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THE NEW

SCHAFF HERZOG

ENCYCLOPEDIA



OF

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

Editor in Chief

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

Editor in Chief

of

Supplementary Volumes



LEFFERTS A. LOETSCHER, Ph.D., D.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN






THE NEW
SCHAFF HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

EDITED BY

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(Editor in Chief )

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF

CHARLES COLEBROOK SHERMAN
AND

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.



(Associate Editors)

AND THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENT EDITORS

CLARENCE AUGIISTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology)

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations)

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgica and Religious Orders)

JAMES FREDERIC bIcCURDY, fH.D., LL.D.

(Department of the Old Testament)
HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.

(Department of the New Testament)
ALBERT HENRY NEWNAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church History)

FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography)

VOLUME III

CI IAMIER   DRAENDORF

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

1952




EXCLUSIVE AMERICAN PUBLICATION RIGHTS

SECURED BY BAKER BOOK HOUSE FROM FUNK AND WAGNALLS



LITHOPRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY

CUSHING  MALLOY, INC., ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, 1952






EDITORS

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(EDITOR IN CHIEF. )

Professor of Church History, New York University.



ASSOCIATE EDITORS

CHARLES COLEBROOK SHERMAN ~ GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

Editor in Biblical Criticism and Theology on "The New Inter  New York, Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer

national Encyclopedia," New York, on Comparative Religion, Bangor Theological Seminary.

DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME III

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Department of Systematic Tfaeologg.)

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.
HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations.)

Formerly a Corresponding Secretary of the Board of Foreign

Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, New York.
JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgies anal Religious Orders.)

President of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.



JAMES FREDERICK McCURDY, Ph.D.,

LL.D.

(Department of the Old Testament.)

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College. Toronto.



HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.

(Department of the New Testament.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New Tes­

tament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.
ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church History.)

Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary

(Baylor University). Waco, Tea.

FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, F.B.A.

(Department of PronmaciatW n and Typography.)

Managing Editor Of the STANDARD DICTIONARY, etc.,

New York City.

CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME III

JUSTIN EDWARDS ABBOTT, D.D.,

Missionary in Bombay, India.



HANG ACHELI6, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Halls.



RUDOLF ANBTEIN (t),

Late Pastor in Basel.



FRANKLIN CARL ARNOLD, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Breslau.



WILHELM 33AUR (t), Th.D.,

Late General Superintendent in Bonn.



GEORGE JAMES BAYLES, Ph.D.,

Writer on Civil and Ecclesiastical Law.



CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH,

D.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological Semi­

nary.

KARL BENRATH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, UnlvereHy of Honlffeoer&.

IMMANUEL GUSTAV ADOLF BEN­

ZINGER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

German Orientalist and Vice Consul for Holland in Jerusalem.



CARL BERTHEAU, Th.D.,

Pastor of 8t. Michuei's, Hamburg.


BERNHARD BESS, Th.Lic.,

Librarian, University of Halls.



RUDOLPH MICHAEL BINDER, Ph.D.,

Lecturer in Sociology, New York University.



EMIL BLOESCH (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, Bern.



HEINRICH BOEHMER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Professor of Church History, University of Bonn.



AMY GASTON CHARLES AUGUSTS

BONET MAURY, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History, Independent School of Divinity.

Paris.

GOTTLIEB NATHANAEL BONWETBCH,

Th.D.,

Professor of Churoh History, University of GSttingen.






CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME III

FRIEDRICH BOSSE, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Assistant Librarian, University Library, Marburg.

GUSTAV BOBBERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Retired Pastor, Stuttgart.

PERCY HOLMES BOYNTON,

Secretary of Instruction in the Chautauqua Institution,

Chautauqua, N. Y.

JOHANNES FRIEDRICH THEODOR

BRIEGER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipstc.

FRANTB PEDER WILLIAM BUHL,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Copenhagen.
KARL BURGER (t), Th.D.,

Late Supreme Consistorial Councilor in Munich.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.,

Formerly Corresponding Secretary of the Methodist Mission­

ary Society.

WALTER CABPARI, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology,

University of Erlangen.

JACQUES EU(IANE CHOIBY, Th.D.,

Pastor in Geneva.

FERDINAND COHRB, Th.Lic.,

Consistorlal Councilor, Ilteld, Germany.

AUGUST HERMANN CREMER (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Systematic Theology, University of

GroitewaJd.

WALTER EWING CRUX, N.A.,

Coptic Scholar, London.



FRIEDRICH WILHELM CUNO ( f ), Th.Lic.,

Late Pastor at Eddlgehausen, Hanover.


SAMUEL MARTIN DEUTSCH, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.



MORTON DEXTER, X.A.,

Congregational Clergyman and Author, Boston.



DEODAT DIBBELHOFF,

Pastor at %aiserawerth, Germany.



BERNHARD DOMBART (f), Ph.D.,

Formerly Gymnasiat Rector, Anebach, Germany.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,

President of St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, N. Y.


HENRY JAY DUCKWORTH, D.D.,

Secretary of Education for the Ohio Central Christian Con­

ference.

LUDWIG ALFRED ERICHBON (f), Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Late Preacher at St. Thomas'. Strasburg, Germany.



HUBERT EVANS, Ph.D.,

Member of the Editorial Staff of the Encyclopedia Brltannica

Company. New York.

THEODOR FOERBTER (t), Th.D.,

Late Processor of ChuroV History, University of Halls.
CHRISTIAN HENRY FORNEY, D.D.,

LL.D.,


Editor of the Church Advocate, Harrisburg, Pa.

RUDOLF FOBS (t),

Late Councilor in Groeslichtertelde, Germany.



GUSTAV WILHELM FRANK (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Dogmatic, Symbolics, and Christian Ethics.

University of Vienna.

EMIL ALBERT FRIEDBERG, Th.D.,

Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical, Public, and German Law, University

of Leipsic.

JOHANN FRIEDRICH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Munich.

THEODOR GEROLD, Th.D.,

President of the Consistory,8trasburg.



JOHANNES ABRAHAM (BERTH VAN

WIJg (t), Th.D.,

Late Reformed Church Clergyman at The Hague, Holland.

CHRISTIAN GEYER, Ph.D.,

Clergyman in Nuremberg, Germany.



GE03ELGE WILLLA M GILMORE, M.A.,

Former Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on Com­

parative Religion, Bangor Theological Seminary.

WILHELM GOETZ, Ph.D.,

Honorary Professor of Geography, Technical Hlgh School, and

Professor, Military Academy, Munich, Germany.

CASPAR REND GREGORY, Ph.D., Dr.Jur.,

Th.D., D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic.

GEORG GIRUETZMACHER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Extraordinary Professor of Church History, University of

Heidelberg.

KARL RUDOLF HAGIENBACH (t), Ph.D.,

Th.D.,


Late Professor of Theology, University of Basel.

ADOLF HARNACS, N.D., Ph.D., Th.D.,

Dr.Jur.,

General Director of the Royal Library and Professor of Church

History, University of Berlin.

ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr.Jtir.,

Professor of Church History, University of Leipsic, Edttor in­

Ch1et of the Hauek Herzog Realencykloptklie.

HERMAN HAUPT, Ph.D.,

Professor and Director of the University Library, Giessen.

CARL FRIEDRICH GEORG HEINRICI,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Lelpaic.

ERNST HENKE (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Marburg.

HERMANN HERING, Th.D.,

Professor of Philosophy of Religion and Homiletics, University

of Halle.

JOHANN JAKOB HERZOG (f), Ph.D.,Th.D.,

Late Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen.

PAUL HINBCHIUB (t), Dr.Jur., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Berlin.

KARL HOLL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Berlin.

GEORGE ELLIOTT HOWARD, Ph.D.,

Professor of Institutional History, University of Nebraska.






EDUARD JACOBS, Ph.D.,

Privy Councilor, WernlKeerode. Prussian Saxony.

HEINRICH FRIEDRICH JACOBSON (t),

Late Professor of Law, University of KSnigsberg.

H39UXANN JACOBY, Th.D.,

Professor of Homiletics, University of KSntgsberg.

MARTIN BAEHLER, Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics and New Testament Exegesis, Univer­

sity of Halle.

FRIEDRICH WILHELM FERDINAND

BATTENBUSCH, Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics, University of Halls.



EMIL FRIEDRICH BAUTZSCH, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis. University of Halls.

PETER GUSTAV 8AWE8AQ, Th.D.,

Conslstorlal Councilor, University preacher, and professor of

Practical Theology. University of Breslau.



HUGO WILHELM PAUL KLEINERT,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Ezegests and practical Theology.

University of Berlin.

HEINRICH AUGUST KLOSTERMANN,

Th.D.,


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Kiel.

FRIEDRICH EDUARD KOENIG, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn.



JULIUS 80ESTLIN (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Dr.Jnr.,


Late Professor of Theology. University of Halle.
THEODOR FRIEDRICH HERMANN

80LDE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Erlangen.

HERMANN GUSTAV EDUARD KRUEGER,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of church History, University of Giessen.

JOHANNES WILHELM BUNZE, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,


Professor of Systematic and Practical Theology, University of

Greiibwald.

MAXIMILIAN ALBERT LsNDERER (t>,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of TRbingen.

WILLIAM HENRY LARRABEE, LL.D.,

Plainfield, N. J.

MORITZ LAUTERBURVIy

Professor of Practical Theology. University of Bern.

KARL LUDWIG LEIMBACH (t), Ph.D.,

Th.D.,


Late Provincial Councilor for Schools, Hanover, Germany.

LUDWIG LEMME, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Heidelberg.
31CDUARD LEMPP, Ph.D.,

Chief Inspector of the Royal Orphan Asylum, Stuttgart,

Germany.

BRUNO LINDNER, Ph.D.,

Professor of Aryan Languages, University of Lelpsic.

CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME III

THOMAS MARTIN LINDSAY, M.A., D.D.,

Principal United Free Church College, Glasgow.



GEORG LOESCHE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, Evangelical Theological Faculty.

Vienna.

WILHELM LOTZ, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Erlangen.



JAMES FREDERICK . MeCURDY, Ph.D.,

LL.D.,


Professor of Oriental Languages. University of Toronto.
OTTO MEJER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late President of the (:onatatory, Hanover.



PHILLIPP MEYER, Th.D.,

Supreme Consiatorial Councilor. Hanover.


CARL THEODOR MIRBT, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Marburg.


ERNST FRIEDRICH KARL MUELLER,

Th.D.,


Professor of Reformer Theology, University of Erlangen.
GEORG MUELLER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Inspector of Schools, Ldpsic.


FRIEDRICH WILHELM REINHARD

MVMX, Th.Lic.,

General Secretary of the Free Ecclesimtical 8oda1 Conference,

Berlin.


HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.,

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New

Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Csmbrldga,

>ttsesaahusetts.


MARTIN VON NATHUSIUS (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Practical Theology, University of Greifswald.


ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History. Baylor Theological Seminary

(Baylor University), Warn, Texas.

THEODOR JULIUS NEY, Th.D.,

Supreme Coneistorlal Councilor, Speyer, Bavaria.



FREDERICK CHRISTLiDT NIELSEN (t),

D.D.,


Late Bishop of Aarhus. Denmark.
CONRAD DON 08.ELLI, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and History of $ellgion,

University of Bawl.

CHARLES PFENDE$,

Pastor of St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Paris.

FREDERICK DUNQLISON POWER, X.A.,

LL.D.,

Pastor of Garfield Memorial Church, Washington, D. C.



ERWIN PREUSCHEN, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Hirachhornon t6e•Nectar, Germany.

HERMANN RAHLENBECB,

Pastor in Cologne.

8. $*V3kBZ,

senior of tae BefOrmed Church, BeaChBn, Hungary.

GEORG CHRISTIAN RIETSCHEL, Th.D.,

University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology, Unt•

versityof Letpeic.




HENDRIX CORNELIS ROGGE (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of History, University of Amsterdam.

EVGEN BACHBBE, Th.D.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Bonn.

HUGO BACHBBE, Ph.D., Th.Lic., Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Rostock.

FERDINAND SANDER,

Councilor for Schools in Bremen, Germany.

ELIAS BENJAMIN SANFORD, D.D.,

General Secretary of the National Federation of Churches and

Christian Workers.

THEOD03EL SCHAEFER, Th.D.,

Head of the Deseonesses' Institute, Altona.

DAVID SCHLEY SCHAFF, D.D.,

Professor of Church History, Western Theological Seminary,

Allegheny, Pennsylvania.

PHILIP SCHAFF (f), D.D., LL.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary,

New York.

ADOLPH FREDERICK BCHAUFFLER,

D.D.,

President of New York City Mission and Tract Society.



CHRIBTOPH THEODOR CiOTTLOB DON

BCHEURL (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor in Nuremberg.

REINHOLD BCHMID, Th.Lic.,

Pastor in Oberholzhefm, wurttemberg.

HEINRICH SO DT (t),

Late Professor of Theology, University of Erlangen.

EARL BCHMIDT, Th.D.,

Pastor at Goldberg, Mecklenburg.

THEODOR SCHOTT (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Librarian and Professor of Theology, University of

Stuttgart.

JOHANN FRIEDRICH BITTER VON

SCHULTZ, Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Law, University of Bonn.

VICT03EL SCHULTZE, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology, Univer­

sity of Grdfawald.

LUDWIG THEODOR SCHULZE, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,


Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock.

OTTO BEEBABB, Ph.D.,

Educator, Leipslc, Germany.

REINHOLD BEEBER(i, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Berlin.



CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME III

EMIL BEHLING, Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical and Commercial Law, University of

Erlangen.

CHARLES COLEBROOK BHERMAN,

Editor in Biblical Criticism and Theology on The New Inter­

national Encyclopedia, New York.

ALBERT B siXPBON,

President Christian and Missionary Alliance.

ARTHUR HENDERSON SMITH, M.A.,

American Missionary, Pang Chuang, China.

ROBERT WALTER STEWART, B.Bc., B.D.,

Glasgow, Scotland.

