Assess the effects of World War I on two of the countries involved in the years following the war Introduction



Download 14.8 Kb.
Date conversion07.05.2016
Size14.8 Kb.
Assess the effects of World War I on two of the countries involved in the years following the war
Introduction:

  • World War I had damaging effects on all the countries that were involved. However, the extent to which they were affected by the war varied.

  • World’s economy was drained after WWI

  • Countries suffered economically, politically and socially

  • Two Countries chosen: Russia and Germany

  • Thesis: Germany and Russia suffered the tremendous effects of WWI: the loss of lives, economic repercussions and political upheavals. All of which left an indelible mark on the history of both countries.


Paragraph 2: GERMANY

  • Social Consequences

    • Loss of numerous lives  1.7 million dead, 4.3 million injured, amounted approximately to about 6 million

    • 37% increase in the number of women in the workforce  women now had a significant role to play in the German economy

    • Mindset of soldiers  felt that they had been cheated and “stabbed at the back”

    • German defeat was blamed on various parties: Kaiser, new government, Communists, Jews




  • Economics Consequences

    • Total Costs = $40 billion

    • Terms of Treaty of Versailles – GER was to pay $33 billion debt in reparations.

    • France’s occupation of the Ruhr Valley limited Germany’s means of repaying its debt

    • GER printed an abundance of paper money  merely led to severe inflation

    • GER had been experiencing inflation for 85 years

    • Inflation led to food shortages and the emergence of black markets

    • Total War: Industries were directed towards the production of military equipment and ammunition

    • After the war: machinery used in factories (for the production of military equipment) were now rendered obsolete and were operated by ill trained workers

    • GER had difficulty of trading with other countries as previous trading partners preferred to trade with the victorious Allies who had more stable economies




  • Geopolitical and Political Impact of War

    • Towards the end of WWI, GER could no longer sustain the costs of the war while its allies (AUS-HUN, Bulgaria, Hungary and the Ottoman Empire) suffered defeats in autumn of 1918

    • Lots of discontent – German towns and cities began to rule themselves. Sailors and soldiers continued to desert or mutiny

    • Leading to Kaiser Wilhelm II’s abdication of the throne and creation of the Weimar Republic

    • Food shortages led to radicalization of people’s views

      • Extremist views (Communism) was widely supported in industrial cities and led to uprisings

      • Govt was forced to make use of freikorps to suppress uprisings. Freikorps was made up of disillusioned soldiers with right wing beliefs.

    • WWI had extremely isolated Germany – was very difficult to trade as most of her previous trading partners preferred to do business with the victorious Allies. ToV banned the union of GER and A-H

    • Germans struggled diplomatically as their views were ignored at Peace Conference in Versailles

    • ToV: GER was to surrender all its colonies as League of Nation mandates and was to limit is army to 100,000 men with no conscription


Paragraph 3: RUSSIA

  • Economic Costs

    • Spiraling govt expenditure led to govt’s decision to print more money. This only resulted in inflationary problems

    • Total war  rapidly falling living standards, rising prices (inflation), fuel shortages and food shortages

    • By 1921  massive famine




  • Physical + Political Costs

    • Although Russian army had spirit and bravery, they lacked effective leadership and modern technology. In the first year alone of its involvement in WWI lost 4 million men

    • mid 1915  Tsar made decision to assume command of Army forces despite the advice of the Duma. Tsar’s lack of experience of leading troops led to mounting military defeats and organization of political groups (opposition)

    • TSARINA’s actions + RASPUTIN INFLUENCE  DISCONTENT OF PEOPLE




  • By 1917 the Tsar was in a very precarious positionRussia had been weakened by severe military defeats, poverty was engulfing the country again, opposition groups were getting louder and many of the people had lost confidence in the God-given powers of the Tsar.

    • Led to Tsar Nicholas II’s abdication of the throne, marking the end of Tsar’s rule. Russia was briefly ruled by the Provisional Government but was overthrown by communists (Bolsheviks – under Lenin) in 1918

  • WWI caused the revolution of Russia to take place.

    • Magnified the tensions between the people and the elite that had already existed

    • These tensions spilled over into civil war, which led to the Bolsheviks winning and the creation of a communist state in Russia.

    • It was the mounting military defeats, people publicly complaining about political decisions, the food shortage, rising prices and fuel shortage that in the end caused the Russian Revolution.


Conclusion:

  • The effect that World War One brought to two countries was transition from a monarchy to a republic and Union by means of a revolution

  • Russia left the war in 1917, as riots began to occur through out Russia and Demagogues began to take power. It forced the Tsar, Nicholas II, to abdicate his throne, ending one of the longest monarchies in history and resulted in forming the communistic U.S.S.R.

  • Similarly, Kaiser Wilhelm was forced to abdicate his throne to prince Max, and was sent into exile in Holland. A socialist revolution took place, causing economic ruin through out Germany. It led to the rise of the Nazi party and its leader Adolf Hitler.

  • Long established tittles such as Kaiser and Tsar were put to rest. It started two great political influences to take affect in the world, Nazism and Communism.

  • The war affected two countries greatly (Russia and Germany) by changing their political ideology and by turning a single country into a union of countries.


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page