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The Anthony P. Campanella Collection of Giuseppe Garibaldi

Archived Online Exhibit

Originally exhibited summer-fall 1997 at the Thomas Cooper Library, University of South Carolina

Archived October 13, 2013

Table of Contents

Archived Online Exhibit 1

Introduction 2

Island One 4

Island two 6

Island Three 10

Island Four 12

Island Five 15

Island Six 18


The Anthony P. Campanella Collection, recently presented to the University of South Carolina by Dr. Campanella, is a resource of major significance on Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882), Italian liberator and hero-figure of nineteenth-century liberal nationalism, and on the Risorgimento, the 1860 reunification of Italy. Apart from the wars and territorial redistributions of the Napoleonic period, Italian reunification was the most influential, far-reaching political event in nineteenth-century Europe: the intellectual and political consequences of the event extended far beyond the boundaries of Italy.

The Campanella Collection, created as the library of the International Institute of Garibaldian Studies, is a major, internationally recognized academic research resource. It is a sharply focused assemblage of more than 2,500 titles relating to a subject area of major historical importance and is unequaled, in scope or detail, in the library of any other North American academic institution. In addition to the core research library, which contains the principal published works of the Risorgimento period and numerous contemporary memoirs, the Campanella Collection contains many items from Garibaldi's personal library and from the library of his son Ricciotti (1847-1924), 410 original letters to and from Garibaldi, 350 nineteenth-century newspapers, a major collection of medals honoring and relating to Garibaldi, and varied items of memorabilia.

Giuseppe Garibaldi devoted his life to the cause of Italian unity. His greatest triumph was the 1860 overthrow of the Kingdom of Naples, the event which precipitated Italian unification. In May of that year, Garibaldi landed in Sicily with a volunteer force of 1070 men (the "Thousand"). Within two weeks this force had taken the city of Palermo, forcing the capitulation of an army of 20,000 regulars. In August Garibaldi crossed to the Italian mainland, routing the Neapolitan army in a series of victories and capturing Naples itself within the month. Garibaldi's March became one of the great legends of the nineteenth century, both because of the genius with which Garibaldi overcame vast military odds, and, equally importantly, because of the potent political symbolism of the event in an age in which ethnic and cultural groups increasingly responded to nationalism's call in a Europe still dominated by the dynastic power blocs of an earlier age.

There can be no doubt that the March, whose progress was eagerly followed in a United States ideologically opposed to European dynastic "tyranny," was viewed in this country as a powerful vindication of the right of the individual to political self-determination. It also encouraged Southern leaders in their move towards secession at precisely the time when accounts of Garibaldi's exploits appeared in the American press. Nor is it coincidental that in 1876 Wade Hampton's followers, in their resistance to the continued presence of Federal troops in South Carolina, appropriated the name of Garibaldi's followers--Red Shirts--for themselves.

Anthony P. Campanella was born in 1912 at Ciminna, near Palermo, Sicily. He was raised in New York, attending New York University where he took bachelor's and master's degrees in sociology. He later took doctorates at the Universities of Frankfurt-am-Main (Dr. Rer. Pol., 1948) and Lausanne (1950). It was here that he met his future wife, Erica, daughter of the distinguished medical historian Henry Sigerist. Mrs. Campanella was librarian with the World Health Organization.

Dr. Campanella is the author and editor of numerous publications relating to Garibaldi. His magnum opus, the 1971 two-volume biography of Garibaldi, is a cornerstone of Garibaldian studies.

The generous gift of the Campanella Collection to the University of South Carolina, raises the University to the status of an international research center for the study of Garibaldi and of Italian re-unification.

Island One

Island 1: Garibaldi in South America

In 1834 Garibaldi, who had absorbed political influences from Giuseppe Mazzini and from the French Socialist theorist Saint-Simon, participated in an unsuccessful attempt at revolution in Piedmont, in whose navy he then served. Under sentence of death he escaped first to France and then, in 1836, to South America, where he remained in exile until 1848. His experiences in South America determined his future career, shaping the military genius which later enabled him to resist the French and to defeat the Neapolitans and Austrians.
Isidoro De-Maria, 1815-1906
Anales de la defensa de Montevideo 1842-1851
Montevideo: Imprenta a vapor de el Ferro-Carril, 1883-1887. Four volumes.

