Assessment Schedule – 2010 History: Describe experiences that have been significant to the identity of New Zealanders (90214)



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NCEA Level 1 History (90214) 2010 — page of

Assessment Schedule – 2010

History: Describe experiences that have been significant to the identity of New Zealanders (90214)

Judgement Statement


Grade

Score range

N

0 – 2

A

3 – 4

M

5 – 6

E

7 – 8

Note: these score ranges are specific to this standard for 2010.

Evidence Statement


Topic One: Social Welfare in New Zealand 1891–1980

(a) Describe TWO specific ways the Liberal government attempted to improve the lives of New Zealanders.



Evidence may include:

  • Factory Acts, 1891 and 1894: Women and children younger than 16 years were not to work more than 48 hours a week in a factory. All factory workers were to have five days’ annual holiday and weren’t to work on Saturday afternoons or Sundays. Factory Acts were an attempt to restore some dignity to women and children, and safeguard against their exploitation. New Zealanders thought their country should offer an improvement on the poor conditions of industrial Britain.

  • Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act 1894: Established conciliation boards to hear disputes between workers and employers. If these boards could not settle the disputes, they would be heard in the Arbitration Court; but to do this, the workers had to belong to a registered union. Encouraged formation of trade unions, prevented strikes occurring.

  • Industrial Shop and Shop Assistants Act 1892: Regulated working conditions in shops. Limited hours of work to 52 hours a week for women and young people under 18. Provisions did not apply to male workers.

  • Coal Mines Act: Nationalised the coal mines.

  • Conciliation and Arbitration Act 1894, Truck Act 1894, Shop and Shop Assistants Act 1892, Coal Mines Act – all different ways to improve the lives of working people, to make workplaces safe, and to stop employers taking advantage of or exploiting workers. Resulted in far fewer strikes. Union members could not be harassed for being a member of a union. Supported the belief that “Jack was as good as his master”, and in “an honest day’s pay for an honest day’s work”.

  • Advances to Settlers Acts, 1892 and 1894: opened rural Crown lands on an affordable basis, so that more farmers of limited means could have land, the selector choosing either to buy his holding for cash (with seven years to pay), or to take up a license that permitted “occupation with right of purchase” on generous conditions, or to accept the “lease in perpetuity” (the famous 999 years’ lease), at an annual rental of 4 per cent of the capital value of the land at the date of selection. 1894 Government Advances to Settlers Act, designed to meet farmers’ capital needs, by making loans available, on security, at reasonable interest rates. Not available for Māori. Advances to Settlers Act, 1892: provided cheap state loans so more men could buy farms and equipment, thereby opening up farming as an occupation for more than just the wealthy landed class.

  • Truck Act 1898: Workers to be paid in money, not goods or “in kind” (“truck”). Bosses could no longer force their workers to purchase goods from their stores.

  • Old Age Pension Act, 1898: Men over 65 and women over 60 were to get a means-tested benefit. Those of dubious character and those who had arrived in New Zealand less than 25 years earlier were excluded. By providing monetary assistance to those too old to work, the Act was designed to eradicate poverty and poor housing. New Zealanders could retire without fear of falling into poverty.

  • Public Health Act – established Department of Health, which set regulations for construction of houses – eg toilets, waste disposal etc, notification of infectious diseases

  • Midwives Registration Act 1904 – midwives to be trained and registered to improve infant and maternal mortality rates.

(b) Describe, in detail, TWO reasons why the Liberal government needed to improve the lives of New Zealanders.

Evidence may include:

  • Before the 1890s, government had left the welfare of the dependent to church and charity organisations. The measures taken by the Liberals were a change because for the first time, government was taking over the role of these organisations by looking after the needs of those without sufficient money, especially those too old to work.

