Asian Art Museum of San Francisco uc berkeley History-Social Science Project 2012 Medieval Japan Summer Institute



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Asian Art Museum of San Francisco

UC Berkeley History-Social Science Project

2012 Medieval Japan Summer Institute

Institute Model Lesson Plan



Helena Lamb 7th Grade
Unit Topic: Medieval Japan
Unit Focus Question:

How did medieval Japan's acts of borrowing from other parts of Asia shape their culture?


Unit Teaching Thesis:  Recognizing their geographical isolation, the Japanese chose to blend ideas of government, religion, and art from nearby civilizations (especially China and Korea) with their own traditions to create a unique culture.
History-Social Science Content Standard:

7.5.3 Describe the values, social customs, and traditions prescribed by the lord-vassal system consisting of shogun, daimyo, and samurai and the lasting influence of the warrior code in the twentieth century.
6 -8 Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills:

Historical Interpretation 2: Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long and short-term causal relations.

Research, Evidence, and Point of View 4:  Students assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources and draw sound conclusions from them.

Common Core Standards: Reading Standards for Literacy in History / Social Studies 6-12: Grade 6-8 Students:

Informational Text

2: Determine two or more central ideas in the text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text

4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).

5: Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and the development of the ideas
Common Core Standards: Writing Standards for Literacy in History / Social Studies 6-12: Grade 6-8 Students:

2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

4: Provide clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Lesson Plan
Lesson Topic: The Japanese Warrior Class
Lesson Focus Question: What role did samurai have in Medieval Japanese society?
Lesson Teaching Thesis:

In Medieval Japan, a warrior class called samurai evolved in response to disorder in the countryside. Samurai were expected to serve their lords, protect their lords, and be educated.


Text:

Burnstein, S. M., Shek, R. World History Medieval to Early Modern Times, Holt, Reinhart and Winston, Austin, 2006, p. 212 – 217.



Movie: You Tube: Samurai – Sekigahara, 1600

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RuGUAtkKFUg


Primary Sources:

Steenstrup, Carl. “Hojo Soun's Twenty-One Articles. The Code of Conduct of the Odawara Hojo.” Monumenta Nipponica 29, No. 3 (Autumn, 1974): 283-303.



Armor and helmet

1 piece Helmet H15.0 body-front H32.5 sleeve-front L28.5

Muromachi period/15th century

Donated by Akita Kazusue Tokyo National Museum F-20153

link to Tokyo National Museum: http://www.emuseum.jp/detail/100513/000/000?mode=detail&d_lang=en&s_lang=en&class=&title=armor&c_e=®ion=&era=¢ury=&cptype=&owner=&pos=9&num=2.
Short sword (wakizashi) and Long sword (katana) with blade mountings. Japan. Muromachi period (1333-1573). Forged and tempered steel, sharkskin, black lacquer, gold on bronze. The Avery Brundage Collection, B64W7 and B64W8. Asian Art Museum.

Matchlock pistol (bajozutsu). Edo period (1615-1868). Iron, wood, lacquer, gold, and silver. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. William Wedmeyer, 2004.39. Asian Art Museum.

Matchlock gun (teppo). Japan. Edo period (1615-1868). Iron, wood, and ivory. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Wedemeyer, 2004.38. Asian Art Museum.

Writing Instruction:

Writing Question: What role did samurai have in Medieval Japanese society?

Writing Strategy: Graphic organizers and structured expository writing paragraph.
Lesson Procedure
Lesson Focus Question: What role did samurai have in Medieval Japanese society?
Opener/Into: Show the movie –if possible youtube.com: Samurai - Sekigahara, 1600.

5.22 minutes. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RuGUAtkKFUg

Introduce the clip to students. Hand out the viewing guide to students. They can do it individually or in pairs. Ask students to write down as many details as they can. After viewing, discuss as a class. What did they see?
Teacher background: The movie clip is a preview to the release of Shogun 2 Total War, the computer game. It shows part of The Battle of Sekigahara, which took place on the 21st October 1600, between the clans of eastern Japan loyal to Tokogawa Ieyasu and the clans of western Japan loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori under the command of Ishida Mitsunari. Each side had about 60,000 men. Tokugawa Ieyasu (Red) emerged victorious and later on became Shogun.
Cause and effect reading strategy with a textbook passage:

Passage questions: 1. Why were samurai needed? 2. What role did samurai have in Medieval Japanese society?

