Articles of Confederation



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Key Terms
Articles of Confederation- The document that created the first central government for the United States, it was replaced by the constitution.
James Madison- American statesman, he was a delegated to the Constitutional Convention, the fourth president of the United States, and the author of some of the Federalist Papers. He is called the “father of the Constitution” for his proposals at the Constitutional Convention
Checks and Balances- A system established by the Constitution that prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful
Legislative Branch- The division of the government that proposes bills and passes them into laws. House of Representatives and Senate
Executive Branch- The division of the federal government that includes the president and the administrative departments; enforces the nation’s laws.
Judicial Branch- The division of the federal government that is made up of the national courts; interprets laws, punishes criminals, and settles disputes between states.
Federalists- People who supported ratification of the Constitution
Anti-Federalists- People who opposed the ratification of the Constitution
Ratification- An official approval
Bill of Rights- First ten amendments to the Constitution; ratified in 1791
Strict Constructionist- A person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
Loose Constructionist- A person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take actions that the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from taking
Marbury Vs. Madison- Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review
Louisiana Purchase- The purchase of French land between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains that doubled the size of the United States
James Monroe- Leading Revolutionary figure, negotiator of the Louisiana Purchase, and the fifth president of the United States. He put forth the Monroe doctrine establishing the U.S. sphere of influence in the Western Hemisphere that became the foundation of U.S. foreign policy.
Monroe Doctrine- President James Monroe’s statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
Nationalism- The belief that the interests of the nation as a whole are more important than regional interest of other countries
McCullock Vs. Maryland- U.S. Supreme Court case that declared the Second Bank of the United States was constitutional and that Maryland could not interfere with it
Missouri Compromise- An agreement proposed by Henry Clay that allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave stare and Maine to enter as a free state and outlawed slavery in any territories or states north of 36-30 latitude
Sectionalism- The belief that ones own section, or region, of the country is more important than the whole
Indian Removal Act- A congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River
Trail Of Tears- An 800 mile forced march made by the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to Indian Territory; resulted in the deaths of almost one fourth of the Cherokee people.
Second Bank of the U.S. - A national back created by congress in 1816 and overseen by the federal government, its purpose was to regulate state banks
Industrial Revolution- A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid 1700’s
Compromise of 1850- Henry Clay’s proposed agreement that allowed California to enter the Union as a free state and divided the rest of the Mexican Cession into two territories where slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty
Fugitive Slave Act- A law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slave in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Stephen A. Douglas- American politician and pro-slavery nominee for president; he debated Abraham Lincoln about slavery during the Illinois senatorial race. He proposed the unpopular Kansas-Nebraska Act, and he established the Freeport Doctrine, upholding the idea of popular sovereignty
Popular Sovereignty- The idea that political authority belongs to the people
Kansas/Nebraska Act- A law that allowed voters in Kansas and Nebraska to choose whether to allow slavery
James Buchanan- American politician and fifteenth president of the United States; he was chosen as the Democratic nominee for president in 1854 for being politically experienced and not offensive to slave states
Abraham Lincoln- Sixteenth president of the United States; he promoted equal rights for African American in the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation and set in motion the Civil War, determined to preserve the Union. He was assassinated in 1865.
Lincoln/Douglas debates- A series of debated between Republican Abraham Lincoln and Democrat Stephen Douglas during the 1858 U.S. Senate campaign in Illinois
Jefferson Davis- First and only president of the Confederate States of America after the election of President Lincoln in 1860 led to the secession of many southern states
Confederate States of America- The nation formed by the southern states when they seceded from the Union
Fort Sumter- The first battle of the Civil War; surrendered by the Union on April 14, 1861
Robert E. Lee- American General; he refused Lincoln’s offer to head the Union Army and aggress to lead Confederate forces. He successfully led defeat at Gettysburg, and he surrendered to the Union’s commander General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse.
Battle Of Bull run- The first major battle of the Civil War, resulting in a Confederate victory; showing the North that the Civil War would not be won easily
Battle of Shiloh- A Civil War battle in Tennessee in which the Union army gained greater control over the Mississippi River valley
Battle of Antietam- A union victory in the Civil War that marked the bloodiest single-day battle in U.S. Military history
Emancipation Proclamation- An order issued by President Abraham Lincoln freeing the slaves in areas rebelling against the Union; took effect January 1, 1863

Battle of Chancellorsville- Civil War battle that was one of the Confederate army’s major victories
Battle of Gettysburg- A Union Civil War victory that turned the tide against the Confederates
13th Amendment- A constitutional amendment that outlawed slavery
Reconstruction- The laws that put the southern states under U.S. military control and required them to draft new constitutions upholding the Fourteenth Amendment
Civil Rights Act of 1866- Law that gave African Americans legal rights to those of white Americans
14th Amendment- A constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians
15th Amendment- A constitutional amendment that gave African American men the right to vote
Scalawags- Meaning scoundrel; name given by former Confederates to those southerners who supported the shift in power to Congress and the army in the South during Reconstruction
Carpetbaggers- name given by Southern critics to Southerners allied with Northern Republicans who came south to take part in the region’s political and economic rebirth.