With the destruction of the Uruguayan army at the battle of Arroyo Grande (December 6, 1842), it was assumed that the country's capital, Montevideo, would fall to the combined forces of the Argentinian dictator Juan Manuel Rosas and the former Uruguayan president Manuel Oribe. Responsibility for the city's defence principally fell to two groups--the newly-freed slaves, who formed a contingent 5,000 strong, and the community of foreign exiles. As a leader of the Italian Legion--the first group to adopt the name "Redshirts" with which he will always be associated--Garibaldi substantially enhanced his reputation through the defeat of a superior force at the battle of Salto Sant Antonio (February 1846). In South America, Garibaldi learned and mastered the techniques of guerilla warfare which he was to use to great effect against the armies of the French and Austrians, which lacked effective experience to counter them. This rare history of the events of the period was written by the editor of the Montevideo newspaper the Constitucional.

Giuseppe Bandi, 1834-1894
Anita Garibaldi
Firenze: R. Bemporad, 1932.

During his service as a captain in the navy of the Rio Grande del Sul, a small state which attempted unsuccessfully to secede from the Brazilian empire, Garibaldi eloped with a married woman, Anna Maria ("Anita") Ribero da Silva. She was to be Garibaldi's companion (the two were bigamously married in 1842) until her death in 1849 during their flight from Austrian and Papal troops, subsequent to the collapse of the Roman republic. The dramatically tragic circumstances of her death placed her firmly in the front rank of the heroes of the Risorgimento. Bandi's romantic biography, first published in 1889, is a perennially popular hagiography of Anita Garibaldi.

Map of the Confédération Argentine at République Orientale de l'Uruguay.

From 1836-1840 Garibaldi fought for the Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost section of the Brazilian empire, then seeking to establish itself as an independent republic. By tradition, this map was owned by Garibaldi and was used by him at that time.

Sword, nineteenth century.

This sword is believed to have been presented to Garibaldi by the people of Montevideo on the occasion of his departure for Italy in June, 1848. The two sides of the engraved blade bear the inscriptions L'Italia and L'Unione.


Island two

Island 2: The 1848 Revolutions and the Roman Republic

In April 1848, Garibaldi returned to Europe with 60 members of his Italian legion. The offer of his services was declined by Pope Pius IX and by Charles Albert of Savoy, and instead, until the collapse of the revolutionary movement in Northern Italy, he fought ably for the city of Milan, which, influenced by Mazzini, had adopted a distinct, republican orientation. Following Pius IX's flight from Rome, Garibaldi and his volunteers offered their services to the Roman Republic. His doomed but inspired defence of Rome (April-June 1849) and his retreat to San Marino and escape from central Italy, during the course of which his wife died in circumstances both deeply tragic and deeply heroic, established him as a legend of emerging European liberal nationalism. Garibaldi was now the "hero of two worlds." The Piedmontese government was unwilling to allow so potent a symbol of revolution to return home, and Garibaldi remained in exile, in Tangier, Staten Island, and Peru until 1854 when Cavour, the Piedmontese prime minister, allowed his return with the purposes of separating him from Mazzini and the republican faction and of using his prestige and talents to further unification of Italy under the auspices of the Piedmontese monarchy.

Giuseppe Mazzini, 1805-1872
Ricordi dei Fratelli Bandiera e dei loro compagni di martirio in Cosenza
Parigi: Dai torchi della Signora Lacombe, 1844.

In 1844, the brothers Attilio and Emilio Bandiera and a group of companions landed at Cotrone, in Calabria, in an attempt to trigger a spontaneous uprising within the kingdom of Naples (also known as the kingdom of the Two Sicilies). When the hoped-for rebellion failed to materialize, they were captured and shot together with seven of their companions. Their death, singing the chorus "He who dies for his country has lived long enough," placed them in the first rank of the martyrs of Italian unity. The incident strongly affected Garibaldi, who in 1860 was spectacularly to make good what they had attempted. Garibaldi named his second son Ricciotti in honour of one of the young martyrs (the Campanella Collection contains many items from Ricciotti Garibaldi's library). Ironically a possible factor in the failure of the expedition was the indiscretion of Giuseppe Mazzini, compiler of this account, who, believing that there was no postal censorship in Britain, mailed details of the plot to another Italian revolutionary in London. The letter was intercepted by the British government and it was believed (apparently incorrectly) that its contents were forwarded to the Neapolitan and Austrian governments.

Il Don Pirlone
Rome: February-March 1849.