  • There was an emergence of the view that in this country, sweated labour, exploitation of workers, poor conditions for workers, etc should not exist, and that it was the role of the state to ensure that such things were to be eliminated. There had been a utopian ideal of life in New Zealand, but it had become lost along the way. This had become evident with the uncovering of “sweated” labour in Dunedin.

  • The Liberal government was not afraid to be bold and radical in sticking up for the rights of less fortunate groups in society, to the extent of being regarded as the “social laboratory of the world”.

  • The Liberal government was prepared to stand up to the more privileged classes such as landowners or factory and shop owners in order to safeguard or improve the rights of less fortunate classes. Before this, there had been no one to be the champion or supporter of these people. New Zealanders were given hope that life in this country would be better than it had been in the “old country”.

(c) Explain, using supporting evidence, how the Liberal government’s actions changed the attitudes of New Zealanders towards social welfare issues.

Evidence may include:

  • A culture of government intervention and assistance, to help improve the lives of ordinary people, developed. Government departments were set up to take a major role in areas such as:

  • providing an effective health system. A Department of Health was set up, with New Zealand being divided into health districts. Public health officers were appointed to oversee regulations relating to such things as drains, toilets, hospitals and mortuaries

  • providing good housing for working people. Government made cheap loans available to buy a section and build a house. Houses were built by the Labour Department that were rented or leased to workers.

  • Community groups were developed and strengthened to help improve the lives of ordinary New Zealanders. Organisations that played major roles in the late 19th and early 20th centuries included:

  • The Foundation for the Blind was established to help blind people learn new trades and remind the community that the blind had special needs.

  • The Plunket Society was set up, with the aim of lowering the mortality rate of infants. The government provided aid to the Plunket scheme where mothers were advised and babies regularly checked free of charge. Karitane hospitals were also set up for very young babies who needed special nursing care.

  • A District Nursing Association was set up to extend the work begun by Nurse Maude in Christchurch. They cycled around Christchurch attending the sick and needy. This service set a pattern for the rest of the country.

  • Secondary schooling was provided for a far greater number of pupils with the introduction of Technical High Schools and the building of more District High Schools. Secondary schools were forced by the government to grant free places to children of poorer families.

  • A National Council of Women was set up to work for social reforms for women (equal pay and work opportunities, economic independence) as well as reforms relating to the treatment of offenders.

  • The social welfare measures introduced by the Liberals had the support of most New Zealanders.

  • Many had been concerned that the “old world evils” that they had tried to leave behind in England (eg exploitation, low wages, poor housing etc), were present in the new colony. The social welfare measures introduced by the Liberals were recognised as an attempt to improve the lives of ordinary people. There was a strong emphasis on improving the health of New Zealanders, as well as regulating the way workers were treated by employers (giving workers some input into achieving better working conditions).

  • The introduction of a pension for the elderly was welcomed as it was recognition of the input these earliest settlers had into establishing the colony. Many of the qualifying elderly were single males who had no family to support them.

  • The recognition given to women was welcomed by the country’s women. They saw it as recognition of the important role they had played in establishing the colony.

  • There was real pride amongst New Zealanders in the welfare measures the Liberals had introduced. New Zealand was seen as showing the way to the rest of the world. Many influential social reformers from all over the world came to see first-hand the “social laboratory,” which was the envy of other countries. The notion that New Zealand was “God’s own country” persisted through most of the 20th century. It was reiterated many times by many different political parties as they sought to further improve on these original social welfare measures.

Topic Two: Social Welfare in the Māori World 1918–1998

(a) Describe TWO specific ways individuals and groups were affected by welfare matters between 1918 and 1945.



Evidence may include:

  • Influenza Epidemic and other health matters

  • This epidemic had a major effect on all New Zealanders.

  • 6 000 to 8 600 New Zealanders died in this epidemic that took place at the end of World War I.

  • The death rate for Māori was far higher than the general population. For every 1 000 Māori, on average 23 died.

  • The disease spread rapidly because of unhygienic conditions.

  • Many children were left as orphans.

