PHOENIX COLLEGE, 1101 W Thomas Rd, Fine Arts Bldg. Rm 104, Tues 6 to 10 pm
Art 275 Sec. 22131 LOST WAX CASTING I
Art 276 Sec. 22132 LOST WAX CASTING II
Art 290 Sec. 22138 ADVANCED LOST WAX CASTING
THE HISTORY OF LOST WAX CASTING
The history of lost-wax casting dates back thousands of years. Its earliest use was for idols, ornaments and jewelry, using natural beeswax for patterns, clay for the moulds and manually operated bellows for stoking furnaces. Examples have been found across the world in India's Harappan Civilisation (2500–2000 BC) idols, Egypt's tombs of Tutankhamun (1333–1324 BC), Mesopotamia, Aztec and Mayan Mexico, and the Benin civilization in Africa where the process produced detailed artwork of copper, bronze and gold.
The earliest known text that describes the investment casting process (Schedula Diversarum Artium) was written around 1100 A.D. by Theophilus Presbyter, a monk who described various manufacturing processes, including the recipe for parchment. This book was used by sculptor and goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini (1500–1571), who detailed in his autobiography the investment casting process he used for the Perseus with the Head of Medusa sculpture that stands in the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence, Italy.
Investment casting came into use as a modern industrial process in the late 19th century, when dentists began using it to make crowns and inlays, as described by Dr. D. Philbrook of Council Bluffs, Iowa in 1897. Its use was accelerated by Dr. William H. Taggart of Chicago, whose 1907 paper described his development of a technique. He also formulated a wax pattern compound of excellent properties, developed an investment material, and invented an air-pressure casting machine.
In the 1940s, World War II increased the demand for precision net shape manufacturing and specialized alloys that could not be shaped by traditional methods, or that required too much machining. Industry turned to investment casting. After the war, its use spread to many commercial and industrial applications that used complex metal parts.
Investment casting is used in the aerospace and power generation industries to produce turbine blades with complex shapes or cooling systems. Blades produced by investment casting can include single-crystal (SX), directionally solidified (DS), or conventional equiaxed blades. Investment casting is also widely used by firearms manufacturers to fabricate firearm receivers, triggers, hammers, and other precision parts at low cost. Other industries that use standard investment-cast parts include military, medical, commercial and automotive.
INSTRUCTOR: Bill Jamieson, E Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
TEXTBOOKS: Tim McCreight, The Complete Metalsmith, and/or
Tim McCreight, Practical Casting.
This course teaches students the process of LOST WAX CASTING. Each student will be able to create pieces of jewelry or very small sculptures using this method. Class meets at PHOENIX COLLEGE, 1101 W Thomas Rd, Fine Arts Bldg. Rm 104, Tues 6 to 10 PM
Instructor will be in classroom from 5:00 t0 6 pm for any student who needs extra work time
SPRING 2014 SCHEDULE
Week Date Activity
1 01-14 Continuing Students: Continue to work on wax models.
and New Students Only: Discussion of tools, materials, outline of course,
and design sources. 20 min Break. (A jewelry slide presentation)
2 01-21 New Students: . .Wax demonstrations. (basic wax techniques, beads, beltbuckle, pendants, key fobs, rings, etc.)
Advanced Students: Work on wax models or watch demo.
3 01-28 Same as week two.
4 02-04 New Students: Tool check.Continue demonstrations, (rings, stones, mountings.
Advanced Students: Work on wax models or watch demo. 5 02-11 All Students: Work on wax models.
6 02-18 Lab 1st investing for those who have completed a quality wax model.
7 02-25 Lab* 1st Casting - - - - - -Note: (Invested flasks will be burned out
8 03-04 Lab* and ready for casting the week following the
Investing. Be ready with your metal.
9 03-11 SPRING BREAK—NO CLASSES
10 03-18 Lab*
11 03-25 Lab* (Investing and casting can be done on each starred dates) 12 04-01 Lab*
13 04-08 Lab*.
14 04-15 Lab* Last investing
15 04-22 Lab Last casting
16 04-29 Lab Finishing of projects for final critique
17 05-06 Lab CLOSED -------- FINAL CRITIQUE. Bring Snacks
Final Critique 6:30 - 8:00 pm Display and discuss projects.
Evaluation will be on aesthetic quality, creativity, and craftsmanship of your work.
ONLY ONE FLASK PER STUDENT PER CLASS PERIOD TO BE INVESTED
THE MAXIMUM WEIGHT OF A WAX TO BE INVESTED IS 16 GRAMS.
The wax model must be exactly 1/2 inch below the top of the flask 16 GRAMS.
PLAN to invest several items in each flask.
Please use the smallest flask that will fit your wax model.
Large or heavy items (belt buckles, etc.) should be one per flask.
ALL STUDENTS NEED TO SPEND TIME WORKING WAX AT HOME
YOU WILL NOT BE ALLOWED TO INVEST AND CAST ANY COMMERCIAL FORMS
DO NOT START TO INVEST AFTER 9:00 PM !