The Campanella Collection includes issues 130-195 of the rare satirical journal Il Don Pirlone, issued in Rome under the Roman Republic. Many of the lithographic cartoons are anti-clerical in nature, but this example represents the Roman Republic, Roman wolf at her side, heralding the dawn of Italian unity by ringing a bell in the shape of a cap of liberty. Pope Pius IX and Charles Albert of Savoy, whose son Victor Emmanuel II was to be king of a united Italy, are among those discomfited by the bell's sound. The Campanella Collection also contains a copy of the 1850, three-volume second edition of Il Don Pirlone formerly in the library of Count Potocki.

Luigi-Carlo Farini, 1812-1866
Lo stato Romano dall'anno 1815 al 1850
Firenze: Felice Le Monnier, 1853. Terza ed.

In February 1849, Garibaldi, who had led a group of volunteers to Rome, was elected a deputy of the Roman Assembly. In this capacity he proposed the establishment of the Roman Republic. Between April and July he led a spirited defense against French and Neapolitan troops sent to restore papal authority. Though the resources at Garibaldi's disposal doomed his defense to failure, the vigor of his resistance ensured a place for the event among the principal legends of the Risorgimento and established Garibaldi as one of its greatest leaders.

The liberal politician Luigi-Carlo Farini, author of this work, served in the 1848 administration of Pope Pius IX, but resigned following the establishment of the Roman Republic. Subsequently, the increasingly reactionary nature of the restored papal government led him to transfer his allegiance to the House of Savoy, where he became a strong supporter of Cavour's policies. From 1861 to 1863, following the death of Cavour, he served as prime minister of united Italy.
Luigi Pianciani, 1810-1890
Ancona: Sartorj Cherubini, 27 Gennaro, 1849.

A recruiting poster issued during the 1848-49 Austro-Sardinian War.

Protocollo della Repubblica Romana
Roma: Tipographia Romana, 1849.

Collection of resolutions passed by various municipalities in support of the Roman Republic, then being invaded by the French, April & May, 1849.

The Roman Insurrection in theIllustrated London News

During the late spring and early summer of 1849, British readers kept abreast of the goings-on in Italy through weekly periodicals, most notably the Illustrated London News. Shown here on a "sub-island" are several engravings pertaining to the events taking place around Rome during that time.

Notizie del giorno
Macerata: a Mancini, 1849.

The Campanella Collection contains an important group of broadsides issued in the town of Macerata. This bulletin details events of the 1848-49 war between Austria and Piedmont/Sardinia including details of skirmishes at San Benedetto del Tronto and of a prisoner exchange at Rome.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1807-1882
Autograph letter, signed, to Col. Angelo de Masini
Frosinone, 29 Maggio, 1849.

Angelo de Masini, also known as Masina, was an Emilian nobleman who commanded a corps of lancers formed for the defence of the Roman republic. The corps, composed principally of aristocrats, was called the "Death Squadron." This important letter, exhorting Masini's men to fight bravely, was written ten days after Masini's men abandoned him during a battle with the Neapolitans, an incident from which the Emilian barely escaped with his life. Masini was killed five days later during a sortie, made against Garibaldi's expressed orders, in which he attempted to retake the Villa Corsini from the attacking French army. Masini's body, recovered a month later, was found to contain seventy bullet wounds.

Denis Auguste Marie Raffet, 1804-1860
Souvenirs d'Italie. Expédition de Rome
Paris: Gihaut Frères, 1852.

Denis Auguste Marie Raffet is counted among the great nineteenth-century book illustrators. His two major late works, Souvenirs d'Italie and Voyage dans la Russie Méridionale (also in the University of South Carolina's collections) were regarded by many contemporary admirers as the highest achievements of the lithographic book.Souvenirs d'Italie depicts scenes from actions of the French expeditionary force despatched by Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, later Napoléon III, to suppress the Roman Republic and reinstate the government of Pius IX. Garibaldi's command of the beleaguered Republic's forces established him as a major figure in the coming fight for Italian unity. Raffet's Souvenirsis an exceedingly rare work.

Luigi Gualtieri
Memorie di Ugo Bassi, apostolo del vangelo, martire dell'indipendenza Italiana
Bologna: Giacomo Monti, 1861.

Bassi (1800-1849) was a popular preacher, operating principally from the city of Bologna. A strong adherent of the 1848 revolution, he initially supported Pius IX, transferring his allegiance to the Roman republic and to Garibaldi when the pope's opposition to Liberalism became evident. On the fall of the republic, Bassi accompanied Garibaldi to San Marino: unlike Garibaldi, however, he was captured and handed to the Austrians. Falsely charged with bearing arms, he was executed at Bologna on August 8, 1849. Bassi, among the most attractive of the nineteenth-century Italian patriots, is described by the eleventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica as "a gentle, unselfish soul, who, although unusually gifted, had an almost childlike nature." The account concludes: "His execution excited a feeling of horror all over Italy."