Tell students that this passage has a cause and effect structure/pattern. Ask students as they read to notice and circle words that signal cause and effect. Have students read the passage to themselves first, then have someone read the passage aloud. Model the first cause and effect relationship for students. Discuss what difficulty growing food meant. See the Teacher KEY. That first effect turns into the next cause. Working in pairs, have students find and write down the effect. Discuss with the class what they found. Have pairs do the next set and and discuss and question. Then have pairs answer the first question, Why were samurai needed? Discuss as a class. Continue with the next set, making sure to talk about and clarify the highlighted words in the KEY. After discussing the cause and effect relationships, ask student pairs to answer the question, What role did the samurai have in medieval Japanese society?
Primary Source Artifacts: Question: How did these artifacts help the samurai? Review the definition of an artifact [something created by a person, usually for a practical purpose] .

Using the Analyzing a Primary Source worksheet, have students examine the armor, swords, and firearms. Model the box for the samurai swords and do together with students. What do they see? The teacher gives his/her observations (words or phrases), and students write them down. Model inferential thinking in taking what they see to what it could mean. “The swords look like they are made of metal. They look sharp so they could really hurt someone, maybe kill them”. Mention any questions there might be regarding the swords. Have student pairs complete handout based on observations, inferences, and questions. Discuss what pairs found and wondered. Ask student pairs to answer the question, How did these artifacts help the samurai? beginning with the sentence stem given.


Primary Source Reading: Teachers first reads the background information on the Articles. In class, give student pairs a copy of Hôjô Sôun‘s Twenty-One Articles (Code of Conduct for Samurai). Give students a brief background, call their attention to the reading question, and ask students to read it to themselves and circle or underline any words they think are important to the meaning (or words whose meaning they are unsure). Hand out a graphic organizer to each student. Have students working in pairs. Read Article 21 and explain that you are starting there because it really sets the foundation. Model doing 21 for students, including meaning in my own words as well as Questions? Conclusions. See KEY for possible explanations. The concepts of Bun and Bu were central to samurai conduct and practice. Have student partners do #6 and check in on in my own words first and discuss, then discuss possible Questions? Conclusions. Have student pairs continue with 9, 12, and 16. Discuss as a class, helping students understand and make inferences. Students then answer the question, and the class discusses that.
Writing Activity: Writing question: What role did samurai have in Medieval Japanese society?

The thesis is given. Teachers may keep that or eliminate it for more skilled students. Have students use their cause and effect and primary sources analyses, Students may work in pairs. Teacher may also include a conclusion and have students find the three pieces of evidence and specific evidence to expand on the evidence. A five paragraph essay could also be assigned as a differentiated assignment for some.




Viewing Guide for the Battle of Sekigahara: October 21, 1600

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RuGUAtkKFUg


Please pay attention to these questions as you watch the video. Write down as many details as you can.

WHO?

WHAT?

Main People: Hideaki (light purple), Ieyasu (red), and Mitsunari
Who else do you see? What do they look like?

Questions:

What is happening? Describe in detail.

Questions:

WHERE?

WHY?

Where is this taking place? What are the geographical features of this area?


Questions:



Why is this happening? What would you predict this is all about?

Questions:

WHEN?

When is this happening?

Questions:

POSSIBLE TEACHER KEY Viewing Guide for the Battle of Sekigahara: October 21, 1600

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RuGUAtkKFUg


Please pay attention to these questions as you watch the video. Write down as many details as you can.

WHO ?

WHAT ?

Main People: Hideaki (light purple), Ieyasu (red), and Mitsunari
Who else do you see? What did they look like? What else do you see?

Lots and lots of samurai foot soldiers leaders

Armor, helmets, spears lines and lines of men

Weapons, cannon, swords cohorts of men arranged

Few horses

Banners, read and purple

Cone hats

Questions: Who got to ride a horse? Who won?

How many men? 60,000 each side

What is happening? Describe in detail.

Men are charging at each other

Men on horses go first

Lots and lots of samurai running

Men are falling hurt or dead

Hand to hand fighting

Men running away- purple banners

Men are chasing fleeing men- red banners

Questions: How many people died?

Why did the samurai do that? Bushido- serving lord, loyalty, bravery

WHERE ?

WHY ?

Where is this taking place? What are the geographical features of this area?

Flat land surrounding by hills. a valley?
Questions:

How did that place get chosen?



Why is this happening? What would you predict this is all about?
Fighting for power, land, control of an area


Questions: Did this lead to a new period in Japanese history? Yes, the Edo. This battle is considered the unofficial beginning of the Edo (Tokugawa) government. Tokugawa Ieyasu recruited Mitsunari (guy and his men waiting in the wings) to his side. With their help Tokugawa Ieyasu won the battle and became the next Shogun.