  • Māori health was an issue before 1918, and it continued to be an issue throughout this period. Part of this was due to the unhygienic conditions that most Māori lived in.

  • The Kainga-type housing they lived in was often overcrowded, with little ventilation and with dirt floors. The water sources used were often unsanitary as well.

  • These conditions and the continuing susceptibility to disease meant average age of death for Māori was a lot lower than for Pākehā throughout this period.

  • Great Depression

  • Māori were affected greatly by the Great Depression of the 1930s.

  • Māori men were not counted in the official unemployment figures.

  • It was believed that Māori could rely on their tribes for assistance.

  • It was also assumed that Māori had fewer material needs than Pākehā.

  • Māori unemployment was estimated at 40 per cent.

  • Māori were not entitled to the same level of unemployment relief payments as Pākehā up until 1936.

  • At the end of the First World War, Māori were in a low social position. Māori mostly lived in a rural setting away from the main urban areas.

  • They had lost most of their land by 1918.

  • They were in possession of only around 5 per cent of New Zealand’s land by this time.

  • Most Māori worked for other people in low-skilled jobs.

  • Many rural Māori worked seasonal jobs involved with the land such as fruit picking, vegetable planting and gathering.

  • Others also worked on the land in farming either on their own properties.

  • After World War I, many of the veterans of the Pioneer Battalion were embittered because of the unequal treatment they received.

  • These veterans had not received land grants at the end of World War I, as other military veterans had.

  • Towards the end of this period, many Māori, along with Pākehā, served overseas during World War II. A number of these men were killed.

(b) Describe, in detail, TWO ways the government responded to poor Māori health and social conditions between 1918 and 1945.

Evidence may include:

  • Influenza

  • Te Puea Herangi provided hospital care for Māori who were affected in the Waikato area. She kept to the routines of boiling water, cleaning and providing food. Afterwards, she took care of the children orphaned by the epidemic.

  • Maui Pomare and Te Rangi Hiroa helped to implement health policies.

  • Māori leaders were encouraged to co-operate with nurses and medical officers in their efforts to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. These included changes to housing. The old-style houses were replaced by more modern housing. Improved systems of sanitation such as more modern toilets were also encouraged.

  • In the 1935 general election, the Labour Party was elected to Government for the first time.

  • From the early 1930s onwards, Ratana candidates had begun to win the Māori seats.

  • By 1935, Ratana had two of the four seats. In 1936, Ratana agreed to an alliance with the Labour Party.

  • The Labour Government removed discrimination in the level of benefits. Extra funding was provided for Māori housing and also for the Land development schemes that had been originated by Apirana Ngata.

  • In 1938, during their second term, the Labour Government introduced the Social Security Act 1938. The benefits that were introduced in this act were designed to support New Zealanders from the “cradle to the grave”.

  • Māori were entitled to the same level of benefits as everyone else. The benefits included a superannuation benefit, unemployment and sickness benefit and a domestic purposes benefit.

  • Social matters, employment and land matters

  • Two of the organisations or groups that aimed to improve Māori social position were the Kīngitanga movement and the Ratana Church.

  • Te Puea rejuvenated the Kīngitanga movement through the establishment of Turangawaewae at Ngaruawahia. It established a place for Waikato Māori to be able to gather and discuss tribal issues.

  • T.W. Ratana established a spiritual movement based on healing in the 1920s. His pa and national temple at Ratana became a national centre for his new Christian-based religious movement. In the late 1920s, Ratana pursued an alliance with the Labour Party, which became the Government in 1935 with a strong welfare focus. Candidates were set up to pursue the four Māori seats.

  • Apirana Ngata set up Land Development Schemes to encourage Māori to retain and utilise their land to the fullest extent. This would hopefully give Māori a better standard of living. In World War II, he promoted the formation of the 28th (Māori) Battalion as part of the 2nd NZ Division along with organising whānau, hapū and iwi to support the war effort through donations.