Giuseppe La Farina, 1815-1863
Storia d'Italia dal 1815 al 1850
Torino: Societa' Editrice Italiana, 1851-52.

Giuseppe La Farina was among the first advocates of Italian unity under the leadership of Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy. He played a prominent role in the 1848 revolution in Sicily and subsequently settled in Turin, where in 1856 he founded Piccolo corriere d'Italia, which propagated the views of Societa Nazionale Italiana, of which he became president. La Farina acted as an intermediary between Cavour and Garibaldi and joined Garibaldi at Palermo in 1860 to speed the process of Italian unity. He was a member of the first Italian parliament (1860).

Luigi Stefanoni, 1842-1905
Le due repubbliche ed il due dicembre
Milano: R. Levino, 1863.

Stefanoni's two-volume radical history of the 1848 establishment of the Roman and French republics and of the overthrow by Louis Napoleon Bonaparte of the two republics. The wood engravings on the wrappers of the two volumes show, respectively, the Roman wolf and Gallic cock under the republican Phrigian cap, and Napoleon III, flanked by imperial flags and surmounted by a crown.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1807-1882
Autograph letter, signed, to Candido Augusto Vecchi
Baltimore, December 30, 1853.

In this letter Garibaldi announces to Vecchi (1813-1869), his long-time friend and biographer, his intended return to Italy from the four-year exile which followed the overthrow of the Roman republic. Although addressed from Baltimore, the letter, which is franked with English stamps, was not mailed until Garibaldi had reached England on February 11, 1854. After a three month stay in England, Garibaldi landed at Genoa on May 7.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1807-1882
Cantoni il volontario; romanzo storico
Milano: Enrico Politti, 1870. First edition.

Garibaldi's 1870 novel Cantoni il volontariois the account of Cantoni, a fictional figure who joins the author's volunteers in Rome in 1848. In contrast to his earlier novel,Clelia, Garibaldi intersperses descriptions of actual events through the text and introduces real characters, including his first wife, Anita, and himself.


Island Three

Island 3: Italian Unity: Anglo-American Literary Sympathy and the War of 1859

The cause of Italian unity evoked a strong, sympathetic response in the Anglo-American literary community. Prominent among these were two expatriate figures resident in Italy, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, the English poet, and Margaret Fuller, the American writer who had married Angelo Ossoli.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, 1806-1861
Casa Guidi Windows
London: Chapman & Hall, 1851. First edition.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning and her husband Robert settled in Florence and sympathized with the Italian nationalist aspirations of many of its inhabitants, a view representative of the majority of British residents in northern Italy.

Margaret Fuller, 1810-1850
At Home and Abroad, or Things and Thoughts in America and Europe
Boston: Crosby, Nichols & Co.; London: Sampson Low, Son & Co., 1856.

The American writer Margaret Fuller, married to an Italian aristocrat, Angelo Ossoli, resided in Rome under the 1848 republic and supported Giuseppe Mazzini. At Home and Abroad incorporates her first-hand observations of the period. Of Garibaldi's retreat from Rome on July 2, 1849, she wrote:

The wife of Garibaldi followed him on horseback. He himself was distinguished by a white tunic; his look was entirely that of a hero of the middle ages,--his face, still young, for the excitements of his life, though so many, have all been youthful, and there is no fatigue upon his brow or cheek.... Hard was the heart, stony and seared the eye, that had no tear for that moment.
Francesco Carrano
Il cacciatori delle Alpi commandate dal generale Garibaldi nella guerra del 1859 in Italia
Torino: Unione tipographico-editrice, 1860.

In 1858, at the invitation of Cavour, Garibaldi accepted the rank of major general in the Piedmontese army and assumed responsibility for leadership of an army of volunteers drawn from the non-Piedmontese regions of the Italian peninsula. Following the outbreak of war (April 1859), Garibaldi'sCacciatori delle Alpi ("Alpine huntsmen") captured Varese and Como and, at war's end, stood on the borders of the Austrian South Tyrol. The frontispiece portrait shows Garibaldi in the unusual formality of his major general's dress uniform.

