one by a Danish portraitist titled Kierkegaard’s Mood,
Red Square (realist portrait of Moscow),
Red Square (minimalist version),
Nirvana (a metaphysical painting)
[“Big Red Square” Paul Franklin, 2012
“Yves Klein” Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yves_Klein,
accessed May 4, 2010
“The … exhibition, 'Proposte Monochrome, Epoca Blu' (Proposition Monochrome; Blue Epoch) at the Gallery Apollinaire, Milan, (January 1957), featured 11 identical blue canvases, using ultramarine pigment suspended in a synthetic resin 'Rhodopas'. Discovered with the help of Edouard Adam, a Parisian paint dealer, the effect was to retain the brilliance of the pigment which tended to become dull when suspended in linseed oil. Klein later patented this recipe to maintain the "authenticity of the pure idea." This colour, reminiscent of the lapis lazuli used to paint the Madonna's robes in medieval paintings, was to become famous as ‘International Klein Blue' (IKB).
Barnett Newman - Vir Heroicus Sublimis o/c 7'11" x 17'9" 1950-51
Marchel Duchamp “In Advance of the Broken Arm” 1915 original
Shovel is inscribed along its lower rim with the following phrase: "In Advance of the Broken Arm/(from) Marcel Duchamp 1915."
"I have a show shovel upon which I have written on the bottom, In Advance of a Broken Arm. Don't try too hard to understand it in the Romantic or Impressionist or Cubist sense, that does not have any connection with it."--Duchamp, 1916
Museum of Modern Art, 2007
The Janitor’s Mistake
"When our little exhibition [1945 retrospective of three Duchamp brothers] went on tour, a janitor at a Museum in Minnesota the next winter mistook it for a shovel, as well he might, and went to work on a snowdrift, doing Duchamp's inscription no good.“ George Heard Hamilton “In Advance of The Broken Arm” in Marcel Duchamp in Perspective by Joseph Mascheck, Da Capo Press, 2002. 
Duchamp vs. Bell
“Duchamp had annihilated all that haughty aesthetic talk about empathy, pure painting, significant form, etc. Art it what one decides it shall be. We do not so much find it, or make it, as determine it. Consequently it has no value whatsoever except in so far as it exists as a consequence of a mental event.” (ibid. 75)
[Danto does not believe that beauty is necessary for art.] There are works of art which have material counterparts that are beautiful in the way certain natural objects are.
[For Danto, an artwork has two sides, the “material counterpart” and the interpretation. The material counterpart is the work of art as a physical thing. This is much like the view that Heidegger criticizes in his essay.]
People with aesthetic sensitivity spontaneously respond to things like gemstones, birds and sunsets.
“Barbarian” thought experiment
Suppose there was a group of people (called “barbarians”) who lacked the concept of art, but still saw as beautiful what we consider as paradigms of beauty, e.g. glowing iridescent things, and also certain works of art whose material counterparts are beautiful.
They see these works of art as beautiful things.
Huns with the combat against Alains llustration of Johann Nepomuk Geiger (1873)
Imagine them, when they invade the civilized world, sparing those works including some paintings with gold leaf etc., but not some Rembrandts etc.
Chartres Cathedral West Rose- The Last Judgment
Angel with a crossc. 1215
Art is the kind of thing that depends for its existence upon theories.
[So Danto must mean that whether something is art depends on whether someone can see it as art].
Without theories, black paint is just black paint.
[The red-painted expanse is mere red paint, unlike the other rectangles indiscernible from it.]
There could not be an artworld without theory: it is logically dependent on theory.
Theory is so powerful it detaches objects from the real world and makes them part of a different world, an art world, a world of interpreted things. [Shades of Plato?]
Thus, there is an internal connection between the status of an artwork and the language with which artworks are identified as such.
Necessity of Interpretation
Nothing is an artwork without an interpretation that constitutes it as such.
[Thus Danto’s theory would be different from Dickie’s. Dickie does not demand that something be interpreted as art to be art.]
Thomas Adajian, “The Definition of Art,” http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/art-definition/ 2007 accessed 11/24/10
“Danto's definition has been glossed [by Noel Carroll] as follows: something is a work of art if and only if
(i) it has a subject
(ii) about which it projects some attitude or point of view (has a style)
(iii) by means of rhetorical ellipsis (usually metaphorical) which ellipsis engages audience participation in filling in what is missing,
and (iv) where the work in question and the interpretations thereof require an art historical context… Clause (iv) is what makes the definition institutionalist.”
Criticism of the Danto definition
“The view has been criticized for entailing that art criticism written in a highly rhetorical style is art, lacking but requiring an independent account of what makes a context art historical, and for not applying to music.” Ibid., Adajian.
Piero della Francesca. Legend of the True Cross: Annunciation. 1452-1466.