(c) Explain, using supporting evidence, how the government responses to welfare matters between 1918 and 1945 changed New Zealanders’ attitudes towards Māori Social Welfare.

Evidence may include:

  • Māori took a more prominent role in New Zealand life during this period.

  • Apirana Ngata and Maui Pomare were both cabinet ministers in various governments during the 1920s and 1930s.

  • Their standing in the wider community was reflected in both of them being knighted during this period. The measures they encouraged such as Māori health improvements and Land Development schemes were passed by the various governments and parliaments.

  • Sir Apirana Ngata was a well respected minister until he resigned in 1934. Along with the Land Development Schemes, he was able to encourage the setting up of the Sims Royal Commission to look at possible compensation.

  • He was an MP until 1943. He was also one of the foundation MPs for the National Party when it was formed from the remnants of the Reform and United Parties in 1936. He also encouraged Māori Arts and Crafts; in the 1920s, a Māori Arts and Crafts centre was opened in Rotorua.

  • Te Arawa also received compensation for the lakes around Rotorua in the 1920s. By the end of the period, Māori were entitled to the same level of welfare benefits as Pākehā.

  • The Ratana went into a formal alliance with the Labour Party in 1936. At the time, they held two of the Māori seats. In 1938, they won Northern Māori and in 1943 Sir Apirana Ngata lost the Eastern Māori seat. This relationship helped the Labour Party to equalise benefits paid to Māori in the Social Security Act 1938. They also provided opportunities for housing finance, spent more on Māori health and education, and also provided social security and the first Māori Welfare Officers.

  • Te Puea Herangi formed a culture group, Te Pou O Mangatawhiri, to go around New Zealand raising funds for the building at Ngaruawahia during the 1920s.

  • In 1928, after meeting with Apirana Ngata, she met with the Prime Minister Gordon Coates.

  • She worked closely with government in the 1930s, including the Land Development schemes. As a result of this work, she became well respected in the wider New Zealand community and she was awarded a CBE in 1938.

  • In World War II, she supported the war effort even though Tainui volunteers were not numerous for the Māori Battalion. In 1946, after a period of negotiation, Tainui received compensation for the confiscation of land in the 1860s.

  • The Māori Battalion and Māori War Effort Organisation were formed during World War II to support New Zealand’s war effort.

  • The Māori Battalion was one of the 11 infantry Battalions that were part of the division.

  • Their efforts during the war were widely praised during the conflict. The Battalion had one of the highest casualty rates in the Division and won a large number of decorations for bravery.

  • This helped after the period when Māori were looking for more equal treatment.

  • In a cosmetic change, the Native Affairs Department was renamed the Māori Affairs Department after the war. Paraire Paikea was appointed Minister in charge of the Māori war effort during World War II. He established the Māori War Effort Organisation to support the war.

Topic Three: Race Relations: New Zealand, Māori and Pākehā 1912–1980

(a) Describe TWO specific ways that Māori supported the war effort during World War II.



Evidence may include:

  • 17 000 Māori men enlisted between 1939 and 1945, all Māori enlisting were volunteers.

  • Formation of the NZ 28th Battalion, or Māori Battalion – fought with bravery and distinction.

  • Establishment of the Māori War Effort Organisation to encourage Māori to enlist.

  • 500 Māori worked in essential war industries.

(b) Describe in detail TWO ways that World War II impacted on Māori society in New Zealand during the 1940s.

Evidence may include:

  • Government recognised that Māori achieve more if they work together as a tribe.

  • Opening up of many new labouring and manufacturing jobs not previously available to Māori men and women.

  • Movement of Māori men and women to the cities, mostly to Auckland.

  • Negative impact on those Māori remaining in the rural areas as it was mostly young men and women who were leaving the tribe; the elders wanted them to stay.

  • Māori experienced discrimination in the cities and were forced into substandard and slum housing.