Share Cropping- A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops
Tenant Farming- System of farming where farmers rented their land from the landowner, and were allowed to grow whatever they chose
Liberal Republicans- Group of Republicans that broke with the Republican Party over the Enforcement Acts scandals of the Grant administration
Sand Creek Massacre- U.S. Military’s killing of about 150 Cheyenne elderly, women, and children at Sand Creek Reservation in Colorado Territory
Battle of the Little Big horn- Battle between the U.S. Army led by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer and Sioux forces lead by Chief Sitting Bull; the Sioux won the battle.
Sitting Bull- American Indian leader who became the head chief of the entire Sioux nation, he encouraged other Sioux leaders to resist government demands to buy lands on the Black Hills reservations.
George Armstrong Custer- American Army officer in the Civil War; he became a fighter of Native Americans in the West and was killed with his troops in the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
Wounded Knee Massacre- The U.S. Army’s killing of approximately 150 Sioux at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota; ended U.S.-Indian wars on the Plains.
Dawes Act- Legislation passed by Congress that split up Indian reservation lands among individual Indians and promised them citizenship
Chief Joseph- Chief of the Nez Perce’ tribe; he led resistance against white settlement in the Northwest. He eventually surrendered, but his eloquent surrender speech earned him a place in American History.
Geronimo- Chiricahua Apache leader; he evaded capture for years and led an opposition struggle against white settlements in the American Southwest until his eventual surrender.
Chisholm Trail- A trial that ran from San Antonio, Texas, to Abilene, Kansas, established by Jesse Chisholm in the late 1860’s for cattle drives.
Homestead Act- A law passed by congress to encourage settlement in the West by giving government-owned land to small farmers.
Entrepreneur- Risk taker who starts new ventures within the economic system of capitalism
Capitalism- Economic system in which most businesses are privately owned
Laissez faire- in French, meaning “allow to do” in business, it refers to a system where companies are allowed to conduct business without interference by the government
Social Darwinism- a view of society based on Charles Darwin’s scientific theory of natural selection
John D. Rockefeller- American industrialist and philanthropist; he made a fortune in the oil business and used vertical and horizontal integration to establish a monopoly on the steel business.
Andrew Carnegie- American industrialist and humanitarian; he focuses his attention on steelmaking and made a fortune through his vertical integration method.
Cornelius Vanderbilt- American business leader who controlled the New York Central Railroad and up to 4,500 miles of railroad track., he later donated $1 million to a Tennessee university
George Pullman- American business leader who made a fortune in the railroad business by designing and building railroad cars, including sleeper a car
Sherman Antitrust Act- a law that made it illegal to create monopolies or trusts that restrained free trade.
Thomas Edison- American inventor of over 1,000 patents; he invented the light bulb and establish a power plant that supplied electricity to parts of New York City.
Ellis Island- An island in New York harbor that was an entry point for 12 million immigrants to the United States between 1892 and 1954
Americanization- process in which immigrants were forced to abandon their traditional cultures and adopt the culture of white America
Tenement- poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
Settlement House- neighborhood center staffed by professionals and volunteers for education, recreation, and social activities in poor areas
Jane Addams- American social worker and activist; she was the co-founder of Hull House, an organization that focused on the needs of immigrants. She helped found the American Civil Liberties Union and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.
Social Gospel- the idea that religious faith should be expressed through good works
Populist Party- a political part formed in 1892 that supported free coinage of silver, work reforms, immigration restrictions, and government ownership of railroads and telegraph and telephone systems.
Jim Crow Laws- laws that enforced segregation in the southern states
Lynching- the murder of an individual by a group or mob
Booker T. Washington- African American educator and civil rights leader; he was born into slavery and later became head of the Tuskegee Institute for career training for African Americans. He was an advocate for conservative social change.
W.E.B. Du Bois- African American educator, editor, and writer; he led the Niagara Movement, calling for economic and educational equality for African Americans. He helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Jacob Riis- Newspaper reporter, reformer, and photographer; his book How the Other Half Lives shocked Americans with its descriptions of slum conditions and led to tenement housing legislation in New York
Progressivism- group of reform movements of the late 1800s that focused on urban problems, such as the plight of workers, poor sanitation, and corrupt political machines
Muckrakers- a term coined for journalists who “raked up” and exposed corruption and problems of society
Ida Tarbell- Investigative journalist; she wrote a report condemning the business practices of John D. Rockefeller in McClure’s magazine. The articles became the basis for her book, The History of the Standard Oil Company.