JOSEPH JAMES BUMMERBELL,

Editor of The Herald of Gospel Liberty, Dayton, Ohio.

EARL THIEME, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics, University of Leipaic.

ERNST PETER WILHELM TROELTBCH,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology. University of Heidelberg.

PAUL TBCHACKERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Gottingen.

JOHANN GERHARD WILHELM UHL 

HORN (t), Th.D.,

Late Conaistorial Councilor, Hanover.

BIETRE DOVWEB VAN VEEN, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology, Uni­

versity of Utrecht.
MARVIN RICHARDBON VINCENT, D.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis and Criticism, Union

Theological Seminary, New York.

JOHANNES WEISS, Th.D.,

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Heidelberg.

AUGUST WILHELM ERNST WERNER,

Th.D.,

Pastor Primarius, Guben, Prussia.



FRIEDRICH LUDWIG LEONHARD WIE­

(IAND, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Greifawald.

SAMUEL WELLS WILLIAHB (f), LL.D.,

Late Professor of Chinese Language and Literature, Yale College.

JOSEPH DAWSON WILSON, D.D.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical History in Reformed Episcopal

Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa.

RICHARD PAUL WUELKER, Ph.D.,

Professor of English Philology, University of Leipsic.

OTTO ZOECSLER (f), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History and Apologetics, University

of Gtwifawald.






BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX yOLS. I III

The following list of books is supplementary to the bibliographies given at the end of the articles

contained in volumes I. III., and brings the literature down to January, 1909. In this list each vocabu 

lary entry is printed in capital letters.

ADAM OF BREMEN: W. P. Kohlmann, Adam von

Bremen, Leipsic, 1908.

ADAMNAN: An Irish Precursor of Dante. A Study on the Vision of Heaven and Hell ascribed to the 8th century Saint Adamrean., with Trans­lation of the Irish Text by C. S. Boswell, London, 1908.

Asxn, C. F.: Old Events and Modern Meanings and Other Sermons, New York, 1908; Wells and Palm Trees: cool Wafer arid abundant Rest on Life's rough Way, ib., 1908.

ALCUIN: G. F. Browne, Alcuin of York. Lectures delivered in the Cathedral Church of Bristol in 1907 and 1908, London, 1908.

ALFRED THE GREfaT: Asser's Life of King Alfred, ed. L. C. Jane, London, 1908.

ALLEN, W.: D. B. Camm, William Cardinal Allen, Founder of the Seminaries, London, 1908.

Amos: J. Touzard, Le Livre d'Amos, Paris, 1909.

APHRAATES: P. Sehroen, Aprahat, seine Person, and aein Verstandnis des Chrdstentums, Berlin, 1907.

APOLLONIUS OF TYANA: F. W. G. Campbell, ApOl­lonius of Tyana.. A Study of his Life aced Times, London, 1908.

APOLOGETICS: W. Ernst, Aufgabe and Arbeits­methode der Apologetik fur die Gegenwart, Berlin, 1908.

ARABIA: M. Hartmann, Die arabiaehe Frage mit einen. Yersuche der Archaologie Jemeus, Leipsic, 1909.

ARISTOTLE: Works, Eng. tranal., vol, viii., Meta­physics, London, 1909.

ART AND CHURCH: H. B. Walters, The Arts of the Church, Oxford, 1908.

AssYRIA: R. W. Rogers Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, New York, 1908.

ATONEMENT: J.Stalker, The Atonement, London, 1908.

J. Grimal Le Sacerdoce et le sacrifice de . . . ,~ Jesus Christ, Paris, 1908.

AUGUSTINE: H. Becker, Augustin. Studien xu einer yeistigen. Entwicklung, Leipsic, 1908.

W. Thimine, Augustins geastige Eretwickelung . . . 386 891, Berlin, 1908.

AUSTRIA: J. R. Kusej, Joseph 11. and die aus­sere Kirchenverfassung lnner6sterreicha (Bis­tums; Pfarr  and KZoaterregulierung). Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des 6aterreich. Stasis

kirchenrechtes, Stuttgart, 1908.

AVILA, JUAN DE: Letters of Blessed John of Avila, translated and selected from the Spanish by the Benedictines of Stanbrook, with Preface by Gasquet, London, 1904.

BABYLONIA: See ASSYRIA, ut sup.

BARRY, A.: Do we Believe? The Law of Faith per­fected in Christ, London, 1908.

BAUR, F. C.: G. Schneider, F. C. Baur in seiner



Bedeutung fvr die Theologie, Munich, 1909.

BExAISM: S. Sprague, The Story of the Bahai Move­ment, London, 1908; A Year with the Bahais in India and Burma, ib., 1908.

BIBLE TEXT: Biblia Hebraica, ed. R. Kittel, Leip­sic, 1906.

A. B. Ehrlich, Randglossen xur hebrkischere Bi­bel, vol. i., Genesis and Exodus, Leipsic 1908.

C. R. Gregory, Die griechischen Handschriften des N. T., Leipsic, 1908.

H. C. Vedder, Our New Testament; how did we get it ? Philadelphia, 1908.



Transcript of the Turin Manuscript of the " Do­dekapropheton "; tr. and collated by Rev. W. C. Oeaterley, New York, 1908.

BIBLE VERSIONS, B. IV.: The Gospel of St. John in West Saxon, Boston, 1904; The Gospel of St. Matthew in West Saxon., Boston, 1904; The Gospel of St. Mark in West Saxon, 1905; The Gospel of St. Luke in West Saxon, Bos­ton, 1906; ed. J. W. Bright. The West Saxon Psalms, being the Prose Portion, or the " ~I.rst fi ty," of the so called Paris Psalter, ed. J. ~. Bright, Catherine Donovan, and R. L. Ramsay, Boston, 1907.



The Coptic (Sahidic) Version of Certain. Books of tAe Old Testament from a Papyrus in the British Museum, ed. H. Thompson, New York, 1908.

BIBLICAL INTRODUCTION: C. R. Gregory, Einlei­tung in du N. T., Leipsic, 1909.

BIBLICAL THEOLOGY: W. E. Orchard, The Evolu­tion of the Old Testament Religion, London, 1908.

W. H. Bennett, Religion of the Post exilic Prophets, Edinburgh, 1908.

BONIFACE: An Eng. transl. of the correspondence of Boniface, ed. E. J. Kylie, London, 1908.

BUDDHISM: E. Windiseh, Buddhas Geburt and die Lehre von der Seelenwaradertsng, Leipsie,1908.

CALVIN, J.: P. Bess, Unsere religiosen Erzieher, Vol. ii., Leipsic, 1908.

R. Schwarz has edited a collection of 670 let­ters of Calvin in Germ, transl., Tiibingen,1908.

CAMPION, EDMUND: W. Allen, A Briefs Historie of the Glorious Martyrdom of twelve Reverend Priests. Father Edmund Campion and his Companions' with contemporary Verses by the venerable H. Walpole, and the earliest Engravings of the Martyrdom; ed. J. H. Pollen, Saint Louis, 1908.