Charles Adam
La guerre d'Italie
Paris: N.P Philippart, 1859.

Following the defeat of the Austrians by the allied French and Piedmontese armies in the 1859 war, the province of Lombardy was ceded to Piedmont. A subsidiary consequence of the peace--Piedmont's cession to France of Nice, Garibaldi's birthplace--enraged the patriot, who appeared in the Piedmontese parliament to denounce this act.

Lajos Kossuth, 1802-1894
Le congrès, l'Autriche at l'Italie; révélations sur la crise Italienne
Bruxelles: Fr. van Meenen, 1859.

Kossuth, principal Hungarian leader in the 1848-49 revolution, was the only European nationalist leader of comparable popularity to Garibaldi in western Europe and the Americas. Unlike Garibaldi, his subsequent career was anticlimactic and unsuccessful. In 1859, as the Austrian war drew to a close, he tried to take advantage of hostilities to raise a Hungarian legion and invade Austria's Dalmatian territories. This aim was terminated by the Villafranca armistice of July 11, 1859. This is the rare first edition of Kossuth's pamphlet on the Italian situation.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1807-1882
Autograph letter, signed, 12 December, 1859

Copy, in a secretarial hand, of an letter addressed "Mio Caro Panizzi", evidently addressed to Antonio Panizzi (Sir Anthony Panizzi), Librarian of the British Museum.

Island Four

Island 4: The Sicilian Campaign of 1860 and Italian Unification

On May 6, 1860, Garibaldi sailed from Genoa with a force of slightly more than 1000 volunteers. The purpose of the expedition was the overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy of Sicily and Naples and the precipitation, by this act, of unification of the Italian peninsula. The Piedmontese government, wary of a venture that it was unable, because of Garibaldi's popularity, to prevent, withheld support until it became clear with the fall of Palermo that the project stood an excellent chance of success. A plebiscite which followed the final defeat of the Bourbon army at Volturno (at which Garibaldi commanded an army of 30,000 men) indicated overwhelming support for the participation of Naples and Sicily in a united Italy under the rule of Victor Emmanuel II.

Giuseppe La Masa, 1825-1881
Della guerra insurrezionale in Italia tendente a conquisare la nazionalita
Torino: a spese dell'Autore, 1856.

In the wake of the abortive Mazzinian revolution at Palermo on April 4, 1860, Cavour contacted La Masa, a moderate Sicilian republican, suggesting that he, rather than Garibaldi--whom Cavour believed to be too strongly influenced by Mazzini and his followers--should lead an expedition to overthrow the Bourbon regime in Sicily. In the event, however, Garibaldi led the expedition himself, preempting Cavour, who did not dare to intervene directly; La Masa accompanied the expedition as one of its leaders.

Giovanni La Cecilia, 1801-1880
Storia dell'insurrezione Siciliana
Milano: Libreria di Francesco Sanvito, 1860.

La Cecilia's two-volume account of Garibaldi's Sicilian expedition and the integration of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies into the newly unified kingdom of Italy is one of the earliest histories of these events. The work is dedicated to Garibaldi "in attestato di antica amicizia e di somma ammirazione."

Garibaldi at the Battle of Milazzo.

Commemorative plate of Garibaldi at Milazzo (here spelt Melazzo) executed at the Richard Factory, San Christophoro, Milan, shortly after Julius Richard assumed sole proprietorship of the factory in 1870. The company now trades under the well known "Richard-Ginori" trademark.

Augusto Elia, 1829-1919
Ricordi di un Garibaldino dal 1847-48 al 1900
Roma: Tipo-litographia del genio civile, 1904.

Presentation copy, inscribed by the author to Garibaldi's son Ricciotti. Elia, a seaman from Ancona, commanded the steamer Lombardo on which Nino Bixio's men embarked for the 1860 expedition to Sicily. He was badly wounded at the battle of Calatafimi (May 15, 1860), the first significant engagement of the Sicilian campaign.

Giuseppe Cesare Abba, 1838-1910
Storia dei mille; narrata ai giovvinetti
Firenze: R. Bemporad, 1906. Seconda ed.

Abba, a native of Parma, was among the most prolific memoirists of Italian unification. His journal of the Sicilian campaign and invasion of Naples, published in English as The Diary of One of Garibaldi's Thousand, is a classic among the accounts of the Risorgimento. Storia dei mille, published in 1906, was written for young people.

Francesco Crispi, 1818-1901
I mille, da documenti dell'archivo Crispi
Milano: Fratelli Treves, 1911.

