 1903; R. C. Forsyth, China Martyrs of 1900, London, 1904.
On Roman Catholic missions: F. Prandi, Memoirs of Father Ripa, London, 1844; Abb6 Hue, Christianity in China, Tartary and Thibet, beat ad., 3 vole., London, 1857; T. Chancy, La Colonic du SacrE Cour dare lea Cfroennes de la Chine au xuiii. allele, Pads, 1889; Abb6 Pierre, La Chine chr6tsenru. La Vie et lea avvrea do H. A. Languillat, 2 vole.. Paris, 1893.
CHIIPIQUY, shi"nf"kf' or chin"i kwi', CHARLES PASCHAL TELESPHORE: Presbyterian: b. of Roman Catholic parents at Kamouraska, Quebec, Canada, July 30, 1809; d. in Montreal Jan. 16, 1899. He studied at the college of Nicolet, Canada, 1822 29, and was professor of belles lettres there till 1833; was ordained a Roman Catholic priest 1833; vicar and curate in the province of Quebec till 1846; he established the first temperance society there and won the title " Apostle of Temperance of Canada." In 1851 he was called by Bishop Vandevelde, of Chicago, to direct the tide of Roman Catholic emigration toward the prairies of Illinois; in 1858, with his congregation at St. Anne, Kankakee County, Ill., he left the Church of Rome, slid joined the Canadian Presbyterian Church. He lectured in England 1860, 1874, and 1882, and in Australia 1878 80, and published a number of books and tracts upon temperance, and others bitterly hostile to the Roman Catholic
Church, which have passed through many editions and been translated into different languages.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: His autobiography, Forty Years in as Church of Rome, appeared Chicago, 1900.
CHIiTIP, cai'un. See REMPHAN.
CHOIR: 1. In the older churches, especially the Gothic, that part which contains the high altar and in which the services are sung. It is usually separated from the nave by a railing or rood screen, and in monastic churches only members of the order sit within it. See AReHITECTtrRE, ECCLESIASTICAL, L, §§ 15, 18. .sL. A body of singers appointed to lead the music in public worship.
CHOISY, shwd"zf , JACQUES EUGENE: Swiss Protestant; b. at Geneva, Switzerland, Feb. 28, 1866. He was educated at the college and university of his native city, from which he was graduated in 1885, the theological faculty of Montauban, from which he was graduated in 1888, and, the University of Berlin. Since 1898 he has been pastor of the parish of Plainpalais, Geneva, and was also moderator of the Compagnie des Pasteuls from 1904 to 1905. In 1898 he received from the faculty of arts of the University of Geneva the Theodore Clapar6de prize, and three years later was awarded the Daniel Colladan prize by the conaistory of the National Protestant Church of Geneva. He has been a member of the Soci6tk des sciences th5ologiques of Geneva since 1890 and was its president in 1903 05, and has also been a member of the Geneva Soci6tk d'histoire et d'arch6ologie since 1893 and president of the Socit=tk du mustte historique de la reformation in the same city since its foundation in 1897. In theology he terms himself a "broad Evangelical, much indebted to higher criticism for a more accurate and trustworthy understanding of God's revelation in the Bible." In addition to a translation of A. Harnack's Grundriss der Dogmengeschichte (Paris, 1893), he has written Pasehase Radbert, etude historique sur Is neuvi~yne aikde et sur le dogme de la Chne (Geneva, 1888); La ThEoeratie h Genesve au temps de Calvin (1897); and LItat chretien caltriniate d Genesve au temps de Theodore de Bbze (1903).
CHORAL. See MUSIC, SACRED.
CHORENTIE, co ren'ti or t6. See MESSALIeN9.