WHEN ?

When is this happening?

October 21, 1600 just before the Edo Period begins in 1603.
Questions: Does this have something to do with the Edo Period beginning? See why?



Name: _______________________________

Reading Strategy: Cause and Effect
Questions: Why were samurai needed? What role did samurai have in Medieval Japanese society?
Directions:

  • Read the passage below. As you read, circle the words or words and phrases that signal cause and effect.

Powerful nobles fought each other over land. … This fighting destroyed land, which made it difficult for peasants to grow food. Some poor people became bandits and thieves.

[Because the emperor was weak and did not notice the problems growing in the country*], Japan’s large landowners, or daimyo decided that they needed to protect their own lands. They hired samurai or trained professional warriors, to defend them and their property.

…Every samurai, from the weakest soldier to the most powerful warrior, was supposed to serve his lord.

…An army of samurai was expensive to support. … As a result, lords paid their samurai with land or food.

World History Medieval to Early Modern Times. Holt pps. 212-213 (excerpted and *edited for clarity)

Name______________________________

Reading Strategy: Cause and Effect

Cause

Effect

Questions/Conclusions

Question 1: Why were samurai needed?

Because

Powerful nobles fought each other over land



The fighting destroyed land, which made it difficult for peasants to grow food.




Because








[Because the emperor was weak and did not notice the problems growing in the country*]







Answer Question 1:

Samurai were needed because _____________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________.


Question 2: What role did samurai have in Medieval Japanese society?

Because


They hired samurai or trained professional warriors, to defend them and their property




Every samurai, from the weakest soldier to the most powerful warrior, was supposed to serve his lord.

Because

An army of samurai was expensive to support








Answer Question 2:

The role of the samurai in medieval Japanese society was _______________________________


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________.



Reading Strategy: Cause and Effect
Teacher KEY Reading Strategy: Cause and Effect
Questions: Why were samurai needed? What role did samurai have in Medieval Japanese society?
Directions:


  • Read the passage below. As you read, circle the words or words and phrases that signal cause and effect.

Powerful nobles fought each other over land. … This fighting destroyed land, which made it difficult for peasants to grow food. Some poor people became bandits and thieves.

[Because the emperor was weak and did not notice the problems growing in the country*], Japan’s large landowners, or daimyo decided that they needed to protect their own lands. They hired samurai or trained professional warriors, to defend them and their property.

…Every samurai, from the weakest soldier to the most powerful warrior, was supposed to serve his lord.

…An army of samurai was expensive to support. … As a result, lords paid their samurai with land or food.

World History Medieval to Early Modern Times. Holt pps. 212-213 (excerpted and *edited for clarity)
TEACHER KEY Name______________________________

Reading Strategy: Cause and Effect

Cause

Effect

Questions/Conclusions

Question 1: Why were samurai needed?

Because

Powerful nobles fought each other over land



…The fighting destroyed land, which made it difficult for peasants to grow food.

TEACHER DOES

Nobles= high birth or position in society

Destroyed the land? What would it look like?

Burned? Crops trampled.


Because

The fighting destroyed land, which made it difficult for peasants to grow food.

A EFFECT BECOMES A CAUSE

Some poor people became bandits and thieves.

TEACHER ASKS CLASS FOR THE EFFECT & THEY WRITE IT TOGETHER

Bandits and thieves = robbers.

What did it mean to the peasants that it was hard to grow food? People were starving



[Because the emperor was weak and did not notice the problems growing in the country*]

Japan’s large landowners, or daimyo decided that they needed to protect their own lands.

What was going on in the country? Unruliness

More attention was focused on the court in Heian.

What would protecting their lands look like?

Men with weapons making sure rice wasn’t stolen or land taken.



Answer Question 1:

Samurai were needed because people were killing, fighting, and stealing in the countryside. Someone had to bring back order.




Question 2: What role did samurai have in Medieval Japanese society?

Because

Japan’s large landowners, or daimyo decided that they needed to protect their own lands.

They hired samurai or trained professional warriors, to defend them and their property

What is another name for a warrior? Soldier

Defend= to keep safe. How do soldiers make

sure something is safe?


Every samurai, from the weakest soldier to the most powerful warrior, was supposed to serve his lord.

Who was your lord? a large land owner;

Someone above you in society- richer more powerful than you.

What would it mean to serve your lord?