Lincoln Steffens- Muckraker and managing editor of McClure’s magazine he wrote about government corruption in his 1904 book, the Shame of the Cities
Robert M. La Follette- Progressive American politician; he was active in local Wisconsin issues and challenged party bosses. As governor, he began the reform program called the Wisconsin Idea to make state government more professional.
17th Amendment- a constitutional amendment allowing American voters to directly elect U.S. senators

Initiative- a method of allowing voters to propose a new law on the ballot for public approval
Referendum- a procedure that allows voters to approve or reject a law already proposed or passed by government
Recall- a vote to remove an official from office
Theodore Roosevelt- 26th president of the U.S.; he focused his efforts on trust busting, environmental conservation and strong foreign policy
Bully Pulpit- a platform used to publicize and seek support for important issues
Square Deal- Theodore Roosevelt’s 1904 campaign slogan expressed his belief that the needs of workers, business, and consumers should be balanced, and called for limiting the power of trusts, promoting public health and safety, and improving working conditions
Elkins Act- law passes by Congress which prohibited railroads from accepting rebates from their best customers.
Hepburn Act- law that authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to set maximum railroad rates and gave it the power to regulate other companies engaged in interstate commerce
Upton Sinclair- Novelist whose 1906 book, The Jungle, depicted the unsanitary conditions at meatpacking plants, the book brought about a public outcry, which led to consumer protection laws.
Meat Inspector Act- law that required federal government inspection of meat shipped across state lines
Pure food and drug Act- law that forbade the manufacture, sale or transportation of food and patent medicine containing harmful ingredients, and required that containers of food and medicines carry ingredient labels.
John Muir- Naturalist who believed that wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Part in California.
Newlands Reclamation Act- law that allowed the federal government to build irrigation projects to make marginal lands productive
Gifford Pinchot- Conservationist who was chief of the Forest Service, under his leadership millions of acres of land were added to the national forests.
William Howard Taft- 27th president of the U.S., he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff. He lost Roosevelt’s support and was defeated for a second term.
16th Amendment- law that allowed Congress to levy taxes based on an individual’s income
Hiram W. Johnson- Governor of California and U.S. senator, he helped form the Progressive Part, or Bull Moose Party, and ran as it’s vice presidential candidate with Theodore Roosevelt in 1912.
Woodrow Wilson- 28th president of the U.S., he proposed the league of Nations after World War 1, his reform legislation included direct election of senators, prohibition and women’s suffrage.
New Freedom- Woodrow Wilson’s plan of reform which called for tariff reductions, banking reform, and stronger antitrust legislation
Federal Reserve Act- law that created a central fund from which banks could borrow to prevent collapse during a financial panic, it also placed the backing system under the supervision of the government for the first time.
Clayton Antitrust Act- law that prohibited companies from buying the stock of competing companies in order to form a monopoly, forbade companies from selling goods below cost with the goal of driving their competitors out of business and made strikes, boycotts, and peaceful picketing legal.
Alice Paul- American social reformer, suffragist and activist, she was the founded of the organization that became the National Women’s Party that worked to obtain women’s suffrage
19th Amendment- a constitutional amendment that gave women the right to vote
Brownsville Incident- the accusation of 12 members of the African American 25th Infantry of a shooting spree in Brownsville, Texas, that killed one man and wounded a police officer, since no one member took responsibility for the shooting, all were dishonorably discharged; years later it was determined they had been falsely accused
Imperialism- the practice of extending a nation’s power by gaining territories for a colonial empire
Bayonet constitution- a constitution the kind of Hawaii was forced to sign which severely restricted his power and deprived most Hawaiians of the vote
Liliuokalani- Queen of the Hawaiian Islands, she opposed annexation by the United States. She lost power in a U.S. supported revolt by planters, which led to the installation of a new government in Hawaii
Sanford B Dole- American Sugar tycoon, he helped overthrow Queen Liliuokalani and later served as president and governor of Hawaii
Sphere of influence- an area where foreign countries control trade or natural resources of another nation or area
Open door policy- a policy established by the united states in 1899 to promote equal access for all nations to trade in china
Boxer rebellion- a siege of a foreign settlement in Beijing by Chinese nationalists who were angry at foreign involvement in china
Russo Japanese War- war between Russia and Japan of Manchuria
Jose Marti- Cuban writer and independence fighter, he was killed in battle in 1895 and became a symbol of Cuba’s fight for freedom
William Randolph Hearst- American Journalist, he was famous for sensational news stories, known as yellow journalism that stirred feelings for nationalism and formed public opinion for the Spanish-American War.
Joseph Pulitzer- American journalist and news paper publisher, he established the Pulitzer Prize for public service and advancement of education
Yellow journalism- the reporting of exaggerated stories in newspapers to increase sales
De lome letter- a letter written by Spain’s minister to the United States that was published in a major newspaper, the letter ridiculed President McKinley and outraged many Americans
George Dewey- Commander of the United States Navy’s Asiatic Squadron, he led the attack in the pacific during the Spanish-American war.