  • Opening up of more work opportunities for women – they had to take over running the farms and rural industries.

(c) Explain, using supporting evidence, how the contribution of Māori during World War II changed attitudes toward Māori in New Zealand in the 1940s.

Evidence may include:

  • Māori were treated the same as Pākehā when they returned to New Zealand; this was very different from how they had been treated after WWI and started to depict a change in attitudes towards Māori.

  • Māori Battalion fought with courage and daring in some of the toughest campaigns in North Africa, Crete, Greece and Italy.

  • Members of the Māori Battalion came home with enormous mana, both in the Māori world and the Pākehā world.

  • Governmental attitudes started to change when they realised that allowing Māori to work together along tribal lines was more profitable than the previous idea that tribalism was a barrier to success.

Topic FOUR: International Relations: New Zealand’s Search for Security 1945–1985

(a) State TWO specific ways New Zealanders showed opposition to French nuclear testing in the Pacific from 1972 to 1975.



Evidence may include:

  • 1972: first meeting of South Pacific Forum in Wellington instructs New Zealand Government to request halt to further French atmospheric tests

  • 1972: Greenpeace and New Zealand peace groups to delay nuclear tests by several weeks by trespassing with a ship, the Vega (aka Greenpeace III) in the testing zone.

  • The voyage resulted in a public petition, promoted by Radio Hauraki, urging government action. The petition got 82 000 signatures.

  • 1972: the New Zealand Peace Media organised an international flotilla of protest yachts including Fri, Spirit of Peace, Boy Roel, Magic Island (with author Maurice Shadbolt on board) and Tanmure (with MP Matiu Rata – an opposition MP – on board) to sail into the test exclusion zone.

  • June 1972: UN Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm: Diplomatic moves by the New Zealand Government intensify: a general resolution sponsored by New Zealand and eight other Pacific countries called for the abandonment of all nuclear weapons tests

  • July 1972: United Nations First Committee: New Zealand moved a motion condemning atmospheric tests. It passed 106–4, with eight abstentions

  • May 1973: New Zealand’s new Labour Government challenged France’s decision to carry out a series of atmospheric nuclear tests in the South Pacific and sought a ruling from the ICJ that the tests were illegal. The ICJ granted provisional measures in favour of New Zealand in June 1973. France nevertheless proceeded to conduct a series of tests in July–August 1973 and June–Sept 1974.

  • July 1973: a three-ship Peace Flotilla sailed. This time, the new Labour Government and new Prime Minister, Norman Kirk, also sent two navy frigates to Mururoa, HMNZS Otago and later, relieving them, HMNZS Canterbury. A Cabinet Minister, Fraser Coleman, whose name had been selected by lot, was present during both phases of the protest. They were accompanied by HMAS Supply, a fleet oiler of the Royal Australian Navy

(b) Describe in detail, TWO reasons why the New Zealand Government, led by Norman Kirk, protested on behalf of New Zealanders.

Evidence may include:

  • Opposed the tests because of the environmental damage, risk of radioactive fallout affecting South Pacific communities.

  • Moral objections to the development of nuclear weaponry.

  • The Kirk Government represented a more radical trend in New Zealand politics and foreign policy than the Jack Marshall-led National Party they replaced at the end of 1972. The Kirk Government were more committed to internationalism and less inclined to follow the policy dictates of larger allies, preferring a “moral” and relatively unaligned policy which reflected new perceptions, not old loyalties (as can be seen by their rapid withdrawal of New Zealand forces from Vietnam).

  • The Kirk Government took its obligations as a leader in the South Pacific very seriously. Together with Australia (also with a new Labor Government), New Zealand took on the leading role in regional protests its relative size and prosperity – and military capabilities – allowed.

  • Actions such as taking France to the World Court, getting a sympathetic hearing, a successful outcome and positive international publicity had a political payoff for the Kirk Government, who understood that New Zealanders liked to see themselves as fearless underdogs taking on the arrogant superpower polluting the local neighbourhood.