Because

An army of samurai was expensive to support



As a result, lords paid their samurai with land or food.


Did different levels of samurai get different payment? Yes, the most skilled, advanced samurai got land.

Answer Question 2:

The role of the samurai in medieval Japanese society was to protect his lord and keep the lord’s lands safe and all together. Another part of the job was to serve his lord by being loyal and respectful.





Short sword (wakizashi) and Long sword (katana) with blade mountings. Japan. Muromachi period (1333-1573) Forged and tempered steel, sharkskin, black lacquer, gold on bronze. The Avery Brundage Collection, B64W7, B64W8 Asian Art Museum



Short sword (wakizashi) and Long sword (katana) with blade mountings. Japan. Muromachi period (1333-1573) Forged and tempered steel, sharkskin, black lacquer, gold on bronze. Avery Brundage Collection B64W7 and B64W8 Asian Art Museum




1 piece Helmet H15.0 body-front H32.5 sleeve-front L28.5

Muromachi period/15th century

Donated by Akita Kazusue Tokyo National Museum F-20153




Matchlock pistol and detail (Bajozutsu). Japan. Edo period (1615-1868). Iron, wood, lacquer, gold, and silver.

Gift of Dr. and Mrs. William Wedemyer, 2004.39. Asian Art Museum


Matchlock gun (teppo) Japan. Edo period (1615-1868). Iron, wood, and ivory. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. William Wedemeyer, 2004.38 Asian Art Museum

Name: __________________________________________________

ANALYZING A PRIMARY SOURCE

Question: How did these artifacts help the samurai?

Source 1: (Where is it from?) Japan, Muromachi Period

Type of source: (what is it?) samurai swords

When was it made? 1333-1573 Japan

What I see: (what it looks like in detail)


What this means:

Questions:



Source 2: Tokyo National Museum samurai armor

Type of source: (what is it?) samurai armor

When & where: Japan 15th century
What I see: (what it looks like in detail)

What this means:

Questions:



Source 3: Edo period Medieval Japan

Type of source: matchlock pistol and gun

When it was made: Japan pistol – 1615-1868 gun -1615-1868

What I see: (what it looks like in detail)


What this means:

Questions:



The samurai used ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Name: ___________________________________

ANALYZING A PRIMARY SOURCE TEACHER KEY
Focus Question: How did these artifacts help the samurai?


Source 1: (Where is it from?) Muromachi period Japan swords

Type of source: (what is it?) weapons, swords

When was it made? 1333-1573 Japan

What I see: (what it looks like in detail)

Gold, curved gray metal, not same length, both have a holder, fancy wraping



What this means: swords were beautiful , would be used as weapons, to kill or hurt. Gold=important

Questions: Who made the swords? Did everyone have a gold one? Who got those?


Source 2: Tokyo National Museum samurai armor

Type of source: protection during war

When & where: Japan 15th century
What I see: (what it looks like in detail)

Head covering, lots of stitching and different pieces for different body parts. gold horn-like things with a round metal piece on the helmet , brown and yellow color, outer arms, some of shoulder , chest and back, and thighs protected. Fancy patterns to parts of the helmet and chest pieces.


What this means:

Most of the body is covered, samurai used armor to protect themselves, they can move easily when wearing their armor,

The helmet might scare people, fierce. It looks like it would take a lot of time to make this.
Questions:

How strong is it if there is lots of stitching? Would it protect the warrior from a sword? Who made it? Did you have to be rich to wear one?



Source 3: Edo period Medieval Japan

Type of source: matchlock pistol and gun

When it was made: pistol – 1615-1868 gun -1615-1868
What I see: (what it looks like in detail)

Decorated pistol, brown with gold paint, one is long and the other is short


What this means: The Japanese started to use firearms (guns) and like the swords, they were also beautiful. The guns came later.
Questions: Why did they decorate everything? Was everything decorated? Did the Japanese make the guns? Where did they get the idea?


The samurai used both the swords and guns to defend themselves and their lords/daimyos, and they wore the armor as protection when they fought.
Hôjô Sôun‘s Twenty-One Articles (Code of Conduct for Samurai)

Sometime after 1495, Hôjô Sôun , a daimyo, wrote these articles as conduct guidelines for the people who served him. Many warrior leaders left instructions, but Sôun’s are especially interesting because he lived such a long life (1432-1519) and did many things.

