Articles of confederation



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ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION



Characteristic

Consequence

No Executive


No Federal courts


No power to tax


Shays’ Rebellion


Boundary Dispute between

states



States taxed each other’s

goods



No national currency


One vote per state


Inability to repay French

loans



Inability to protect settlers

From Indians




Northwest Ordinance of

1785 & 1787




British retention of forts

In Northwest




No regulation of interstate commerce


Members often failed to

attend Congress




Barbary pirates raided

shipping



Spain’s denial of right of

Deposit at New Orleans




Little trade with Britain


Constitutional Compromises




VIRGINIA PLAN

NEW JERSEY PLAN

FINAL U.S. CONSTITUTION

Representation









Executive









Judicial







Legislative








The Constitution – Balancing Competing Interests

Americans’ experience with British rule and the Articles of Confederation gave rise to considerable apprehension about the placement of power in a new government. The Founding Fathers attempted to allay those fears through compromises that safeguarded the interests of competing groups.



Fear of…

Source of Fear

Provision to Calm the Fear

Large states

Smaller states feared a loss of identity & sovereignty

____________________________ – bicameral legislature with the Senate comprised of 2 representatives per state

The people

Men of property feared mass democracy

Only the House of Representatives was to be popularly elected

Weak central government

Men of property were concerned about Shays’ Rebellion, trade barriers, and lack of a uniform currency

Essential powers of national gov’t were enumerated and the “__________ __________” was added

Strong federal government

States feared loss of sovereignty

________________ split sovereignty; powers not delegated to the national gov’t were reserved for the states

Other states

Americans feared border & trade disputes

National gov’t was empowered to resolve difference b/w states & regulate interstate commerce

Foreign powers

All states were incapable of defending themselves, enforcing treaty agreements, or gaining foreign respect

National gov’t was given a monopoly over the military powers of gov’t

Strong executive

Experience with King George III prior to the revolution caused fears of executive power

A system of ____________________ with three _________________ of gov’t helped check executive power

Losing individual rights

No written guarantee of individual rights provoked fears

The __________________________, or the first 10 amendments to the Constitution, was added at the insistence of the _________________


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