  • The Kirk Government had a measure of the idealism of the times and New Zealand’s nascent nationalism. Their rejection of sporting contact with South Africa, overtures to Black Africa, new consciousness on race relations in New Zealand, and institution of Waitangi Day are expressions of this.

(c) Describe, using supporting evidence, how the outcomes of these actions changed New Zealanders’ attitudes to nuclear issues

Evidence may include:

  • Created or at least made popular / respectable an “anti-nuclear tradition”. During the 1970s and early 1980s, increasing numbers of New Zealanders opposed the visits of nuclear armed and nuclear-powered ships to New Zealand waters.

  • These visits were from American ships that were usually visiting to carry out, or following, joint naval exercises with New Zealand and Australia as part of the ANZUS agreement. But the actions of the Kirk Government opened the possibility of a non-aligned New Zealand. This prospect split the country, with many embracing it while others saw it as disloyal to allies and compromising New Zealand’s security.

  • The split was along political party lines as well. National governments, such as the Muldoon Government, which was in power from 1975 to 1984, continued to emphasise obligations to allies and welcome nuclear armed and powered ships on visits. Growing protests made both the visits and the alliances significant political issues and “points of difference” between parties. In 1984, the Lange Labour Government reinstated the ban on ship visits, later enshrining the prohibition in legislation.

Topic Five: Women’s Health in New Zealand 1915–1985


(a) Describe TWO specific ways either the Māori Women’s Welfare League or the Family Planning Association attempted to improve the lives of women in New Zealand.

Evidence may include:

  • Māori Women’s Welfare League

  • Emphasised basic hygiene

  • Emphasised nutritious food

  • Set up committees of women throughout the country

  • Organised surveys on needs for health education, Māori housing and new roads

  • Organised surveys on women’s health – Rapuora; 1 177 Māori women answered the survey

FPA

  • Founded through the perceived need of stress placed on women having more children than they could afford

  • Discuss birth control advice and continue to lobby government for birth control clinics

  • Use doctors that would give women birth control advice

(b) Describe in detail, TWO reasons why these improvements needed to be made.

Evidence may include:

Māori Women’s Welfare League

  • Māori women faced huge social problems such as poor housing, racial prejudice, inadequate housing and hospital facilities, inability to cope with urban life, changes to diet when moving to urban areas, different types of work, lack of family support, new ideas of bringing up children and needed methods and new strategies to deal with these.

  • Rapuora highlighted problems identified by Māori women as being depression, asthma, high blood pressure, obesity, arthritis, rheumatism.

  • 75 per cent highlighted that te taha wairua (spiritual side of health) important to them but not recognised in Pākehā medical system.

FPA

  • Women had husbands that were poorly paid or on relief work so were left struggling with numerous children.

  • Women knew little if anything about birth control and doctors were reluctant to educate them about it.

  • Contraceptives were very expensive, and out of reach of most women.

  • Many women turn to abortion as means of contraception.

(c) Explain, using supporting evidence, how the MWWL or Family Planning Association actions changed the attitudes of New Zealanders towards the health of women.

Evidence may include:

  • MWWL

  • Highlighted for people that the physical side of illness was only one part of the whole – for Māori other dimensions had to be taken into consideration eg te taha wairua – the spiritual side of people as well

  • Started to address the issues that specifically faced Māori women and bring them out into the open and find ways to address them from amongst the community, showing that women were valued in the community



  • FPA

  • Promotion of safe and effective contraception by FPA meant that unnecessary deaths of women were prevented and meant fewer families left without wives and mothers – started to place value on the lives of women

  • Highlighted the fact that fertility control was needed to stop the high rate of septic abortion particularly during the depression, thus showing that the health of women was important

Topic Six: The Place of Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1975-1998

(a) Describe TWO specific ways Māori groups and individuals responded to the government’s Te Tiriti o Waitangi policies in the 1980s.