L. J. Guiney, Blessed Edmond Campion, Lon 

don, 1908.




BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX VOLUMES I III

CARMELITES: The Ascent of Mt. Carmel 6y St. John of the Cross, tranal. by D. Lewis, with prefo­tory Essay on the Development of Mysticism in the Carmelite Order, by B. Zimmermann, London, 1906.

CATECHISMS, § 16: Luther's Small Catechism De­veloped and Explained, Prepared and Pub­lished by Authority of the General Synod of the Evangelical Synod of the Ev. Luth. Church, U. S. A., Philadelphia (current).

CEMETERIES: E. Calve, Blbliografia Belle catacombs e Belle chiese di Roma, Rome, 1908.

CHARITY, SISTERS OF: L. Bougaud, Hist. of St. Vin­cent de Paul, . and of the Sisters of Char­ity, New York, 1908.

CHILE: G. F. S. Elliot, Chile, its Hist. and Develop­ment, London, 1907.

CHINA: D. Mac Gillivray, A Century of Protestant Missions in China, London, 1908.

M. Bromhall, The Chinese Empire, a General and Missionary Survey, London, 1908.

A. Launay, Hist. des missions etrangerea, vole. i. iii., Vannes, 1907 08.

F. L. Norris, China, London, 1908.

J. Speicher, Conquests of the Cross in China,



New York, 907.1

R. W. Thompson, The Story of Fifty Years in China, London, 1908.

CHRISTOLOGY: S. Faut, Die ChriatologieaeitSchleier­macher, ihre Geachichte and ihre Begriind­ung, Tiibingen, 1907.

CHRYOOSTOM: Chrysoatom4ka. Sludi a ricerche in­torno a S. Giovanni Criaoatomo a cura del comitato per il XY centenario delta sua morte, Rome, 1908.

CHURCH AND STATE: s. COIL, National Idealism and a State Church, London, 1907.

H. von der Goltz, Kirche and Stoat, Berlin, 1907.

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA: J. Gabrielson, Ueber die Quetten des Clemens von Alexandrien, Leipsic, 1906.

CLEMENT OF ROME: C. Schmidt, Der erate Clemena­brief in altkoptischer Ueberaetxung, Leipsic, 1908 (in TU, xxcii. 1.).

G. A. van den Bergh van Eysinga, Onderzoek naar de echtheid van Clemens ersEe brief aan de Corinthiera, Leyden, 1908.

CLIFFORD, JOHN: D. Crane, John Clifford, God's Soldier and the People's Tribune, London, 1908.

COLLYER, R.: Some Memories, Boston, 1908.

COMMON PRAYER, Boos OF: S. Coit, National Ideal­



ism and the Book of Common Prayer. An

Easy y in Reinterpretation and Revision,

LORI

on, COMMUNISM: W. A. Hinds, American Communities,

2d ed., Chicago, 1908.

COMPARATIVE RELIGION: F. B. Jevons, An Intro­duction to the Study of Comparative Religion, Zd ed., New York, 1908.

H. Webeter, Primitive Secret Societies. A Study in early Politics and Religion, London, 1908.

A. van Gennep, Tabou et totemiame d Mada­gascar, Paris, 1904~

R. de la Grasserie, Des Phenombnea reli~ieux Bits myatkrea (triodes ou dedoublemerUa dzvma; anthroposes ou incarnations; a thyaioses ou redem~twns par sacrifice, aroec aboutiase­ment Bans le cults), Paris, 1908.

E. Douttk, Magie et religion Bans l'Afriyue du Nord, Paris, 1908.



B. Thompson, The Fijians. A Study of the

Decay of Custom, London, 1908.

CONCORDANCES: A Textual Concordance of the Holy



Scriptures; arranged especially for Use in Preaching, New York, 1908.

CONCORDATS: H. Rudorff, Zur Erklarung des



Wormser Konkordats, Weimar, 1906.

CONFIRMATION: C. R. BAIL, Confirmation, Before



and After, London, 1909.

CONGREGATIONALISTS: D. Maefadyen, Constructive



Congregational Ideals, London, 1908.

CONSCIENCE: F. Le Dantec, Science et conscience,

Paris, 1908.

CONSTANTINE THE GREAT AND HIS SONS: Joannea

M. Ff>'£ttisch, Die Reds Konstantins des



Grosaen an die Veraammlung der Heiligen

auf ihre Echtheit unteraucht, Freiburg and

St. Louie, 1908. [A defense.]

CONWAY, MONCURE DANIEL: E. C. Walker, A

Sketch and an Appreciation of Moncure Daniel Conway, Freethinker and Humani­tarian, New York, 1908.

COPLESTON, R. S.: Buddhism, Primitive and Pres 



ent, new ed., 1908.

COVENANT: F. V. Norton, A Lexicographical and

Historical Study of AcaBfjw?, Chicago, 1908.

COVENANTERS: J. K. Hewiaon, The Covenanter&



A History of the Church in Scotland from the

Reformaticm to the Revolution, Glasgow, 1908.

J. Willcock, A Scots Earl in Covenanting Times,



Being the Life and Times of Archibald, 9th Earl of Argyll (16,9 85), Edinburgh, 1908.

CROSS AND ITS USE AS w SYMBOL: W. M. Glow,



The Cross in Christian Experience, London,

1908,


CROWTHER, S. A.: J. Page, The Black Bishop.

Samuel Adjai Crowther, London, 1908.

DAMASCUS: Ibn al Qalasani Hiat. of Damascus, ed.

M. H. F. Amedrog, Leyden 1908.

DAVID: B. Baentsch, David and aein Zeitalter, Leip 

sic, 1907.

DEATH, DANCE OF: K. Kiinstle, Die Legends der



drei Lebenden and der drei Toten and der

Totentanz, Freiburg, 1908.

DEISM: I. W. Riley, American Philosophy; the



early Schools, pp. 191 sqq., New York, 1907.

DESCARTES, R.: K. Jungmann, RenE Descartes.



Eine Einfichrung in seine Werke, Leipsic,

1908.

DlwsroRw: E. W. Bueamann, Evangelische Diaapo 



rakunde. Handbuch fur Pfarrer and Freunde

deutacher Auslandagemeinden, Marburg, 1908.

DIDACHE: A. Seeberg, Die Beiden Wege and daa



Aposteldekret, Leipaic, 1908.

DISEASES AND THE HEALING ART, HEBREW: A

series of articles by E. M. Merrina, M.D. in Bx'bliotheca Sacra, April, 1904, to October, 1908.

DOGMA, DOGMATICS: F. Bollard, Christian Essen 



tials, New York, 1908.

H. H. Wendt, System der chriaElichen Lehre,

GSttingen, 1907.

A. H. Strong, vol. ii., Philadelphia, 1908.

F. J. Hall, Dogmatic Th~9J Vol. ii.,

Authority, Ecclesiastical and Biblical, Chicago, 1908.

DONELLAN (DONNELAN) LECTURES: 1906 07. H. J. Dukinfield Aetley, Prehistoric Archaeology and the O. T., Edinburgh, 1908.






LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Abbreviations in common use or self evident are not included here. For additional information con­cerning the works listed, see vol. i., pp. viii. xx., and the appropriate articles in the body of the work.

Adv ........... AJP..........

AJT.........

AKR .........

ALKG .......

Am .......... AMA.. .....

ANF .........

ASM ......

.

ADB ~ Allgemeine deutsche Biographic. Leipaic,

1875 aqq., vol. 53,1907



 .adveraua, ' against

American Journal of Philology, Balti­

more, 1880 eqq.

American Journal of Theology, Chicago,

. 1897 eqq.

. Archiv fur katholiachea Kirchenrecht, Innsbruck, 1857 81, Mainz, 1872 e4q.

Archiv fur L itteratur  and Kirchenge­achichte des Mittelaltera, Freiburg, 1885 aqq.

_ American

Abhandlungen der Munrhener Akademie, Munich, 1763 eqq.

Ante Nicene Fathers, American edition by A. Cleveland Coxe, 8 vole. and in­dex, Buffalo, 1887; vol. ix., ed. Allan Menzies, New York, 1897

Apoc . Apocrypha, apocryphal

Apol . Apologia. Apology

Arab Arabic

A ram. . . . . . . . . Aramaic

art article

Art. Schmal Schmalkald Articles

ASB . . . . . . . . . . ,; Acta aanctorum, ed. J. Bolland and others, Antwerp, 1843aq q .

. . . • JActs aanctorum ordania S. Benedicti, ed.

J. Mabillon, 9 vole., Paris, 1888 1701

Aes .~ Assyrian

A. ~. . . . Altea Testament, " Old Testament "

AT. Con . Augsburg Confession

A. V Authorized Version (of the English Bible)



AZ . Allgemeine Zeitung. Augsburg, Tebmgen,

Stuttgart, and Tiibmgen, 1798 aqq.

Baldwin, ~ J• M. Baldwin, Dictionary of Philosophy Dictionary . . . and Psychology, 3 vole. m 4. New York, 1901 05

Bensinger, ~ I. Bensinger, Hebrtaiache Archaologie, Archtiologie... 2d ed., Freiburg, 1907

Bertholdt, ~ L., Bertholdt, Hiatoriach Kritieche Ein 



Einleitunp . ~tung . • des Alters and Neuen Tea­

tamenta, 8 vole., Erlangen , 1812 19

BFBS . British and Foreign Bible Society

Bingham, ~ J• Gingham, Originea eccleaiaetacee, 10 Oripinea . . . . , , vole., London, 1708 22; new ed., Oxford, 1855

,M. Bouquet, Recueil des hiatoriena des

Bouquet, Reeueil j Gaulea et de 1a France, continued by

( various hands, 23 vole., Paris, 1738 78

Archibald Bower, History o/ the Popes

Bower, Popes . . to 1768, continued by S. H. Cox,

3 vole., Philadelphia, 184b 47

BQR . . ..... ~ Baptist Quarterly Review, Philadelphia,

1887 sqq.

BRG See JaffE:

Cant . Canticles, Song of Solomon

cap ,.caput. " chapter "



Ceillier, Auteure~ R' Ceilher, Hiatoire des auteura asses et

. . , , eccleaiaatiquea, 16 vole. in 17, Paris,

1858 89

Chron . Chronicon, " Chronicle "

I Chron . I Chronicles

II Chron . II Chronicles

CIG . Corpus inacriptionum Crcecarum, Berlin,

1825 aqq.

CIL Corpus znacriptionum Latinarum, Berlin,

1883 aqq.



Ci's ..... Corpus inacriptioraum Semiticarum, Paris,

1881 aqq.

cod codex

cal. D codex Bezo:



cod. Theod codex Theodoaianna

Col ............... Epistle to the Colossians

Col., Colo column, columns

Conf . . . . . . . . . Con/esaionea, " Confessions "

I Our First Epistle to the Corinthians

CR ......

II Cor . 8econd Epistle to the Corinthians

COT See Schrader

CQR . . . . . . . . . . ~ The Church Quarterly Review, London,

1875 eqq .

.. . . . . . ~ C_?us rgo b?.gnn at Halle,

1834, vol. hsix., Berlin and Leipsic, 1905eq q.

~ M. Creighton. A Hsatory of the Papacy Creighton, ~ from fhe Great Schism to the Sack of papacy, , , , . , , , Rome, new ~ed., 8 vole., New York a do

London, 1897

CSEL . . . . . . . ~ Corpus acriyforum eccTeaiaaticorum Lati­

norum, Vienna, 1887 aqq.

CSHB . . . ~ Corpus ecr'plorum hiatorite Byzantine,

49 vole., Bonn, 1828 78

Carrier, Religious ~ C. W. Carrier, History of Religious Orders,

Orders . . . . . New York, 1898

D . Deuteronomiat

DACL . . ~ F' Cabrol, Dictionnaire d'arch5,olnpie chrE­

tienne et de liturp4e, Paris, 1903 eqq.

Dan Daniel

J. Hastings Dictionary ot the Bible, 4

DB . vole. an~ extra vol., Edinburgh and

New York, 1898 1904

W. Smith and S. Cheetham, Dictionary

DCA . . . . . . . of Christian Antiquities, 2 vole., London,

1875 80

W. Smith and H. Wace, Dictionary of

DCB . Christian Biography, 4 vola., Boston,

1877 87

J. Hastings, J. A. Selbie, and J. C. Lambert,

DCG . .. .. . . .. . ~ ADietionaryaj Christ and the Gospels, 2

vole., Edinburgh and New York, 1906 08

Deut . . . . . . . . . . . .. Deuteronomy

De vir. ill. . . . . . . . . De viria illuaErdbus

De Wette  ~ W. M. L. de Wette, Lehrbuch der hia­Schrader, Ein  toriach kritiachen Einleitung in die Bibel, leitung . . . . . . . vol. i. A. T., ad. E. Schrader, Berlin, 1869

DGQ . . 9ee Wattenbach

L. Stephen and S. Lee, Dictionary of

DNB ~ National Biography, 83 vole, and

supplement 3 vole., London, 1885 1901

Driver, Introduc ~ S• R. Driver, Introduction to the Literature

o the Old Testament, 5th ad., New

tion ~ yfork, 1894

E . Elohiat

T. K. Cheyne and J. S. Black, Eneyclo­

EB . pordia Biblica, 4 vole., London and

New York, 1899 1903

EccZ . Eecleaia, Curch ; eccdeaiaaticua, "eo­

cleeiaetical '

Eccles . Ecclesiastes

Ecclus:. . . Ecclesiasticus

ed edition; edidit, " edited by "

Eph . .. . . Epistle to the Ephesiana

Epiat . .. .. . Epiatola, Epistola, ' Epistle,"' Epiatlea "

Ersch and Gru  J. S. Erach and J. G. Gruber, •Ahgemeine

her, Encyklo j Encykloptldie der Wiseenachaften and

ptldie . Kvnate, Leipaic, 1818 eqq.

