Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (apia)



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Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (APIA)

APIA’s are Americans, residents of the United States who trace their ancestry to Asia. In addition, Pacific Islanders, such as Native Hawaiians and Samoans, are often grouped with Asian Americans. The rapidly growing Asian American community is comprised of many diverse groups, including Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, Japanese Americans, Korean Americans, and Vietnamese Americans. Large numbers of people from India, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia have also immigrated to the United States. Asian tribal peoples, such as the Iu Mien and Hmong, have established communities in the United States as well.

According to the 2000 U.S. census, some 10.2 million Asian Americans live in the United States. They make up 3.6 percent of the U.S. population, a 199 percent increase from 1980 when they constituted only 1.5 percent of the population. Asian Americans reside throughout the United States, with California and New York home to the largest populations. However, the state with the largest percentage of Asian Americans is Hawaii. Other states with sizable Asian American populations include Texas, Illinois, New Jersey, Washington, Virginia, Florida, and Massachusetts. Asian Pacific Americans make up 4.2 percent of the total U.S. population according to Census 2000. 2.7 million people reported Chinese ancestry or being Chinese in combination with one or more other races. Filipinos at 2.4 million and Asian Indians at 1.9 million are the next largest groups.

The number of U.S residents who reported as Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islanders is 0.3percent or 874,400. As suggested earlier, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPIs) are people having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands Though historically grouped with Asian Americans for data collection, NHOPI was assigned as a distinct category for the 2000 Census. 

88percent of Asians and Pacific Islanders in 2000 were either foreign-born or had at least one foreign-born parent. The median age of the Asian population in the U.S. is about 31.1. Asian and Pacific Islander families tend to be relatively large. In 2000, for example, 23 percent of Asian and Pacific Islander married-couple families had five or more members. This is significant especially when incomes are often reported in the media by households. APIA’s may have higher incomes because they may have more members in the household who are employed.

It is important not to generalize an understanding of one group to another. For example, the Vietnamese and Hmong, though both Indochinese, differ in their basic cultural patterns The Vietnamese, many with a (Chinese ancestry. have a sophisticated literate culture and strong abilities to adapt to the market society; the Hmong have no written language, nor skills that are easily applicable to American labor needs.

Influence of APIA’s on American Culture

The growing population of Asian Americans has significantly influenced American society. Many Americans enjoy a variety of Asian cuisine. Along with well-known Chinese dishes, such Asian foods as Japanese sushi, Asian Indian curries, Vietnamese pho noodles, and Thai coffee have become common in many parts of the country. Asian religions, such as Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, and Shamanism have many followers in the United States. Asian American community celebrations feature a rich variety of Asian art forms, such as Filipino tinikling dances and escrima martial arts, Vietnamese lion dances, and Japanese taiko drumming and karaoke singing.

Individual Asian Americans have also made many contributions to American society. Asian American authors, such as Maxine Hong Kingston, Amy Tan, and Bharati Mukherjee, have influenced contemporary American literature. Gifted athletes, such as figure skaters Kristi Yamaguchi and Michelle Kwan, gymnast Amy Chow, and tennis player Michael Chang, have excelled in American sports. Asian American architects, such as Maya Ying Lin, designer of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington D.C., and I. M. Pei, designer of the East Wing of the National Gallery of Art, have built many of the most impressive monuments and buildings in the United States.

The term Asian Americans originated in the late 1960s and 1970s, when Asian American activists sought to end the use of the word Orientals. Believing that the word Orientals was associated with negative images, they advocated the substitution of Asian Americans. The term gradually became accepted, and it is now widely used.




History

Large-scale Asian immigration to the United States began in the 19th century. Drawn by economic opportunity, Asians migrated across the Pacific to the continental United States or Hawaii. The Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, and Asian Indians were prominent among early immigrants from Asia. Although Asian American labor helped develop the American West, anti-Asian prejudice eventually resulted in the enactment of laws virtually banning immigration to the United States from Asia in the late 19th century.

During World War II (1939-1945) the U.S. government forced many Japanese Americans living on the West Coast to move to camps in the interior of the country. Nonetheless, the war and its aftermath brought an improvement in the status of most Asians in the United States. Between 1943 and 1952 the U.S. government approved yearly immigration quotas for China, the Philippines, India, Japan, and South Korea. First-generation Asian immigrants were permitted to apply for naturalization. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 allowed larger numbers of Asians to immigrate each year. These new waves of immigrants reinvigorated established Asian American communities.