Crispi, a republican, served prominently in the 1860 Sicilian campaign, acted as Garibaldi's secretary, and was opposed to the annexation of Naples and Sicily to the kingdom of Italy. In 1866 he announced himself a monarchist. His later distinguished political career included service as minister of the interior (1877-78) and as prime minister (1887-1896). His papers relating to Garibaldi's Sicilian venture are naturally a prime source for the period.

44.o bulletino di Napoli e Roma
Pisa: Vannucchi, 1860.

Broadside of December 12, 1860, containing news of the progress of Garibaldi and the Thousand. Includes the flight of Francesco II of Naples and Garibaldi's decision to rest his troops for a few days before continuing the war of unification.

Vittorio Emanuele II. Soldati!
Pisa: Stamperia Vannucchi, 1860.

Broadside issued in September 1860. An open letter to the Piedmontese army, reminding its soldiers that they have been sent to restore order in the Marches (the section of the Papal States on the Eastern Italian coast, invaded by Victor Emmanuel's troops on September 11) and not to exact revenge.

Album storico artistico Garibaldi nelle Due Sicilie ossia guerra d'Italia nei 1860
Milano: Fratelli Terzaghi, [1861].

A finely produced book, with excellent lithographic illustrations, commemorating Garibaldi's overthrow of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Shown here is an heroic representation of Garibaldi's entry into Palermo. The Campanella Collection contains two copies of this work, one in original parts.

La chiacchiera
Firenze: 12 September, 1860.

A satirical broadsheet, whose title translates as "Gossip", published in Florence. It includes the pro-Garibaldi, anticlerical cartoon, "Un banditore della verita."

La cicala politica
Milano: 8 September, 1861.

This issue of the broadsheet La cicala politica("giornale umoristico con caricature") contains a double-spread lithograph commemorating the first anniversary of Garibaldi's entry into Naples. Symbolic scenes include Garibaldi's overthrow of the throne of Francesco II and his offering the crowns of Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel II (center left and right). In the vignette at the foot of the sheet Garibaldi is shown in repose at Caprera.

Gaetano Ghivizzani, d. 1903
Nel giorno onomastico di Giuseppe Garibaldi al popolo Italiano; Ode
Firenze: Tip. Spiombi, 19 Marzo 1862.

Broadside ode celebrating Garibaldi, typical of the numerous popular effusions in his honour.

G. H. Costa
Le général Garibaldi; ou, Rome et Venise; mazurka militaire
Turin: Giudici et Strada, [ca. 1860].

Mazurka, composed by G.H. Costa, Captain of the Naples National Guard, and dedicated to a Miss Mary Smith. The piece, with its romantic title-page vignette of Garibaldi, is representative of the wave of adulation directed towards the general in the wake of the heroic achievements of the Thousand in Naples and Sicily.

Island Five

Island 5: 1861-1870: The completion of Italian Unification and Garibladi’s visit to London

In 1862 Garibaldi attempted to use a volunteer army, supposedly raised for an attack on the Balkan Habsburg territories, to seize the remaining papal states. The Italian government intervened immediately to prevent the move, which would have brought them into direct conflict with the French defenders of Rome, and Garibaldi was defeated, wounded and captured (though soon released) at the battle of Aspromonte. In the spring of 1864 he visited England where his reception was little less the triumphant; the Campanella Collection contains a substantial number of letters, invitations, and tributes addressed to Garibaldi during this period. In 1866, having return to Italy, he participated creditably in the campaign against Austria which resulted in the transfer of the province of Venezia to the Italian crown. In 1870, following the collapse of the regime of Napoleon III, and the annexation by Italy of the papal states, Garibaldi fought his final campaign, defending France against the invading Germans.


Garibaldi at Varignano

This engraving, from a drawing my M. Beauce, appeared in the September 27, 1862 edition of The Illustrated London News.

Pietro Ripari

Storia medica della grave ferita toccata in Aspromonte dal Generale Garibaldi
Milano: Gaetano Bozza, 1863.

In 1862, perhaps at the request of Victor Emmanuel II (accounts vary strongly), Garibaldi recruited a volunteer army in Sicily, supposedly with the purpose of invading Austrian-held territories in the Balkans to annex these and the province of Venezia to the Italian kingdom. Instead, Garibaldi crossed to the mainland with the intention of invading and annexing Rome. To preserve relations with the French, whose troops defended the remaining papal territories, the Italian government ordered the interception of Garibaldi's force, which was engaged and defeated at Aspromonte on August 29. In the course of battle, Garibaldi was wounded in the thigh and foot. Ripari's pamphlet describes his wounds.