The following are selected passages from Hojo Soun’s conduct codes for samurai.
XXI (21)

It is not necessary to write here about the 'Arts of Peace and War, including Archery and Horsemanship' for to pursue these is a matter of course. From of old, the rule has been, 'Practice the Arts of Peace on the left hand, and the Arts of War on the right. 'Mastery of both is required.


VI (6)

As for swords and clothes, you should not try to look splendid when you appear before others. To think that one's plain possessions are a dishonor, and borrow others' [finery] is needless ostentation and invites ridicule.


IX (9)

If your lord says something to you, show respect [i.e., bow] even though you are still far away from him. First of all, answer ‘Yes, Sir,’ quickly; approach him on your knees, then receive his order respectfully and withdraw quickly.


XII (12)

If you have a little leisure, read books. But hide your reading matter in your breast-fold; in general, you should not let people see you read. But whether in bed or up and about [i.e., in every free moment], you must always practice writing otherwise you will forget how to read and write characters.
XVI (16)

In your off-duty hours, practice riding. First you should become skilled in the essentials and then practice the standard techniques for guiding the horse.


Carl Steenstrup,“Hojo Soun's Twenty-One Articles. The Code of Conduct of the Odawara Hojo,” Monumenta Nipponica 29, No. 3 (Autumn, 1974): 283-303.

Hojo Soun’s Twenty-One Articles (Code of Conduct for Samurai), 1495
Teacher background: Hôjô Sôun (1432-1519 CE) was the first head of the later Hôjô clan (no relation to the shogunal regents of the Kamakura period). Born Ise Moritoki (later known as Ise Shinkurô) into a family in service to the Ashikaga shogunate, he came to control a large portion of the Kantô plain by the time of his death in 1519, most notably the castle towns of Kamakura and Odawara. He is often considered the first "Sengoku daimyo," i.e. the first self-made daimyo to turn the chaotic conditions of the Sengoku period to his personal advantage.
Sôun composed his Twenty-One Articles sometime after 1495 as a code of conduct for all persons who owed him service.
Teacher background: Bun (boon) and Bu (boo)

Bun 文 encompasses literary arts and culture, and became an important area for leading and high-ranking samurai to study very early in the medieval era. As the medieval period dragged on, and particularly after the burning of Kyoto in 1467 at the start of the Ônin War, poets diffusing into the provinces and samurai lords seeking to attain cultural prestige began to create notable literary productions of their own, mostly in the linked verse form of renga. Aside from producing formal poetry, however, familiarity with the poetic forms and landscape inherited from the Heian period and earlier--and the ability to produce a correct and appropriate poem as needed--was one of the chief marks of education and refinement at least until the end of the Edo period.  Samurai needed to be educated so they were not taken advantage of by other literate people e.g. bureaucrats who did secretarial duties.

Bu 武 encompasses all martial skills not having to do with archery or horsemanship, principally sword and glaive (naginata) skills, and later musketry. Samurai were expected to be proficient in these areas, and indeed, the mastery of bu along with equestrian and archery skills was one of the chief means of distinguishing between samurai and peasant-soldiers with little training or discipline. 
Bun was seen as a “tool of power”; Bu was necessary for survival and a warrior’s only “ticket to power”.


Hôjô Sôun‘s Twenty-One Articles (Code of Conduct for Samurai), 1495

Read each Article. With a partner write what each means in your own words. Write your questions and conclusions.



Question: What parts of being a samurai did Hojo Soun think were important?

Article #

What the article (code of conduct) says

What this means in my own words

Questions? Conclusions

XXI (21)

It is not necessary to write here about the 'Arts of Peace and War, including Archery and Horsemanship' for to pursue these is a matter of course. From of old, the rule has been, 'Practice the Arts of Peace on the left hand, and the Arts of War on the right. 'Mastery of both is required.

This explains Bun and Bu. Bun are the Arts of Peace (literary and cultural arts), and Bu are the Arts of War. Bun = reading, writing, composing poems. Bu=

Swordsmanship. Code also includes horsemanship and archery skills.



Why did Soun keep it for last?

VI (6)

As for swords and clothes, you should not try to look splendid when you appear before others. To think that one's plain possessions are a dishonor, and borrow others' [finery] is needless ostentation and invites ridicule.







IX (9)

If your lord says something to you, show respect [i.e., bow] even though you are still far away from him. First of all, answer ‘Yes, Sir,’ quickly; approach him on your knees, then receive his order respectfully and withdraw quickly.







XII (12)

If you have a little leisure, read books. But hide your reading matter in your breast-fold; in general, you should not let people see you read. But whether in bed or up and about [i.e., in every free moment], you must always practice writing otherwise you will forget how to read and write characters.