After the Vietnam War ended in 1975, many immigrants from Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and other Southeast Asian countries settled in the United States. Today, along with other ethnic groups, Asian Americans are recognized as an important part of the American cultural mosaic.





 

The Asian American Experience in the United States: A Chronological History (1763-1992)

 


 

1763

First recorded settlement of Filipinos in America. They escape imprisonment aboard Spanish galleons by jumping ship in New Orleans and fleeing into the bayous.

1790

First recorded arrival of an Asian Indian in the United States.

1842-52

China is defeated by the British Empire in the first Opium War, resulting in Treaty of Nanjing whereby China is forced to pay indemnities of 21 million silver dollars, cede the island of Hong Kong and open five ports to foreign commerce. As a result peasant farmers are heavily taxed.

A series of floods and crop failures in southern China lead to poverty and threat of famine among peasant farmers.



1847

Three Chinese students arrive in New York City for schooling. One of them, Yung Wing graduated from Yale in 1854 becoming the first Chinese to graduate in the United States.

1848-52

Strike of gold at Sutter's Mill, CA, draws Chinese immigrants to the West Coast to mine gold. Many arrive as indentured servants during theCalifornia Gold Rush. The bulk of Chinese immigrants come later as acheap source of labor to work the railroads, mines and in other industries.

1852

California imposes a Foreign Miner's License Tax, collecting $3 a month from every foreign miner who did not desire (or was prohibited by law) to become a citizen. The purpose of this tax was to reduce the number of Chinese immigrating to California as well as to discourage Chinese from mining for gold (although they did not pose a great threat to white miners since they usually worked deserted claims).

1854

Law forbids Chinese testifying in court against whites, depriving Chinese of legal protection and subjecting them to repeated acts of violence.

1859

Exclusion of Chinese from public schools in San Francisco.

1860

First Japanese delegation visits Washington, D.C.

1868

The Burlingame Treaty recognizes the right of free migration and emigration on the part of citizens of the United States and China.

1892

"Geary Act" prohibits Chinese immigration for another 10 years and denies bail for writ of habeas corpus.



1894

Saito, a Japanese man, applies for U.S. citizenship. Courts refuse because he is neither white nor black.

1898

The Philippine Islands become a protectorate of the United States under the Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish-American War. Hawaii is also annexed to the United States.

1901

Drought spreads over northwestern Korea and results in rice shortages.

1902

Congress indefinitely extends the prohibition against Chinese immigration.

1903-04

7,000 Koreans go to Hawaii to work in sugar cane and pineapple fields. They are welcomed as strike breakers against Japanese laborers demanding better work conditions and wages.

1905

Japan controls Korea as part of the settlement of the Russo-Japanese War and halts Korean immigration to Hawaii.

1906

A decree is issued by the San Francisco school board that all persons of Asian ancestry must attend segregated schools in Chinatown. Japan, having become a major world power, intercedes on behalf of its citizens and they would be an exception.

1906

California anti-miscegenation laws is amended to bar marriage between white and "Mongolian."

1906

Major earthquake in San Francisco destroys all municipal records and opens the way for a new wave of Chinese immigrants. Immigrants (men in particular) could now claim they are U.S. citizens and have the right to bring wives and children to America.

1907

President Theodore Roosevelt enters into "Gentlemen's Agreement" with Japan to limit Japanese immigration to the mainland and Hawaii. (A provision allows family members induding wives of Japanese to immigrate, thus allowing the Japanese to begin families and build their community.) It also includes a ban on further Korean immigration to the United States as laborers, thus opening up farming jobs in Hawaii for Filipinos. Korean immigration virtually ends during the period of Japanese occupation (1910-45) and does not resume until the Immigration Act of 1965 is passed.

1941

December 7 - Japanese planes attack Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. United States enters World War II.

Japan invades the Philippines. A third of the Filipino men in the United States sign up to fight in the U.S. military.



1942

Executive Order 9066 puts 110,000 Japanese, many of whom were second and third generation American citizens, in 10 internment camps in the United States.

