Some obtained immigration rights by joining US military
Philippines a very poor country, many migrants poor. Pilipino women are maids in much of the world
Due to currency differences, many college-educated women work in US as maids, can earn more as maids in US than as professionals in the Philippines
Growing phenomenon of bi-local families
Korean Americans - 1
Huge increase in recent migration. Large concentrations in NY, LA.
Initial migrants can sponsor relatives. Two initial streams have different characteristics:
War brides from Korean War (1950-53). More working class.
Immigration quota migrants. Wealthier, more educated.
70% have college degrees, often medical professionals. Come as settlers, bring families. Bring $$. Some are prosperous professionals.
Koreans Americans - 2
High rates of self-employment in US: $$ + accent/language issues
Many filling urban retail niche being vacated by white Jews, Italians, Greeks fleeing to the suburbs. greengrocers. Family labor, hard work. "The first generation must be sacrificed." Own lives bleak, educate the children.
Others are prosperous professionals.
Korean Americans - 3
Korean churches a major site of ethnic community; significant fraction are Christian
Many North Koreans migrate through South Korea
April 1992 riot, Korean-black conflicts.
March 4, 1991 Headline: “Korean store-owner Soon Ja Du gets probation after shooting 15-year old Latasha Harlins for a $1.79 bottle of orange juice”
(March 3, 1991 Rodney King Beaten. )
Arson of Korean businesses, police did not defend.
South Asians (Indians, Pakistanis) - 1
Fastest growing Asian group 1990-2000, third largest now
Religion: Hindus (caste divisions), Muslim, Sikh, Christian
Language: Many different.
Upper classes educated in English. (Legacy of British colonialism.)
Lower classes may not be English proficient.
Do not identify as “Asian” racially, many identify as “white”
South Asians (Indians, Pakistanis) - 2
Highest income ethnic subgroup.
Many are English-educated professionals with advanced degrees, technical skills
Strong clan system is used in the US for collective economic development.
Younger Hmong are learning in school, going to college
Strong Hmong identity but conflicts with parents over culture
Debates among Hmong young people about marriage age, schooling, etc.
Escaped the Khmer Rouge.
100,000 from refugee camps.
post traumatic stress disorder.
some educated, many country folk.
escaping horrors. think of home.
Others (small in US but students at UW)
Dutch colony before independence.
Predominantly Muslim; racially Malay or Pacific Islander with mainland Asian/Chinese admixture.
Chinese minority is relatively wealthy, has been subject to ethnic violence.
Repressive government for a long time, inequality.
2/3 Malay Muslims, 1/3 Chinese. Chinese are generally wealthier, more educated
Had ethnic violence in the past, has worked to achieve ethnic peace; compensatory programs for ethnic Malays
Part of the British community of nations, so historically less tied to the US.
More Malaysians coming to US to study in recent years (mostly ethnic Chinese)
Singapore, a very small former British colony, predominantly Chinese, sees itself as cosmopolitan.
Hong Kong, now part of China, was British colony until 1997. Urban, cosmopolitan.
Taiwan. Island to which nationalist Chinese fled after Communist revolution. Officially, part of China; both governments claim to be “true” Chinese government. Taiwanese somewhat ethnically different from mainland Chinese who took over. There are independence sentiments.
Arab, Middle-Eastern, Muslim Americans
Arabs speak Arabic (which has dialects)
Arabs live in Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
Some Arabs are Israeli citizens.
About 3 million Arab-Americans
Seen as various “races” in US – some white/European, some African, some south Asian.
Most Arab-Americans are US born, ancestors migrated before 1920, mostly Christians from Lebanon and Syria
The majority of Arab Americans are Catholic or Orthodox Christian