Eugen Kvaternik, 1825-1871

Autograph letter, signed, April 1864

This exceedingly important three-page letter of April 1864 is addressed to Garibaldi by the Croat nationalist Eugen Kvaternik (1825-1871). Kvaternik, a father of modern Croat nationalism, was an organizer of the 1871 Rakovica revolt, which attempted to establish Croatian independence. Kvaternik was killed by Austrian troops during the suppression of the revolt.

Luigi Migliavacca
Autograph letter, signed, March 14, 1864.

Migliavacca, a Paris-based Italian pastry cook, writes that his four-year-old son is named in Garibaldi's honour and exhorts the general to take up his sword in the cause of the liberation of Venice. He also sends, as a gift, a sample of his pastries.

James Tennant
Autograph letter, signed, April 17, 1864.

James Tennant, the noted British mineralogist, invited General Garibaldi to visit the Regent's park Zoo of the London Zoological Society on April 17, 1864. The letter is of added interest as still including Mr. Tennant's business card and the slip of admission to the Zoological garden.

An engraved invitation from the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers to a dinner given in honour of Garibaldi on April 21, 1864.

The invitation is addressed to Garibaldi's secretary and companion on this London visit, Giuseppe Guerzoni.

Giacomo Lombroso
Dal Volturno ad Aspromonte; due anni di storia Italiana
Milano: Gaetano Fravega e Antonio Filippini, 1865.

Popular account of Italian history during the two-year period between Garibaldi's final, great defeat of the Neapolitan army at Volturno (October 1, 1860) and his own defeat by Italian troops at the battle of Aspromonte (August 29, 1862). Shown is a woodcut of the wounded Garibaldi at Aspromonte.

Album della guerra 1866
Milano; Venezia; Firenze: Edoardo Sonzogno, [1867].

When war broke out with Austria in 1866, the Italian government was able to use Garibaldi openly in the hostilities. He was given a command in the Tyrol and fought well in the campaign that resulted in the acquisition of Venezia from the Austrians. Show here is a woodcut of Garibaldi as a general.

Memorie alla casalinga di un Garibaldino: Guerra nel Tirolo, 1866
Livorno: Francesco Tellini, [1867].

The memoirs of one of the volunteers who fought with Garibaldi in the 1866 war against Austria, which resulted in the annexation of Venezia to the Italian kingdom. The original front wrapper of the book, bound into the volume, displays a woodcut of one of Garibaldi's volunteers.

Guerre de 1870-1871; état-major de Garibaldi
[France: ca. 1871].

Garibaldi's last campaign was in 1870-71, when he fought on behalf of the French republic against the invading Prussian forces and was elected to the French National Assembly at Bordeaux. Nice, Garibaldi's birthplace, had been part of the French empire at the time of his birth, and had reverted to this status with its cession by Piedmont in 1859. This French chromolithograph of the period shows Garibaldi in uniform, flanked by his sons Menotti and Ricciotti and by two supporting staff officers.

Garibaldi et ses volontaires combattant les Prussiens.

In 1870, after the collapse of Napoleon III's empire (an event which facilitated the final phase of nineteenth-century Italian unification, the annexation of the French-defended Papal States), Garibaldi led a contingent of Italian volunteers in defence of the newly declared French third republic, scoring successes against the invading Prussians at Chatillon, Autun and Dijon. In recognition of these actions he was elected to the French National Assembly. This heroic chromolithograph represents Garibaldi in action against the Prussians.

Island Six

Island 6: Restrospection: Autobiographies, Biographies, and Commemorations

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1807-1882

The Life of General Garibaldi, Translated from his Private Papers .... by Theodore Dwight
New York: A.S. Barnes and Burr, 1859.

The memoirs of Garibaldi have a curious history, appearing in his lifetime with four separate but related texts in four different languages (see entry on the text of the Dumas version--next item). This earliest version, edited and translated into English from Garibaldi's manuscript by Theodore Dwight (1796-1866), was first published in New York in 1859.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1807-1882
Mémoires de Garibaldi, traduits sur le manuscrit original par Alexandre Dumas
Paris: Michel Lévy Fréres, 1860.