1943

"Magnuson Act" finally repeals the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. This was a direct result of the alliance between the United States and China during World War II. A quota of 105 per year set for Chinese immigration (based on a formula set at one-sixth the total population of that ancestry in the 1920 census).

1944

"War Brides Act" removes racial restriction for Asian brides and permits their entry.

1945

August 6 - An atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, ushering in the nuclear age.

August 9 - An atomic bomb is dropped on Nagasaki.

August 14 - Japan surrenders.

Congress passes War Brides Act, allowing 6,000 Chinese women to enter United States as brides of Chinese American soldiers. All American internment camps for Japanese Americans are closed.



1946

Philippines become independent. U.S. citizenship offered to all Filipinos living in the United States, not just servicemen.

1948

Congress passes Displaced Persons Act. Gives permanent resident status to 3,500 Chinese visitors, seamen, and students caught here because of Chinese civil war. California repeals law banning interracial marriage.

1948

Evacuation Claims Act authorizes payment of settlements to people of Japanese ancestry who suffered economic losses from internment: 10 cents is returned for every $1 lost.

1949


U.S. breaks off diplomatic ties with newly formed People's Republic of China.

1982

Vincent Chin, a Chinese American is murdered in Detroit by two jobless automobile workers who reportedly mistake him for a Japanese and blame him for their plight. Murderers were acquitted, never serving a day in prison for their crime.

1984

Filipino World War II veterans are denied U.S. citizenship. Over 1000 veterans face deportation.

1986

The Immigration Reform & Control Act of 1985 is passed by the House of Representatives on October 17, 1987, and signed by the President on November 6, 1987. It raises the Hong Kong quota from 600 to 5,000 a year; and allows aliens who can prove that they were in the U.S. prior to January 1, 1982 to apply for temporary status and become U.S. citizens after seven years from the time of application. There are no changes in the preference system which allows for family reunification.

1987

First formal signing of the Proclamation of Asian Pacific American Heritage Week in the White House.

1988

The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 which implements the recommendations of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians is signed into law by the President. Thc law apologizes and offers redress and reparations to thousands of Japanese Americans who were denied their civil and constitutional rights by the U.S. government during World War II.

1992

Korean businesses looted and burned as a result of riots in Los Angeles due to outrage over Rodney King verdict.












The cartoon by Tak is one of my favorites as it calls attention to how stereotypes have influenced our attitudes and behavior. Specifically, Tak as an Asian American male is hoping for some breakthroughs from stereotypes of Asian American males.



ASSIGNMENT 1
The following section includes images of Asian Americans that have

influenced many Americans and their stereotypes of Asian Americans.

This assignment should be at least 2 typewritten double-space pages but

no more than 3 pages.  Your paper will explore 2 aspects.
For this assignment, choose three stereotypes and discuss in about a

page and a half what the stereotype is, why you chose it, how the

stereotype may have come about, and why you think the stereotype may be

harmful. An example is provided in the discussion of the stereotype of

the model minority. 
The second half of the assignment requires you to look at what

stereotypes you may have had of Asian Pacific Islander Americans.

Describe what these may be and how you think they may have come about in

your contacts with API's.  Finally, describe ways in which you can

change stereotypic thinking.

Media Images from the Past






The following are terms sometimes used to describe Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders


Asian Males




Asian Females


Hardworking and Quiet


Perpetual Foreigners


High Achievers


The majority populations’ perception of APIA’s often reflect stereotypes that have often been reinforced by media. APIA’s are seen both as a threat (yellow peril) as well as a model (model minority) of how ethnic minorities ought to fit into American society.

The Myth if the Model Minority

Asian Americans have been described as the “model minority” suggesting that as a minority group in the U.S. they have made it. The reality is a bit different. For example:

1.  A larger percentage of Asian-Americans live in poverty than the general population.


2.  Asian-Americans are more likely than other minority groups to be recent immigrants with poor English skills that limit their job prospects.
3.  Although Asian-Americans are more likely to have college degrees than the national average, they are 11% less likely to occupy managerial positions than whites with the same education or experience levels.  Because of the model-minority myth, Asians are excluded from affirmative action programs that help other under-represented minorities.
4.  Asian-Americans are under-represented in our own government.  4% of Americans are Asian-Americans, but less than 1% of U.S. House representatives are.  Almost 25% of California residents are Asian-American, but the California legislature has only 3 Asians in the state House out of 52.







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