XVI (16)

In your off-duty hours, practice riding. First you should become skilled in the essentials and then practice the standard techniques for guiding the horse.









Possible Teacher KEY Hôjô Sôun‘s Twenty-One Articles (Code of Conduct for Samurai), 1495

Article #

What the article (code of conduct) says

What this means in my own words

Questions? Conclusions

XXI (21)

It is not necessary to write here about the 'Arts of Peace and War, including Archery and Horsemanship' for to pursue these is a matter of course. From of old, the rule has been, 'Practice the Arts of Peace on the left hand, and the Arts of War on the right. 'Mastery of both is required.

This explains Bun and Bu. Bun are the Arts of Peace (literary and cultural arts), and Bu are the Arts of War. Bun = reading, writing, composing poems. Bu=

Swordsmanship. Code also includes horsemanship and archery skills.



Why did Soun keep it for last? A matter of course=These were assumed parts of Japanese life. Both Bun and Bu were needed.

VI (6)

As for swords and clothes, you should not try to look splendid when you appear before others. To think that one's plain possessions are a dishonor, and borrow others' [finery] is needless ostentation and invites ridicule.

Plain clothing is fine. Trying to look splendid (fancy) is showy. You’re asking for people to make fun of you.

Would people be out to get you if you “looked too good”? Be modest, not showy.

IX (9)

If your lord says something to you, show respect [i.e., bow] even though you are still far away from him. First of all, answer ‘Yes, Sir,’ quickly; approach him on your knees, then receive his order respectfully and withdraw quickly.

Show respect to your lord, bow and answer “Yes, sir”, and approach him on your knees. Take orders and leave quickly.

Loyalty to your lord is assumed. What would happen if you didn’t do that?

XII (12)

If you have a little leisure, read books. But hide your reading matter in your breast-fold; in general, you should not let people see you read. But whether in bed or up and about [i.e., in every free moment], you must always practice writing otherwise you will forget how to read and write characters.

Read books in your fee time. Don’t show off your book and reading. Always practice writing.

Reading and writing are important. Don’t be a show off about it. Be modest. Being literate means someone cannot take advantage of you.

XVI (16)

In your off-duty hours, practice riding. First you should become skilled in the essentials and then practice the standard techniques for guiding the horse.


Practice riding horses. Know the basics first and then practice steering your horse.

From the intro video- not all samurai had horses, just the more advanced ones. This must be for leaders (officers).

What parts of being a samurai did Hojo Soun think were important? Hojo Soun thought samurai should be modest, loyal and respectful, educated in reading and writing, and practice riding horses. Both the Arts of Peace and War, Bun and Bu, were important.

WRITING A PARAGRAPH

Name: __________________________


Writing Question: What role did samurai have in Medieval Japanese society?

Directions: Use the cause and effect organizer, and the primary source analyses to write a paragraph that answers the writing question. Give three pieces of evidence and back each of them up with specific evidence.
Thesis statement:

Because powerful medieval Japanese lords needed professional warriors to protect their lands, samurai were hired to serve and protect.

Evidence 1: _________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________

Specific Evidence: _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Evidence 2: The second part of the samurai’s job was_________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________

Specific Evidence: _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________

Evidence 3: Another part was ___________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Specific Evidence: _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________

In conclusion,________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________
Teacher’s Possible KEY WRITING A PARAGRAPH

Name: __________________________


Writing Question: What role did samurai have in medieval Japanese society?
Directions: Use the cause and effect organizer, and the primary source analyses to write a paragraph that answers the writing question. Give three pieces of evidence and back each of them up with specific evidence.
Because powerful medieval Japanese lords needed professional warriors to protect their lands, samurai were hired to serve and protect. Samurai were expected to serve and respect their lord. In Hojo Soun’s Article 9 he said that samurai should bow, answer respectfully, approach on their knees, and leave quickly. The second part of a samurai’s job was to protect his lord and his lands. Samurai wore armor to protect themselves as they fought with swords and later guns. In Article 22, Hojo Soun advised samurai to practice their swordsmanship, riding, and archery to be good soldiers. Another part of a samurai’s job was to be educated. Hojo Soun also advised samurai to be educated and always read and practice their writing so no one could cheat them. In conclusion, the samurai’s job included both Bun and Bu. In serving their lord they had to be excellent in the Arts of Peace and the Arts of War.


Medieval Japan in the Seventh Grade Curriculum Summer Institute

Lesson Application #3: Samurai by Helena Lamb




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