E.V Engliah versions (of the Bible)

Ex Exodus

E.ek Ezekiel

faac faaciculua

Friedrich, KD.. ~ J' Friedrich, Kirchengeachachte Deutath­

landa, 2 vote., Bamberg, 1887 t19

Fritzsche, Exe  O. F. Fritzsche and C. L. W. Grimm,

getiacheaHand ~ Kurzgefaaetea exegetiachea Handbuch

both Tu den Apocryphen des Alters Teata•Gal . meats, G parts, Leipaic, 1851 S0

Epistle to the Galatians

Gams, Series. . j P' B, Gams, Series ap~ acoporum eecleaiae

episcoparum Catholieae Regensburg, 1873, and sup­

plement, 1888.

Gee and Hardy, H. Gee and W. J. Hardy, Documents

Documents .... London,1898

Gen Genesis






LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Germ . . . . . . . . . . . German

Gottingisrhe Gelehrte AnzeiDen, GSttingen,

GGA . 1824 eqq.



Gibbon, Decline ~E~ Gibbon, History of the Decline and

and Fall . . . . Fall of the Roman Empire, ed. J. B.

Bury, 7 vole., London, 18981900

Gk Greek, Grecized

C. Gross, The Sources and Literature of



Gross, Sources.. 1 1900 English History . . . to 1186, London,

Hab . Habakkuk

Haddanand ~A  W. Haddan and W. Stubbs, Councils

Stubbs, Coun  SS and Ecclesiastical Documents Relating



to Great Britain and Ireland, 3 vole.,

""' Oxford, 1869 78



~Refera to patristic works on heresies or heretics, Tertullian's De ~r aafxiptaone,

Her"""""" the Pros haireaeis of ~enteus, the

Panarion of Epiphanies, etc.

Hag . Haggai

Harduin, Co, I J, Harduin, ConciZiorum collectio reDia

cilia . . . maxima, 12 vole., Paris, 1715


Harnaek, Dogma ~ A~th 3d German edition, 7 ols., Bo ton, 1895 1900

Harnack, Litters ~ A' Harnaek Geschichte der altchriat 

Zichen Litteratur bie Euaebiua, 2 vole.

fur . . . . . . . in 3, Leipsie, 1893 1904

A. Hauck, Kirchengeachirhte Deutach 

Hauck, KD . . lands, vol. i., Letpaic, 1904; vol, ii.,

1900; vol. iii., 1906; vol, iv., 1903

1 ~Realeru ykloP&die ffir Proleatantiache The­

Hauck Herzog aloDie and Kirche, founded by J. J.



RE Herzog, 3d ed. by A. Hauck, Leipaic,

189fr1909

Heb . Epistle to the Hebrews

Hebr . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hebrew



Hefele,Concilien ~ C' J. von Hefele, Conciliengeachichtef con 

Deachichte . . . . . tinued by J. Hergenrother, vole., t. vi

Heimbucher, Or  viii. ix., FrFreiburg, 1883 93

den and Kon­

greyationen ....



Helyot, Ordrea

M07da8t2qne8. . .

Henderson, Doo 

umenta . Hist

Mist. eccl......

J ..............

J.4.............

JaffE, BRG......

J.40S

( M. Heimucher, Die Orden and Korfgre­

i gatiovzen der katholiachen Kirche, 2d

ed. 3 vole., Paderborn, 1907

P. Helyot, Hiatoire des ordrea monas 

tiquea, relipieux et militairea, 8 vole.,

Pans, 1714 19; new ed.. 1839 42

E. F. Henderson, Select Historical Docu­ments of the Middle Ages, London, 1892

. .History, hiatoire, hiatoria

J Hiatfn•ia celeaiaatica, eccleaice, " Church History"

Ilom .. . . . . . . . . ...Homilies, lurmiliai, " homily, homilies "

Ilos . Hosea

Isa Isaiah

Ita1 Italian



..Jahvist (Yahwist)

.Journal Aaiatique Paris, 1822 aqq.

~) P. JaffE, Bi~theca rerum Gernvani­carum, 6 vole., Berlin, 1884 73

P. JaffE, ReDeala Pontifacum Romanarum



JaffE, Regeatn .... ~ . ad annum 1198, Berlin, 1851; 2f3 ed., Leipsic, 1881 88

. . _ , . _ . . ~ Journal of the American Oriental Society, New Haven 1849 aqq.

Journ.al of Biblical Literature and Exepe­aia, first appeared as Journal of the



JBL . . . . . . . . . . . ~ Society of Biblical Literature arid Exe 

gesis, Middletown, 1882 88, then Bos­

ton, 1890sq q

The Jewish Encyclopedia, 12 vole., New

JE York, 1901 08

JE . The combined narrative of the Jahvis

(Yahwiet) and Elohist

Jer . Jeremiah

Josephus, Ant j Flavius Josephus, " Antiquities of the

Jews "


Josephus, Apion . Flaviua Joaephus, " Against Apion "

Joaephua, Lxte . Life of Flavius Josephus

foaephua, 11'ar . Flavius Joaephus, The Jewish War"

Josh . Joshtta

Jahrbiicher fur protestantiache Theologie,

JPT .. .. .. .. ... Leipsic, 1875 sqq.

JQR. . . . . . . . . , , ~ The Jewish Quarterly Review, London,

1888 sqq.

JTS ~'1°tzrnal of Theological Studies, London,

1899 sqq.

Julian, Hym  ) J. Julian, A Dictionary of Hymnology,

I tology revised edition, London, 1907

I

Jaarboeken voor Wetenschappeliike Theo­



JTVT logic, Utrecht, 1845 sqq.

KA T Sfx Schrader

KB See Schrader

KD . See Friedrich, Hauck, Rettbetyg

Wetzer anti Welts a Kirchenlexikon, 2d

KL . . . . . . . . . . . . ed., by J. Hergenrother and F. Kaulen,

12 vole., Freiburg. 1882 1903



G.

7 .f, , .zrZy Christian

iiriiger, Hiatoryl L2teratzfre anLthe First Three Centuries,

(New fork. 1897



Krumbacher, ~ K• Krumbacher Geachichte der byzan­

Geachichte ..... tantachen Litteratur, 2d ed., Munich,

1897

1P. Lsbbe, Saaorum concilimum nova



Labbe, Conciliai et ampliaaima collectio, 31 vole., Flor­

( sate and Venice, 1759 98

Lam . . . . . . . . . . ...Lamentations

Lanigan. Eccl. ~ J• Lanigan, Ecclesiastical History of

Hiat . . . . , Ireland o the 13th Century, 4 vole.,

Dublin, 1829

Lat . Latin, Latinized

Leg . LeDeatlegum



Lev . Levittcus

Lichtenberger, ~ F• Lichtenberger, EneyclopEdie des aci­

1~ reliDaewea, 13 vole., Paris, 1877 

ESR ........
Lorenz, DGQ . . . 1 O• Lorenz, Deutachlanda Geachichtaqueh den im Miuelalter, 3d. ed., Berlin, 1887

LXX . The Septuagint

I Mace I Maccabees

11 Mace II Maccabees

Mai, Nova col_ ~ A. Mai, ScriPtandm veterum nova coG­lectio . . . . . . . . . lectio, 10 vole., Rome, 1825 38

Mal . . . . . . . . . . . . Malachi

Mann, Popes ~ R. C. Mann, Lives of the Popes in the

Early Middle Ages, London, 1902 sqq.