CHOREPISCOPUS, co"re pis'co pus (Gk. charepiskopos, " country bishop "): The name given to a class of assistants to the bishops in the administration of their dioceses from the third to the eleventh century. As the name implies, they rendered this service principally in the country districts. In the fourth century they attended councils like the bishops (Ancyra, 314; Neociesarea, between 313 and 325; Antioch, 341) and had some at least of the episcopal prerogatives, though the question whether they received episcopal consecration is disputed. A tendency showed itself in the same century to restrict their powers and make them altogether dependent on the diocesan bishops. The Councils of Sardica and Laodicea attempted to suppress them entirely, forbidding the installation of bishops in country
China Christ, Order o!
places and providing for the needs of such districts by itinerant visitors of a merely priestly character. These efforts were only partially successful, and the institution continued in partial use in the East as late as the sixth century, though now in entire subordination to the diocesan bishops and with no further claim to the strictly episcopal character. In the West chorepiscopi are heard of only from the eighth century, as assistants or deputies of missionary bishops in the new dioceses, or as administrators of vacant sees. There is no demonstrable connection with the Eastern usage. In the ninth century they are also found in the see cities as assistants to bishops who were much occupied with affairs of state. The reforming legislation of this period, appealing to the Eastern canons, emphasized their dependence on the diocesan bishops, and toward the middle of the century undertook to suppress them altogether. They disappeared in the first half of the tenth century in France, but in the extensive German dioceses, supported by Rabanua Maurus, they maintained their existence to the middle of this century, and were found in Ireland as late as the thirteenth. Their place was to a great extent taken by the archdeacons (see ARCHDEACON AND ARCHPRIEST).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hefele, Concddienpeachschte, ii. 290, iii. 478,
803, 885, 745, Eng. trsnel., ii. 89, 321, iii. 158; J. L. von Moeheim, Institutes of Bed. Hiat., ed. W. Stubbs, i. 83, 239 eqq., London, 1883; Bingham, Oripinea, book ii., chap. xiv., ¢ 12; Schaff, Christian Church, iii. 289 270; KL, iii. 188 191.
CHRISM: The specially prepared mixture used for anointing in the Eastern and Roman Catholic Churches, except in the case of Extreme Unction
(q.v.) when olive oil mixed with water is used. That employed in the administration of baptism, con
firmation, and holy orders, and in the consecration of churches and altars, is composed according to
Roman usage of oil and balsam, to which other odorous spices are added by the Greeks. It early
received a special benediction, as is shown by Ter tullian, De bapfiismo, vii.; Cyprian, Epist., Ixx. 2; Apostolic Constitutions, VII. xxvii. 1. From the end of the fourth century the right to consecrate it was reserved to the bishops in the East later to the patriarchs. From the fifth century Maundy Thursday was the day appointed for the blessing. (A. HAUCK.)
CHRISMAL: A word used in the same senses as "chrisom" (q.v.); also a cloth for covering relics.
CHRISOM: The white cloth with which the Roman priest covers the head of an infant after
i the administration of baptism or, in the early Church, the white garment put upon the newly baptized as a symbol of purity; also the vessel in which the chrism is preserved.
CHRIST, BRETHREN IN. See R,rvER
7~ CHRIST, DISCIPLES OF, CHRISTIANS, ,gee
DIBCIPLE$ OF CHRIST.
CHRIST, ORDER OF: The Knights of Jesus Christ, an order founded by King Dionysius of
Christ order of THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
Portugal in 1317, like the Spanish orders of Alcan
tara and Calatrava (qq.v.) under Cistercian rule
and to fight against the Moors. It was endowed
with property of the Templars, who had been sup
pressed in 1312. Papal confirmation was received
from John XXII. in 1319, the grand master being
made subordinate to the abbot of the Cistercian
monastery of Alcobapa. The knights gained im
portant victories and became rich and powerful.
At their chief seat, Thomar (75 m. n.e. of Lisbon)
in Eatremadura, and at Batalha, twenty miles
farther west, they erected magnificent buildings in
pointed style, imitating the churches of the Tem
plara in Cyprus and the Mosque of Omar in Jerusa
lem (cf. the Viscount de Condeixa, O mosteiro dtx
Batalha, with French trawl., Lisbon and Paris,
1892; J. Dernjac, Tltomar and BdtaLltd, iv the
Zeitschrift fur bildende Kumt, new series, vi ,
98 106) . About 1500 Pope Alexander VI. re
leased the order from the vow of poverty. It
had then 450 commanderies and an enormous
income. A reform was effected in 1550 by the
Hieronymite abbot Anton of Lisbon, and confirmed
by Pope Julius III. At the same time the grand
mastership was formally attached to the crown, as
it had been actually from the time of King Emman
uel (1495 1521). Pins V. in 1567 removed the
jurisdiction of the abbot of Alcobaga, and Gregory
XIII. in 1576 granted the king supreme power over
both knights and monks. The order was secu
larized in 1797 and its property confiscated in 1834.