Emilio Aguinaldo- Self proclaimed president of the new Philippine in 1899, he fought for Filipino independence from the United States.
Rough riders- a calvary regiment organized by Theodore Roosevelt, consisted of college athletes, cowboys, ranchers, miners, and Native Americans
Battle of San Juan Hill- battle in the Spanish-American War in which 8,000 U.S. soldiers fought to seize control over San Juan Hill
Porfirio Diaz- Mexican general and politician, he was president and dictator of Mexico for 30 years. He ruled the people of Mexico harshly but encouraged foreign investment.
Francisco Madero- President of Mexico after Porfirio Diaz fled the country; he tried to establish a democratic government in Mexico.
Mexican Revolution- a revolution led by Francisco Madero in 1910 the eventually forced the Mexican dictator Porfirio Diaz to resign
Emiliano Zapata- Mexican Revolutionary, he led the revolt against Porfirio Diaz in the south of Mexico during the Mexican Revolution
Francisco “Pancho” Villa- Mexican bandit and revolutionary, he led revolts against Carranza and Huerta. He was pursued by the United States, but evaded General Pershing.
Victoriano Huerta- Mexican general and politician, he overthrew Madero as Mexican President and faced revolts with many revolutionary leaders. His government was not recognized by the United States.
Tampico Incident- confrontation between the united states and Mexico at Tampico Bay, Mexico, involving the arrest of American sailors by the Mexican government; it led to Congress approving the use of armed forces against Mexico, and was an important event leading up to the Battle of Veracruz
Battle of Veracruz- major conflict in the Mexican revolution
John J. Pershing- American army commander, he commanded the expeditionary force sent into Mexico to find Pancho Villa. He also served as the major general and commander in chide of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War 1.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand-Heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, whose assassination by a Serb nationalist started World War 1.
Kaiser Wilhelm 11- German emperor and king of Prussia, his militarism helped cause and prolong World War 1
Militarism- the expansion of arms and the policy of military preparedness
Triple alliance- a military alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Triple entente- a military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia
Balance of power- a system in which each nation or alliance has equal strength, people believed that this could help avoid war
Central powers- alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
Allied powers- alliance between Britain, France, and Russia
Trench warfare- a form of combat in which soldiers dug trenches, or deep ditches, to seek protection from enemy fire and to defend their positions
Liberty bonds- bonds that American citizens bought that helped to pay for the costs of World War 1
Bernard Baruch- American business leader and head of the War Industries Board during World War 1, he later advised many American political leaders
National war and labor board- created by President Wilson, this board meditated disputes between workers and management and set policies that improved working conditions
Committee on public information- created by President Wilson and ended by journalist George Creel, this committee’s objective was to maximize national loyalty and support for World War 1
George Creel- newspaper reporter and political reformer, he was appointed by President Woodrow Wilson to head this Committee on Public Information
Propaganda- information designed to influence public information
Schenck vs. United States- an important court case that explained the limits of the First Amendment
14 Points- President Woodrow Wilson’s plan for organizing post- World War 1 Europe and for avoiding future wars
Self determination- the right of people to decide their won political status
League of nations- international body of nations form in 1919 to prevent wars
David Lloyd George- British prime minister during World War 1; he was a member of the Big Four at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919
Big Four- name given to the leaders of the Allied Powers who dominated the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 following the Allied victory in World War 1
Reparations- payments designed to make up for damage of something
Treaty of Versailles- treaty ending World War 1 that required Germany to pay huge war reparations and established the League of Nations
Henry Cabot Lodge- U.S. senator and head of the Committee of Foreign Relations; he led the reservationists in oppositions to the League of Nations
Flapper- a young woman in the 1920’s who wore her hair bobbed, wore makeup, dressed in flashy, skimpy clothes, and lived a life of independence and freedom
Values- key ideas and beliefs
Billy Sunday- American fundamentalist minister; he used colorful language and powerful sermons to drive home the message of salvation through Jesus and to oppose radical and progressive groups
Fundamentalism- a belief in the literal interpretation of a particular religion’s doctrine or holy books
Evolution- theory which holds that inherited characteristics of a population change over generations and that as a result of these changes, new species sometimes arise
Clearance Darrow- Famous American Criminal lawyer; he defended John Scope’s right to teach evolution in the Scopes Trial
William Jennings Bryan- American lawyer and Populist politician, he favored the free coinage of silver, an economic policy expected to help farmers. He was a democratic candidate for president in 1896 and was defeated by William McKinley. He later led the prosecution in the Scopes Trial.