G. D. Manai, Sanctorum conciliorum

Manei, Concilia ~ collectio nova, 31 vole., Florence and

Venice, 1728

Matt . . . . . . . . . . . . Matthew

`Mnnumenta Germanic; kiatorifxi, ed. G. H.

Peru alzd others, Hanover and Ber­

lin, 1826 eqq. Te following abbrevia­

tions are used for the sections and sub­

sections of this work: Ant., Antifrui­

tatea, " Antiquities "; Auct. ant., Auc­

tfrrea antiquiaeimi, " Oldest Writers ";

Chron, man. Chronica minors, " Lesser

Chronicles ' ; Dip, Diplomats, ' Di­

plomas, Documents ' ; EiZiat, Eyia­

tola•„ " Letters ' ; Geat, yont. Rom .,

Geata pontificum Romanorum., ' Deeds

of the popes of Rome "~ Leg., Legea,

" Laws '; Lib. de life, Libelli de lice

inter regnum et ascerdotium aa'culorum

xi et xii conacripli, " Books concerning

the Strife between the Civil and Eccle­

MGH . aiastical Authorities in the Eleventh

and Twelfth Centuries' • Nec., Ne­

crologies (lermanica, " Necrology of

Germany' ; Poet. Lest. f>wvi Car.,

Pocks Latini cevi Carolini, " Latin

Poets of the Caroline Time "; Poet.

Lest. med. acvi, Poelee Latini medii awi,

Latin Poets of the Middle Ages";

Script., Scriptorea ' Writers' • Script.

rer. Germ., Scriptorea rerum Germani­

canaml ' Writers on German Sub­

jects ' ; Script, rer. Langob., Smi.ptorea

rerum Largo rdicarum et Italicarum,

Writers on Lombard and Italian

Subjects "; Script. rer. Merov., Smip­

torea rerum Merwin9icarum. " Writers

on Merovingian Subjects'

Mic . Micah

H. H. Milman History of Latin CAria 

Milman, Latin ~ dignity. Including that of the Popes to

Christianity Nicholas V., 8 vole., London.

1860 81

C. Mirbt Quellen zurGeachichte des Papat 



tume and des rf5miachen Katholieiamua,

Tiibingen, 1901

W. Mueller, History of flee Christian

Church, 3 vole., London, 1892 1900

J. P. Migne, Patrologi(e tarsus completua,

aeries Grace, 162 vole., Paris, 1857 66

hIPL . . . .; J. P. Migne; Patrologice torsos eemPlelua

aeries Latina, 221 vole., Paris, 1844 84

MS., MSS . Manuacript, Manuscripts

Muratori, Scrip JL. A. Muratori, Rerum Italicarum acrip 

torea . force, 28 vole., 172's 51

Neuea Archiv der Geaellarhaft fiir titters

NA deutsche Geachichtakunde, Hanover,



1876 sqq.

Nah. . . . . . . . . . . . .. Nahum

n.d no date of publication

Neander, Chris 1A' Neander, General History of the Chris­tian Church. . . tier Religion and Church, 6 vole. and

index, Boston, 1872=81

Neh . Nebemiah

Niceron, m1R.Z. Niceron Dlirzwirea pour aeroir h

1stoire des hf»nmea iltuatres . , 43

moiree vole., Paris, 1729 45

NKZ . ~ N~qkirchliche Zeitachrift, Leipaie, 1890

Nowaek, ArchB  ~ W. Nowaak, Lehrbuch der hebriiiachen

oloDie . . . Archiiologie, 2 vole., Freiburg, 1894

n.p no place of publication

Mirbt, Quellen.

Moeller, Chris 

tian Church..

MPG..........




LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

The Nicene and PoahNicene Fathers, let

NPNF ... . . . . . . series, 14 vole., New York, 1887 92; 2d

series, 14 vole., New York, 1890 1900

N. T.. . . . . . . . . .; New Testament, Nauum TeatamenEum, Nouveau Testament, Neuea Testament

Num .... . . . . . . . ..Numbers

Ob Obadish

S. B ,,,,, ~ Ordo aanct% Bened%cti, " Order of St.



O. Benedi ct "

O. T Old Testament

OTJC . See Smith

p„ . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Priestly document

L. Pastor, The History of the Popes from

Pastor, Popes. . . ~ the Close of the Middle Apes. 8 vole.,

London, 1891 1908

PEA . . ... . . , , , , I Patrea eccleaia Anglicante, ed. J. A. Giles, 34 vole., London, 1838 48

PEF .... . . . . .. ...Palestine Exploration Fund



I Pet .. . . .. . . . . ... First Epistle of Peter

II Pet Second Epistle of Peter

Pliny, HisE. nat...Pliny, Hiatoria. naturalia

Potthaat, Wep ~A'~ott)~e~8~ ~ e~ ~ to~ a ~ i

weiaer . werke, Berlin, 1898

Prov Proverbs

Ps . Psalma

PS BA . . 3Proceedings of the Society of Biblical

J Archeology, London, 1880 q.

q.v., qq.v . . quod (quw) vide, " which see'

It Redactor

Ranks, Popes... ~I° von Ranks, History of the Popes, 3 vole., London, 1900

RDM . . . . . . . .... . Revue des deux mo»dea, Paris, 1831 aqq.

I2E See Hauck Herzog

Reich, Docu  ) E. Reich, Select Documents Illustrating Me­menta .. . .... . . 1 dia'val and Modern History, London, 1905

REJ .. . . . ... . . . . . Revue des 6tudea Juivea, Paris, 1880 eqq.

Rettberg, KD... 1 F' R'. Rettberg, Kirchengesch%chte Deutaclc 

~ lands, 2 vole., GSttingen, 1846 48

Rev Book of Revelation

RHR . ;Re"'"a de Z'histo%re des religions, Paris,

1880 eqq.

Richter, Kirchen ~ A• L. Richter, Lehrbuch des katholiarhen

recht . , Und evanpeliachen Kirchenrechta, 8th

ed . by W. Kahl, Leipaic, 1888

Robinson, Re   ( E. Robinaon, Biblical Researches in aearc7eea, and Palestine, Boston, 1841, and Later Later Re  ~ Biblical Researches in Palestine, 3d ed.

searches of the whole, 3 vole., 1867

Robinson, , Euro  I J. H. Robins on, Readings in European pears History . Hia=i2 vole., Boston, 1904 06

Robinson and J. H. neon and C. A. Beard, DDevelop­

Beard, M~ ~ 1 07 of Modem Europe, 2 vol., Boston,

Europe

Rom . ~.REpi~stle~ ~~ ~e~ti a Arms,

RSE . 1860 74, Amiena, 1875 eqq~

RTP .... . . . . . . . I RevW do thlolopie et de philosophic,

Lausanne, 1873

R. V Reviaed Version (of the English Bible)

ecec . areculum ' century'

I Sam .... .. .I Samuel

II Sam .. . II Samuel

SBA ? ~'S''tr""paberichte der Berliner Akademie,

Berlin, 1882 eqq.