It is now merely an order of merit. A less important
Italian Ordine di Christo was founded by Pope
John XXII. about 1320. It also became an order
of merit. (O. ZScsl.Ext.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Helyot, t?rdrea monaati9uea, vi. 72 78, Paris,
1718; G. Giueei, Iconoprafia atordca degli ordini relipioei e
cavallereachi, i. 34 38, Rome, 1838; G. Moroni, Dizionario
di erud%zione atorico eccleaiaalim, xviii. 210 219, Venice,
1843; Heimbucher, Order and Kongregationen, i. 227;
Carrier, Religious Orders, p. 217.
CHRIST, Grist, PAUL: Swiss Protestant; b. at
Zurich Oct. 25, 1836; d. there Jan.14,1908. He was
educated at the universities of Tiibingen and Basel,
and after being a pastor successively in the canton
of Grisons (1858 62) and at Chur, the capital of
the same canton (1862 65), he was a professor in the
cantonal school of Chur from 1865 to 1870. He was
then pastor at Lichtensteig (1871 75) and Rheineck
(1875 80), both in the canton of St. Gall, and after
four years of retirement on account of impaired
health (1880 84) was municipal archivist at Chur
(1884 87) and again professor in the cantons. school
of the same city (1887 89). Since 1889 he has
been professor of systematic and practical theology
at the University of Zurich. In theology he repre
sents the speculative and liberal school. He has
written Christliche Religimtslehre (Zurich, 1875);
Billet sus der Oeschichte der christliclten Kirehe and
Sitte (St. Gall, 1876); Religi6se Betraehtungen
(1881); Der Pessimismus urtd die Sittenlehre (Haar
lem, 1882); Die Z.ehre vom Gebet each dem Neuen
Testament (Leyden, 1886); Die sitttiche Weltord
nung (1894); and C»~undrias der Ethik (Berlin, 1905).
CHRISTADELPHIANS: A small sect which
originated in the United States about 1850. They
call themselves Chriatadelphians because of the belief that all that are in Christ are his brethren, and designate their congregations as " ecclesias " to " distinguish them from the so called churches of the apostasy." John Thomas, the founder, a physician, born in England, came to America in 1844 and joined the Disciples of Christ. In a short time, however, he established a separate denomination, because he believed that, though the Disciples were the moat " apostolic and spiritually enlightened religious organization in America," the religious teaching of the day was contrary to the teaching of the Bible.
Christadelphians reject the Trinity. They be
lieve in one supreme God, who dwells in unap
proachable light; in Jesus Christ, in whom was
manifest the eternal spirit of God, and who died
for the offenses of sinners, and rose for the justi
fication of believing men and women; in one bap
tism only immersion, the " burial with Christ in
water into death to sin," which is essential to sal
vation; in immortality only in Christ; in eternal
punishment of the wicked, but not in eternal tor
ment; in hell, not as a place of torment, but as
the grave; in the resurrection of the just and un
just; in the utter annihilation of the wicked, and
in the non resurrection of those who have never
heard the Gospel, lack in intelligence (as infants),
or are sunk in ignorance or brutality; in a sec
ond coming of Christ to establish his kingdom on
earth, which is to be fitted fur the everlasting
abode of the saints; in the proximity of this sec
ond coming; in Satan as a Scriptural personifica
tion of sin; in the millennial reign of Christ on
earth over the nations, during which sin and death
will continue in a milder degree, and after which
Christ will surrender his position of supremacy,
and God will reveal himself, and become Father
and Governor of a complete family; in salvation
only for those who can understand the faith as
taught by the Christadelphians, and become obe
dient to it. They have no ordained ministers.