Bootlegger- liquor smuggler
Speakeasy- illegal bars where alcohol was served during Prohibition
Zora Neale Hurston- African American writer and folklore scholar who played a key role in the Harlem Renaissance
Great Migration- relocation of African Americans to northern cities from 1910 and into the 1920’s
Harlem Renaissance- a blossoming of African American art and literature that began in the 1920s
Marcus Garvey- African American leader who promoted self-reliance for African Americans, he started the Universal Negro Improvement Association, which urged heritage and helped influence the Harlem Renaissance
James Weldon Johnson- NAACP leader and Harlem Renaissance writer, he wrote poetry and, with his brother, the song “Lift every voice and sing”
Langston Hughes- African American poet who described the rich culture of African American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music
Paul Robeson­- African American actor and singer who promoted African American rights and left-wing causes
Jazz- American music form that blends several different musical forms from the Deep South
Louis Armstrong- Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance
Bessie Smith- African American blues singer who played an important part in the Harlem Renaissance
Bolsheviks- a group of Russian radicals, led by Vladimir I. Lenin, who played a roll in the 1917 revolution in Russia
Communism- a system of government in which there is no private property and there are no economic classes
Red Scare- a wide spread of communism
A. Mitchell Palmer- U.S. attorney general and opponent of communism, he ordered the Palmer Raids against radicals and aliens during the Red Scare of 1919 and 1920
Palmer Raids- a series of government attacks on suspected radicals in the U.S. led by A. Mitchell Palmer
Aliens- citizens from other countries living in the U.S
Deportation- removing an alien and returning them to their home country
Anarchist- radicals who sought the destruction of government
Henry Ford- American business leader, he revolutionized factory production through use of the assembly line and popularized the affordable automobile
Assembly line- a production in which the item that’s being made moves on a assembly
Productivity- a measure of output per unit of input such as labor
Welfare Capitalism- system in which companies provide benefits to employees
Suburb- smaller town located out side urban areas
Installment Buying- paying for something in payments
Credit- borrowing money in order to make purchases, and then paying it back
Warren G. Harding- 29th president of the U.S., his policies favored business, but his administration was known for scandals
Teapot dome- a federally owned piece of land in Wyoming, was the center of a government scandal in 1921 when President Harding’s Secretary of the interior accepted bribes in return for allowing oil companies to drill for oil there
Calvin Coolidge- 13th president of the U.S. he became president upon the death of President Warren G. Harding, he as known for his honesty and pro business policies
Reparations- payments that make up for damages done by war
Arms race- a struggle in which competing nations build more and more weapons on an effort to avoid 1 nation gaining clear advantage
Charles Evans Hughes- American politician who served as secretary of state and participated in the Washington Naval Conference, He served as chide justice on the Supreme Court and helped the court deal with controversial New Deal laws
Billy Mitchell- American general who supported the development of air power in the military
Kellogg-Briand Pact- a treaty signed in 1928 that rejected was as a means to solving problems between countries
D.W. Griffith- filmmaker who produced Birth of a Nation during World War 1, which introduced many advanced filmmaking techniques
Charlie Chapland- British comedian and movie star, he became famous for playing little tramp in silent movies
Charles A. Lindbergh- American pilot, he became the first person to fly alone across the Atlantic Ocean non stop in 1927
Transatlantic- crossing the Atlantic Ocean
Amelia Earhart- American pilot, first woman to fly over the Atlantic Ocean
F. Scott Fitzgerald- American writer famous for his novels, such as The Great Gatsby
George Gershwin- famous composer of jazz
Gross National product- the total value of goods and services produced in a nation during a specific period
Herbert Hoover- 31st president, helped save Europe from starvation, but failed as a president with the great depression
Buying on margin- buying stocks with loans from stock brokers
Federal reserve system- takes action and sets policies and regulates the nation’s money supply to help promote healthy economic activity
Black Tuesday- Tuesday October 29, 1929 day that stock Market crashed
Hobo- harmless wanderers
Great Depression- most severe economic down turn in history
Foreclosure- when a bank takes over ownership of a property from an owner who didn’t pay payments
Hoovervilles- shanty towns
Drought- period of below average rainfall
Dustbowl- nickname for the Great Plains regions hit by drought and dust storms in the early 1930s
Okie- immigrants
Woody Guthrie- song writer who wrote songs about the dust bowl
Associative State- term for Hoover’s vision of voluntary partnership between business associations and the government
Hoover damn- a damn built in the 1930s to control the Colorado river
Cooperative- an organization that is owned and controlled by its members who work for a common goal
Reconstruction final cooperation- program that provided two billion dollars to struggling banks

Smoot-Hawley Act- high tariff law that contributed to a global economic downturn in the 1930s
Franklin Delano Roosevelt- 32nd president of the U.S. he was elected for times, led the U.S. during the great depression and World War 2
Public Works- government funded building projects that would provide jobs
Fireside chat- conservational radio addresses given by Franklin d. Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt- Franklin Roosevelt’s wife, social reformer, writer diplomat, supported equal rights, was the 1st us ambassador to the United Nations