Evidence may include:

  • There were large protests at the annual Waitangi Day celebrations at the Treaty Grounds from 1981 to 1983. These saw the official party heckled and the ceremonies disrupted. There were 27 people arrested in 1982 and 99 people arrested in 1983. In 1984, the Waitangi Action Committee put together a hikoi from Tainui, Mana Moutahake, National Māori Council, Māori Women’s Welfare League, church and other groups to travel to the annual Treaty celebrations at Waitangi. Several thousand people joined the Hikoi. After the hikoi, a meeting of some of the protestors was held in the Waikato. One of the recommendations was that the Waitangi Tribunal be able to investigate claims going back to 1840.

  • Court Cases. In 1987, the Māori Council bought a case against the government in New Zealand Māori Council vs. Attorney General 1987.

  • Claims to Waitangi Tribunal. There were a number of claims to the Waitangi Tribunal especially after 1985. These included Te Atiawa, Te Arawa and Manukau taking claims in the early to mid 1980s. There were also claims from 1985 onwards after the Waitangi Tribunal’s powers were extended to look at claims going back to 1840. These claims concerned a number of issues including fishing, land and language.

(b) Describe, in detail, TWO reasons for these responses to Te Tiriti o Waitangi government policies in the 1980s.

Evidence may include:

  • Some protestors claimed the Treaty was a fraud and had been a trick to allow Pākehā settlers to live peacefully in New Zealand. Others were calling for a greater acceptance of Māori values. By the mid 1980s, a number of the less radical protestors were supported by more mainstream groups. They were calling for the Treaty to be honoured and for the terms of the Treaty to be carried out. One of the measures they advocated was for the Waitangi Tribunal to be able to look at breaches of the Treaty going back to 1840.

  • The Māori Council challenged the State Owned Enterprises Act 1986. This act would State Owned Enterprises to be eventually sold off including the land they owned. This could mean that public land could eventually be sold privately. The Māori Council was concerned that a means of settling Māori grievances through the Waitangi Tribunal could be lost if this act was allowed to stand. The Māori Council won the case. This meant that crown land would be available to be used in future Treaty settlements. It also required the government to consult Māori and take into account the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi in all laws they made.

  • There were a number of claims to the Waitangi Tribunal in the 1980s. They related to a number of issues that concerned Māori nationally as well as regional issues. The claimants wanted their grievances related to the Treaty to be heard. They were hopeful that the recommendations of the Tribunal would help to change Government policy. This was particularly true after the Treaty of Waitangi Amendment Act 1985. From these 1980’s claims there was a settlement for Ngati Whatua over Orakei and Bastion Point. There were eventual settlements related fisheries after the Muriwhenua report of 1988. There were also advances in broadcasting related to radio and recognition of the Māori as an official language after a Tribunal report in 1986 and the broadcasting report of 1990.

(c) Describe, using supporting evidence, how these responses changed New Zealanders’ attitudes towards Te Tiriti o Waitangi in the 1980s.

Evidence may include:

  • There was some debate about Treaty issues in the 1980s. It was mostly about the actions of the more radical protestors. As the 1980’s continued and more mainstream Māori individuals and groups began to agitate for change the debate over the Treaty intensified. During the term of the Labour Government 1984–1990, Treaty issues became one of the major political issues. The report s of the Waitangi Tribunal and their recommendations helped to keep the Treaty in the spotlight. Parliamentary and public discussion also occurred. Government policy due to court cases and lobbying saw many important government Acts refer to the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi and also requiring the government to consult with Māori. In 1990, the sesquicentenary occurred. The Treaty was described as the founding document of New Zealand in the advertising campaigns of that year.

  • The Treaty settlements of the 1990 have occurred under a different government. Across the political spectrum the need for settlements and compensation was accepted even if the methods of doing so were different.


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