F. Max Miiller and others, The Sacred

SBE . Books of the East, Oxfor, 1879 eqq.,

Vol. xlviii., 1904

Sacred Books of the Old Testament (" Rain­

SBOT . bow Bible ), Leipeic, London, and



Baltimore, 1894 sqq

Schaff, Chriat%anj P• Schaff, History o/ the Christian Church, Church . . . . . , , vole, i. iv., vi., vii„ New York, 1882 92, Vol  v., part 1, by D. S. Schaff, 1907

Schaff, Creeds... ~ P• Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, 3 vole. New York, 1877 84

ESchrader, . Cuneiform Inscriptions and

Schrader, COT. . ~ the Old estament, 2 vole., London,

1885 88

Schrader, KAT . ~ E• Schrader, Die Keilinachrlften and daa Alte Testament, 2 vole., Berlin, 1902 03

Schrader, KB... ~ E' Schrader, Kealinachriftliche Bibliothek, 8 vole., Berlin, 1889 1901

'E. Schiirer, Geachichte des jiidiachen Yolkea im ZeitalterJeauChriati, 4th ed„ 3 vole., Leipaic, 1902aqq,; Eng. transl., 5 vole., New York, 1891

Script .. . .... . . . . `Scr_i,ptares, " writers

Scrivener, F. H, A. Scrivener, Introduction to New Tea­

Introduclion . , { tamen.t Criticism, 4th ed., London, 1894

Sent . „,.Sententice " Sentnces "

S. J. . . . . , , , , , , Societaa Jean " Society of Jesus "

SK . • ~Theolopische Studien and Kritiken, Ham­

burg, 1826 aqq,

SMA . . . . . . . ~ S%tzunpaberichte der Mtinehener Aka­

demie, Munich, 1860 aqq

Smith, Kinship ~ w• R• Smith, inship and Marriage in

Early Arabia., London, 1903

SchiSrer,

Geachichte. , .

W. R. Smith, The Old Testament in the

Smith, OTJC. . . Jewish Church. London, 1892

Smith, Prophets.. ~ wthe Eighth Smith, Prophets 95 Israel . ~ ~ ~

Smith, Rel. of'W. R. Smith, Religion of the Sem%taa.

Sem London, 1894

S. P. C. K.. ... . 1 Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge

S. P. G. . . . . . . . . ~ Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts sq., eqq.. . , ... . . . . and following

Strom . . . . . . . . . . Stromata, iscellaniea "

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Swete, Introduc  ~ H. B. 3wete, Introduction to the Old Tea­

tion. , , , , , , , , , lament in Greek, London, 1900



Syr . Syriac

TBS . . . . . .. .. . . .Trinitarian Bible Society

Thatcher and (O. J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal, A



McNeal, Souree~ Source Book for Mediawal History,

Book . .. . . . . . . l New York, 1905

I These First Epistle to the Thessalonians

II These . Second Epistle to the Thessalonians



ThT . . . . . . . , , , I Theolopische Tijdarhrifl. Amsterdam and

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I Tim First Epistle to Timothy

II Tim . . .. .. .... .Second Epistle to Timothy

Theologiacher Jahreabericht, LeiI?sic, 1882­

TJB . 1887, Freiburg, 1888, Brunswick, 1889­

1897, Berlin, 1898 eqq.



TLB ...... .; The°loputchea Intteraturblatt, Bonn, 1866

TLZ .. . . { TheolqOgiache Litteraturzeitung, Leipsic,

1878 aqq.

Tob Tobit

TQ . . . ~ Theolopiaehe Quarfalachrifl. Tiibingen,

1819 aqq.

TS ; J• A. Robinson, Texts and Studios,

Cambridge, 1891 sq q

Transactions of the Society of Biblical

Archmolopy, London, 1872 aqq.

Theolopische Studien and Kr%t%ken, Ham­

burg, 1826 aqq.

Texts and Unterauchungen zur Geachichte



der altchrletliehen Litteratur, ed. O. von

Gebhardt and A. .Harnack, Leip,ic,

1882 eqq.

Tubi er Zeitsch'' t iir T



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bingen, 1838 40

Ugolini, Theeau )B. Ugolinus, Thesaurus antiquitatum

rua . aaaarum. 34 vole., Venice, 1744_69

V. T VetuaTeatamentum,VieuxTeatament, 'Old

Testament '

Wat.tenbach, w• R'attenbach, Deutachlands Geachichta 

DGQ . ZZen. 5th ed., 2 vole., Berlin, 1385;

ed., 1893 94

Wellhausen, ) J. R'ellhauaen, Reate arabischen Heiden­

Heidentum ... . 1 fume, Berlin, 1887

Wellhsueen, ~ J• Wellhauaen, Prolegomena zur Ceachichle



Prolegomena... la''aels• 6th ed., Berlin, 1905, Eng.

tranNl., Edinburgh, 1885



Zeitachrift fur Aasyreolopie, Leipsic,

ZA . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Berlin, 1889 sqq.

Zahn, E%nlei  ~ T, Zahn, Einleitunp in daa Neu, Teata­tunp ' ' ' "' ' ' ' ment, d ed., Leipaic, 1907

Zahn, Kanon.,., ~ T• Zahn, Geachichte des neutestament­lichen Kanona 2 voe., Leip•ic, ISSB 92

Zeitachrift fur die altteatamenllicle IVis­senschaft, Giessen, 1881 sqq.

Zeitschrift fiirdeutacea Alterthumuruldcut­ache Lateratur Berlin, 1876 aqq

ZDMG ... . . . . . . ~ Zectachrift der deutachen morpenhtndiachen Geael7schaft, Leipsic, 1847 aqq.

Zi$~rift fitr deutsche philologie, Halle,

Zeitachriftq•des deutachen PalSatina Ver­

1 eina, Leipsic. 1878 sqq.

...Zechariah



Zephaniah

Zeatachrift Ifir die hiatoriache Theolopie,



ZHT . ,, published successively at Leipsig

Hamburg, and Goths, 1832 75

ZKG ~ Zeits°hri.ft fiir Kirchenpeachichte. Goths,

l876 aqq

ZKR . . . . „ Zextachrift /itr Kirchenrecht Berlin, Tii­

bingen hreiburg, 1861 aqq,

ZKT , , , , , , , , , ~ ZeiZBChrift fiir katholiache Theologie, Inns­

bruck, 1877 sqq,

ZKW . , , , , , , ~ Zaltachrijt fur karchliclre Wieaereachaft and

kirchliehea Leben, Leipaie, 1880 89

ZNTW . . . . . . . . ~ Zeitachrijt fur die neutestamentliche Wis 

aenachaft, Giessen 1900 sqq.

/Zeitachrift fiirProteetantiamuaundKirche,



ZPK"""" ' • Erlangen, 1838 76

(Zextachrift fx7r wiaeensrhajtliche Th cologie,

ZWT . j1 Jena. 1858 60. Halle, 1881 87, Leipaie,

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