Hundred days- the first 100 days of Roosevelt’s presidency during which he implemented many new programs
New Deal- a plan by Franklin Roosevelt intended to bring economic relief
Subsidy- a government payment that is aimed at achieving a public benefit
Huey Long- Louisiana politician and senator who criticized the new deal
Father Charles Coughlin- Catholic priest and popular radio broadcaster, his broadcast praised Hitler and criticized Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal policies
Dr. Francis Townsend- New Deal critic who focused on the needs of older Americans, his ideas for a pension plan for retirees contributed to the formation of Social Security
Second New Deal- a new set of programs in the spring of 1935, included additional banking reforms, new tax laws, new relief programs, also known as the second 100 days
Social Security- a system for providing pensions for many Americans age 65 and up
John J. Lewis- American labor leader, helped with labor victories through sit down strikes
CIO- a group that broke away from the APL to form the committee for industrial organizations

Sit down strike- a strike in which workers refuse to work or leave the work place until a settlement is reached
Deficit- when a government spends more money than it takes it
John Maynard Keynes- British economist, limited deficit
Frances Perkins- played a leading role in the formation of the new deal, secretary of labor
Black Cabinet- African Americans hired to fill posts in the government
Mary McLeod Bethune- African American leader and advocate, she served as Director of Negro Affairs in the National Youth Administration and led the Black Cabinet
Dorothea Lange- American photographer, she recorded the Great Depression by taking pictures of the unemployed and rural poor
Swing- orchestrated type of jazz
Marian Anderson- musically gifted African American
Minimum Wage- lowest wage an employer can legally pay a worker
Incumbent- senator presently in office
Inflation- rising prices, reduced value of money
Benito Mussolini- first new leaders to emerge in Europe
Fascism- a system of government that stressed the glory of the state
Dictatorship- government by a leader or group that holds unchallenged power and authority
Totalitarian- a form of government in which the person or party in charge has the absolute power over aspects of life
Adolph Hitler- Europe’s aggressive leader who was Australian born, he led the holocaust
Francisco Franco- fascist dictator of Spain, he led the nationalists to victory in the Spanish civil war in the 1930s and controlled Spain
Joseph Stalin- totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union, used violent crack downs on enemies to strengthen his control
Haile Selassie- Emperor of Ethiopia, he resisted the Italian invasion of Ethiopia during World War 2 and later helped modernize Ethiopia
Neville Chamberlain- British prime minister, supported appeasement
Appeasement- giving into aggressive demands to maintain peace
Winston Churchill- condemned Chamberlain’s appeasement as cowardly and likely to lead to war
Blitzkrieg- German word meaning lightning war
The allies- the alliance of Britain, France and Russia in World War 2
Vichy France- French government set up with the Germans that ruled the southern half of France during World War 2
Charles de Gaulle- French military and political leader, led free French government
Luftwaffe- German air force
Axis powers- alliance of Germany and Italy and Japan in WW2
Hideko Tojo- Japanese nationalist and general took over Japan during WW2
Pacifist- people who do not believe in the use of military force
Neutrality Act- meant to prevent the nation from being drawn into war
Neutral- not to aid to one or another’s side
Quarantine speech- Franklin d Roosevelt’s speech made after Japan attacked china, in which called for American to take clear sides
Cash and Carry- law that changed the neutrality act to allow countries at war to purchase American goods as long as they paid cash and picked up their goods in American ports
Wendel Wilkie- FDR’s republican’s opponent in 1940 election
Land Lease Act- program that gave the government power to make weapons available to Great Britain with out reward for its ability to pay
Atlantic Charter- statement of American and British goals for the dread of the Nazis and their vision for post war world
George C. Marshal- leader of the mobilization effort
Oveta Culp Hobby- director of the women’s army corps during World War 2

Rosie the Riveter- symbol of working women during the war



Manhattan Project- the top secret program to build an atomic bomb during WW2
Atomic bomb- a bomb that uses energy released by splitting atoms to create an enormous explosion
Bracero program- a program that gave poor Mexican workers the chance to work temporarily in the U.S
Zoot suit riots- series of attacks by U.S. sailors against Mexican Americans in Los Angeles
Wolf Pack- a tactic in which submarines hunt as a group and attack at night
Erwin Rommel- German general during WW2, he commanded the Afrika Korps and was nicknamed the desert fox for his brilliant leadership
Operation Torch- the codename for the allied invasion of North Africa during WW2
Dwight D Eisenhower- 34th president of the U.S., led the allied invasion of North Africa
Tuskagee Airman- unit of African American pilots that fought in WW2
Operation Overlord- the codename for the allied invasion of mainland Europe in WW2, starting with D days landings
Omar Bradley- American general who led the allied invasion of Normandy in WW2
D Day- June 6, 1944 the 1st day of the allied invasion of Normandy in WW2
Battle of the bulge- WW2 battle between Germany and the allied forces
George S. Patton- American general known for tank warfare, he was involved in North Africa, Italy, and the battle of the bulge during WW2
Douglas MacArthur- American general commanded US troops in the southwest Pacific during WW2 and administered Japan after the war ended.