LOST WAX JEWELRY - COURSE OUTLINE
LOST WAX JEWELRY-lntroduction
LOST WAX DESlGN-Jewelry/Small Sculpture
DESIGN CONSlDERATlONS-Elements (line, shape/form, texture, color and value, negative space)
•Additive (Build-up) •Subtractive (Carving)
•Centrifugal • NO Vacuum-assist •Pour (pewter)
PROCEDURES FOR LOST WAX CASTING
Build design in wax.
Invest wax model in flask
Clean cast piece
Finishing: sawing, filing, grinding, sanding
Tumbling if needed after all polishing . (by INSTRUCTOR )
Presentation of completed work
Tim McCreight, JEWELRY, Fundamentals of Metalsmithing, Hand Books Press
Sharr Choate, Creative Casting, New York: Crown Publishing.
Dominic Dipasquale, Jewelry Making, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975.
Chuck Evans, Jewelry - Contemporary Design and Tech, Worcester, MA: Davis Pub, 1983
Jay D. Kain, Cast Pewter Jewelry, Worcester, MA: Davis Publishing.
Philip Morten, Contemporary Jewelry, New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Oppi Untracht, Metal Techniques for Craftsmen, New York: Doubleday.
Robert VonNeuman, The Design and Creation of Jewelry, New York: Chilton Co.
Bob Winston, Cast Away, Scottsdale: Shelfhouse Publications.
Joanna Gollberg The Art & Craft Of Making Jewelry, Lark Books, New York
1. Grades from projects.
3. Creativity in design.
4. Technical competency.
Limit yourself to 20 minutes for break time during the four hours class time.
Attendance will be taken for each class period. Excessive absences will affect your grade and you may be dropped. Please notify the secretary 285-7277 if not attending.
Please clean up after yourself. Allow sufficient time for this. Chairs on the table, etc.
LOST WAX SUPPLIES (Required except where noted)
Tool Box (for carrying supplies) Wax tool (A-CW 2 @Lonnie’s) Alcohol Lamp-1/2 pint, 1/4' wick
Matches or lighter (1401 C @ Langert-Netzband Ceramic or Pyrex dish for lamp
* Waxes: Q-tips * Wicks for alcohol lamp
Sheet-soft pink or green * #4 Jewelers Saw Blades Aluminum foil
Sprue or Wire wax Toothbrush Leather or fabric gloves (optional)
Kerr hard inlay-bar or stick Sandpaper (assorted) * MIZZY grinding wheels
Sierra Red Ring stick (optional) * Mandrels for grinding wheels
Pliers (optional) Dremel or Foredom Bits Small knife or X-acto knife
* May be purchased in class Band aids * Methanol ( alcohol for lamp)
The following items for this class will be supplied: Acetylene-Oxygen, buffing wheels, filters, tripoly, rouge, oxidizers, Sparex #2, vacufilm, charcoal blocks, silver solder, soldering flux, and casting flux.
SHEET WAX is used as a base for pins, earrings, belt buckles, pendants, bolo ties, bracelets, buttons, etc., or in large areas where shaping is needed.
WIRE WAX is used for basic construction and sprues. It's color has no significance.
KERR HARD BLUE INLAY WAX can be used for building all the sculpture forms, rings, texturing, edging, settings for stones, and main sprues. It is also used for strengthening other waxes.
SIERRA RED WAX is used for all aspects of wax forming. It is especially useful in making prongs for stones.
WAX DESIGNS SHOULD BE AS NEAR THE SAME THICKNESS THROUGHOUT AS POSSIBLE.
LAMP AND ALCOHOL
Alcohol lamps with methanol alcohol produce very little carbon. Other alcohol (denatured) burns with a yellow flame and produces a great deal of carbon. Carbon in wax is a source of porosity and is more difficult to eliminate in the burnout. It can also cause roughness on the surface of the cast piece.
LOST WAX SUPPLIERS
COMPANY PHONE # SUPPLIES
S J JEWELRY SUPPLY 602-956-0189 Metals, Tools, waxes, findings. Etc.
2725 N 24th St Suite 4
CC Silver 602-242-6310 Silver and gold, Collector Coins
2028 W. Camelback
C & D Silver Mfg. Co. 602-992-5440 Silver, tools, lapidary supplies, etc.
15846 N. Cave Creek Rd.
Langert Netzband Jewelry 602-264-1620 Tools, Lead free Pewter, silver wire, wax,
1526 W. Camelback Rd. Bronze
Lonnie's Inc. 602-220-0494 Everything. Tools, gems, waxes, metals ,
1436 N. 44th St acetylene, oxygen, methanol, denaturred
alcohol, tools, tumblers, BOOKS, Etc.
Rockazona, Inc. 623-979-7400 Silver, bronze, stones, gold, waxes, tools,
9241 NW Grand Ave., Peoria lapidary equipment, etc.
PLEASE CALL AHEAD
If buying BRONZE, Make sure that it is SILICON BRONZE. (NOT MANGANESE)
PLEASE CHECK YELLOW PAGES OR ON LINE FOR MORE SOURCES