There are about sixty " eccleaias " in the United
States, and a few in England, where most of their
literature is published. H. K. CARROLL.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources of doctrine are the works of the founder, generally published in pamphlet form in Birmingham and London. The principal are: Eureka, 1889; The Revealed Mystery, 1889; Who are the Chrastadelphianaf 1869; The Book Unsealed, 1870; Phaneroaie, 1870; Anaataaia, 1871; Clerical Theology Unacriptural, 1877, and Elpla Israel, West Hoboken, 1871. Also the following works by Robert Roberts: A Defence of the Faith Proclaimed in Ancient Times, . . Revived in the Chrietadelphiana, Birmingham, 1888; Everlasting Punishment not " Eternal Torments," ib. 1871; Meaning of the Chriata.. delphian Movement. London, 1872; Thirteen Lectures on the Things Revealed in . . " Revelation," Birmingham, 1880; The Good Confession, ib. 1881; Dr. Thomas, his Life and Work, ib. 1884. Their organ is The Chriatadelphian, published at Birmingham, Eng. Consult H. K. Carroll, Religious Forces of the U. S., pp. 89 90, 454, New York, 1896.
CHRISTENTUMSGESELLSCHAFT, DIE DEUTSCHE (" The German Society for Christendom "): A society which had a wide influence at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries. In that period of deep depression and discouragement for the Evangelical
89 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Christ Order of
Church of Germany, it brought believing, earnest
Christians together by personal intercourse and by
correspondence, and helped them to successful
cooperation. Its special object was to oppose the
bold depreciation and mockery of the Word of God
then so common, as well as the tendency repre
sented by Nikolai's Zeitschrift in Berlin and the
Gothaer Zeitung. Its founder was Dr. Johann
August Urleperger (q.v.), of Augsburg, who be
longed to the old school of simple Scriptural faith
and piety. He thought that the .friends of the
Gospel should stand together and strengthen one
another as did its enemies. In 1777 he wrote to a
number of German, Dutch, Danish, and English
theologians without getting much response, and I
in 1779 and 1780 traveled widely in the hope of
effecting more by personal contact. But the result
was still the same, and he came home much dis
couraged. In Basel, the last place he had planned
to visit, he found a response. Here since 1756,
stirred up by D'Annone, the zealous pastor of Mut
tenz, a number of like minded men had already
been organized, who listened with delight to Url
sperger's ideas; and the society was able to hold its
first formal meeting on Aug. 30, 1780. The begin
ning once made, the thing spread; branches were
formed at Nuremberg the next year, then at Stutt
gart, Frankfort, Berlin, Magdeburg, etc. As the
numbers grew, and correspondence came in even
from America, a more formal organization was
required. Basel was made the headquarters at the
end of 1782, and a manifold activity radiated from
it, embracing all that is meant nowadays by home
and foreign missions. Selections from the vast
mesa of correspondence were sent to all the branches,
in printed form after 1783. Urleperger had orig
inally wished to write and circulate good theological
treatises, but the central body turned its efforts in
a more practical direction, wishing indeed to up
hold the true faith,, but not to renew the old con
troversies. The name, too, was changed from the
original Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Befdrderung
christlicher Wahrheit and Gottseligkeit (" German
Society for the Promotion of Christian Truth and
Piety ") to the present title. In 1801 Steinkopf,
who had been the general secretary, was called to
the Savoy Chapel in London, and formed a link
between Germany and England, where the mighty
revival of spiritual life set a standard for emulation.
The Basel Bible Society was founded in 1804 as the
first result; and the second was the mission house,
also at Basel, planned as early as 1805 by C. F.
Spittler on the model of the Berlin mission school
(founded in 1800 by Anicke, a member of the so
ciety), and realized in 1815 with the help of
C. G. Blumhardt (q.v.). A number of other foun
dations and special organizations marked the suc
ceeding years. Among them were the training
school and orphanage at Beuggen (1820); the
Society of the Friends of Israel (1831); the Society
for the Spread of Christian Literature (1835);
the deaf and dumb asylum at Richer, (1838); and
the deaconess home in the same place (1852).
The original association fulfilled its task in giving
the impulse to so many and varied good works;
it still exists, however, under the direction of a
central committee in Basel, where the Sammlungen fur Liebhaber christlicher Wahrheit urtd Gottseligkeit is still published periodically, after an existence of more than a century. (R. AxsTEaat.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. J. Riggenbach, I. 3tockmeyer, and II. Pratorius, Zur hundertjdhrigen GedBchtnieafeier der deutachen ChrbatenEumageaelldchafh Basel, 1881; A. Oetertag, EntdehunOeBes<:hicnta der euanpeliaeheye MisaionapeaelLechaft au Basel, ib. 1885.