Bataan Death March- forced march of American and Filipino prisoners of war captured by the Japanese in the Philippines in WW2
James Doolittle- US army officer, he won promotion for leading a bombing raid in Tokyo
Chester Nimitz- American admiral, he won major victories in the battle of the Coral Sea, stopped the japs advance during WW2
Battle of Midway- a key naval and air battle between the japs and US during WW2
Code talker- American Navajos who served in the marines during WW2
Kamikaze- in WW2, a pilot who agreed to lead his aircraft with bombs and crash it into a enemy ship
Battle of Iwo Jima- a WW2 battle between Japs forced and invading US troops
Battle of Okinawa- WW2 battle with US and japs on Okinawa island, 100,000 japs were killed
Yalta Conference- meeting between Franklin D Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin to reach an agreement on what to do with Germany
Occupy- to take control of a place with troops
VE day- May 8th, 1945 when the allies celebrated victory over Europe
Harry Truman- 33rd president, after FDR died, led the US through the end of WW2
Enola gay- nickname of the American plane that dropped the atomic bomb
VJ day- August 15, 1945, when allies declared victory over Japan
United Nations- international organization that encourages cooperation’s among nations to prevent war
Potsdam conference- meeting among leaders of the allies near the end of WW2
Anti- Semitism- anti-Jewish beliefs
Kristallnacht- a German word for broken glass; an event occurring on the nights of November 9 and 10 during which Hitler’s Nazi’s encouraged Germans to riot against Jews, and nearly 100 Jews died
Concentration Camps- a detention site created for military or political purposes to confine, terrorize, and in some cases, kill civilians
Ghetto- an area where people from a specific ethnic background live as a group
Genocide- the killing of an entire people
Final solution- Hitler’s regime’s plan to murder the entire Jewish population of Europe and the Soviet Union
War Refugee Board- a group established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt that helped 20,000 Jews who night otherwise have fallen into the hands of the Nazi’s
Holocaust- the killing of millions of Jews and others by Nazis during World War 2
Hermann Goering- German Nazi leader and one of Hitler’s top assistants; he played a key role in persecuting Jews and in making Germany a totalitarian Nazi state before and during World War 2
Cold War- an era of high tension and bitter rivalry known between the United States and the Soviet Union following the end of World War 2
Iron Curtain- term coined by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe an imaginary line dividing Communist countries in the Soviet bloc from countries in Western Europe during the Cold War
Containment- policy that the United States adopted in the late 1940’s to stop the spread of communism; it involved providing economic aid in order to strengthen countries against the Soviets
George F. Kennan- American diplomat and expert on the Soviet Union; he developed the U.S. policy of containment to counter Soviet expansion after World War 2
Truman Doctrine- President Truman’s pledge to provide economic and military aid to countries threatened by communism

Marshall Plan- plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War 2 announced by the United States Secretary of State George C. Marshall
Berlin Airlift- a program in which the United States and Britain shipped supplies by air to West Berlin during a Soviet blockade of all routes to the city; lasted from 1948-1949
NATO- the North Atlantic Treaty organization; an international defense alliance formed in 1949
GI Bill- act that helped veterans make a smooth entry into civilian life by providing money for attending college or advanced job training
Baby boom- a dramatic rise in the birth rate following World War 2
Fair deal- plan proposed by President Truman that included a number of programs in the tradition of the New Deal, few of the Fair Deal ideas ever became law
Universal declaration of human rights- document presented to the U.N. by the Commission on Human Rights that stated all beings are created free and equal, and tried to set standards for human rights
World Bank- helps poor countries build their economies by provided grants and loans to help with projects that could provide jobs and wealth
International Monetary Funds- organization designed to encourage economic policies that promoted international trade
General agreements on tariff’s and trade- international organization that works to reduce tariffs and other barriers to trade
Chiang Kai-shek- leader of the Chinese Nationalist government and a strong U.S. ally; his government was defeated by the Communists in 1949. He fled to the island of Taiwan and established a Nationalist government there.
Mao Zedong- Leader of the Chinese communists; he led a successful revolution and established a Communist government in china in 1949.
House Un-American Activities Committee- committee formed in the House of Representatives in the 1930’s to investigate radical groups in the United States; it later came to focus on the threat of communism in the united states during World War 2 and the Cold War

Hollywood ten- Hollywood writers and directors who were thought to be radicals and called before HUAC; they refused to cooperate and were sentenced to short prison terms
Alger Hiss- Former U.S. government official who was accused, in 1948, of participating in a Communist spy ring. He denied the charges, but was convicted of lying under oath in 1950.
Joseph McCarthy- U.S. senator from Wisconsin who gained national fame in the late 1940s and early 1950s by aggressively charging that communists were working in the U.S. government. He lost support in 1954, after making baseless attacks on U.S. army officials.
McCarthyism- the name critics gave to Joseph McCarthy’s tactic of spreading fear and making baseless charges
38th Parallel- line of latitude which divides North and South Korea
Kim 11 Sung- Communist leader of North Korea; his attack on South Korea in 1950 started the Korean War. He remained in power until 1994.
Syngman Rhee- Korean leader who became president of South Korea after World War 2, and led South Korea during the Korean War.
Police action- phrase used to describe the US intervention in Korea in 1950; the United States never officially declared war.
Inchon- A port city in western South Korea on the Yellow Sea, site of major battle in the Korean War
Panmunjom- town in the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea where peace talks took place following the Korean War.
Richard M. Nixon- 37th president and vice president under Eisenhower, resigned on his second term because of the Watergate scandal
John Foster Dulles- secretary of state under Eisenhower, favored building up the American nuclear arsenal
Brinkmanship- a stragedy that involved countries getting to the verge of war, without actually going to war
Massive Retaliation- the United States willingness to use nuclear force to settle disputes
CIA- Central Intelligence agency, collects intelligence information and takes part in secret actions against foreign targets
Nakita Khrushev- Leader of the Soviet Union during the building of the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis, he wand President Kennedy signed the Limited Nuclear teat ban treaty in 1963, temporarily easing Cold War tensions.
War Saw Pact- a military alliance established in 1955 of the Soviet-dominated countries of Eastern Europe
Summit- a meeting of the head of government
SEATO- Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, group of nations that agreed to work together to resist Communist aggression
Eisenhower Doctrine- declared the right of the United States to help, on request, any nation in the Middle East trying to resist armed communist aggression
Hydrogen bomb- a nuclear weapon that gets its power from the fusing together of hydrogen atoms
ICBM- intercontinental ballistic missiles, guided missiles, that could travel thousands of miles and strike targets accurately
Sputnik- 1st artificial satellite, launched by the soviets

Satellite- an object that orbits around a planet
NASA- National Aeronautics and Space Administration, agency in charge of the United States’ programs for exploring outer space
Nuclear Fallout- harmful particles of radioactive material produced by nuclear explosions
John F Kennedy- 35th president of the US, youngest person and 1st Roman Catholic to be president
Robert Kennedy- American politician, attorney during his brothers presidency, but was killed
Fidel Castro- communist leader of Cuba
Bay of pigs invasion- an attempt by Cuban exiles in southern Cuba to overthrow the Cuban socialist government of Fidel Castro
Lyndon B Johnson- 36th president, after JFK
Cuban missile crisis- several days during which the US teetered on the brink of nuclear war with the Soviet Union
Peace Corps- a program that trains and sends volunteers to poor nations allover the world to serve as educators, health care workers, ag advisors, and other jobs

Alliance for progress- a program that provided aid to Latin American under Kennedy




Flexible response- a response stragedy to nuclear tensions that involved strengthening conventional US forces so the nation would have options other than nuclear weapons in the times of crisis



Jacqueline Kennedy- American first lady and wife of president Kennedy
New frontier- the nickname given to president Kennedy’s plan for changing the nation
Mandate- authorization to act
Earl Warren- American jurist and politician, he was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1953-1969
Warren Court- a term that refers to the years when Earl Warren served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Lee Harvey Oswald- the accused killer of JFK
Warren Commission- a commission headed by chief justice Earl Warren to investigate the killing of Kennedy
War on poverty- set of programs introduced by president Johnson to fight poverty
Job Corps- program under president Johnson that offered work-training programs for unemployed youth, volunteers in service to America
Vista- a domestic version of the Peace Corps that provided help to poor communities in the US
Great Society- the term for the domestic programs of the Johnson administration
Barry Goldwater- American politician, he was a US senator from Arizona and the republican parties presidential candidate in 1964
Medicaid- a government program that provides free health care to the poor
Medicare- a health care program for people over 65 years
Johnson Doctrine- Johnson’s philosophy that revolutions in Latin America were not just local concerns when the object is the establishment of a Communist dictatorship
Pueblo Incident- north Korean capture of the pueblo, a navy ship, off the coast of communist North Korea
Censorship- the suppression or prohibition of publications or performances that are considered offensive
Checks and balances- allows each branch of government to have influence over another to prevent one branch from becoming too powerful
Declaration of rights of man- a French document that ensured a monarch could not supercede democratically passed laws
Democracy- a government in which the supreme power is vested in and exercised by the people
Dictatorship- a government ruled by one individual with absolute control
Freedom of information act- requires the government to make available certain types of public and government information


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