Garibaldi's memoirs present complex textual problems. Four basic texts exist: that first published at New York in 1859 in English translation by Theodore Dwight; the German edition of Garibaldi's mistress Elpis Melena, which substantially collates with Dwight's version; Garibaldi's own version, first published in 1872; and the edition prepared by Alexandre Dumas, published in French in 1860. The Dumas text contains detailed descriptions of events not found in other versions, and leading authorities, notably G.M. Trevelyan, have dismissed them as inventions, though opinion still varies on this point. Garibaldi first came to the attention of Dumas during the 1847 defence of Montevideo; the famous novelist later did much to advance his reputation.

Famiglia Garibaldi
Milano: G. Cozzi, [ca. 1880].

Lithograph of Garibaldi, his third wife Francesca Armosina, and his six children.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1807-1882
Autobiography of Giuseppe Garibaldi
London: Walter Smith & Innes, 1889. Three volumes.

This copy of Werner's translation of Garibaldi'sAutobiography was owned by the great British historian George Macaulay Trevelyan (1876-1962), a leading biographer of Garibaldi and historian of the Risorgimento. Trevelyan was a major influence in inspiring Dr. Campanella to his studies of the Italian liberator. This set of books, which contains numerous annotations in Trevelyan's hand, was the gift of Trevelyan to Dr. Campanella.


Alabaster portrait bust of Garibaldi
Late nineteenth century.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, 1807-1882
Garibaldi's Memoirs from his Manuscript, Personal Notes, and Authentic Sources Assembled and Published by Elpis Melena
Edited with an introduction and annotations by Anthony P. Campanella
Sarasota, Florida: International institute of Garibaldian Studies, 1981.

A number of important contributions to the study of Garibaldi have been prepared and published under the auspices of the International Institute of Garibaldian Studies. The Anglo-German writer Elpis Melena (1818-1899), admirer and sometime mistress of Garibaldi, edited and published in German translation the fourth and final version of Garibaldi's memoirs in 1861. The text is of great significance, both as Garibaldi's last, most complete draft and for the extent to which Melena's closeness to the great man is reflected in her editing and annotations. Dr. Campanella's 1981 edition is the first publication of this important text in English.

W. B. Brooke
Out with Garibaldi [Campaigns and Exploits of Garibaldi]
London: Ward & Lock, 1861.

The popularity and hero-worship of Garibaldi in the nineteenth-century English-speaking world is reflected in the inexpensive but attractively packaged popular biographies published at that time. The Campanella Collection contains a number of examples, among them W. B. Brooke's Out with Garibaldi (cover title Campaigns and Exploits of Garibaldi), a Ward & Lock yellowback of 1861, published in the wake of the Sicilian expedition.

Howard Blackett
Life of Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian Hero and Patriot
London; Preston: Walter Leigh, 1882.

Blackett's elaborately illustrated tribute was among the most expensively produced English-language biographies of Garibaldi. The finely executed, romantic chromolithographs are splendid exemplars of the late nineteenth-century vision of the heroic liberator.

Jessie White Mario, 1832-1906
Garibaldi e i suoi tempi
Milano: Fratelli Treves, 1884.

Mario's biography was among the most lavishly illustrated biographies published after Garibaldi's death. Shown here is a dramatic rendition of the first meeting of Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1882), the great Italian republican theorist and leader. The meeting supposedly took place in the autumn of 1833, though controversy exists as to whether it actually occurred. However, both Mazzini and Garibaldi acknowledged the meeting, and the author of this book, an Englishwoman married to an Italian revolutionary, was a friend of both men.

Gabriele D'Annunzio, 1863-1938
Ode alla nazione Serba ["Hinc spes"]
Venezia: a spese dell'autore, 1915.

This copy of Ode alla nazione Serba ("Ode to the Serb Nation"), written at the time of the Austrian/German invasion of Serbia during the Great War, is inscribed by D'Annunzio, with typical panache, to Garibaldi's grandson and namesake Peppino. It is one of the numerous books in the Campanella Collection that comes from the libraries of Garibaldi and his son Ricciotti.

Comemorative numismatica

The Italian art historian Annie-Paule Quinsac writes of the Garibaldian medals in the Campanella Collection that: "In its completeness, the collection is an extremely rare example of the overall corpus of the numismatic production connected with the cult of Giuseppe Garibaldi.... The coins, medals and decorations range from 1849 to the 1960's. They are made of gold, silver, plated metal, pewter, copper and other alloys (there is even an example of dry lava). Only a few are not in mint condition. They range from relatively common (about 150) to rare (about 180) to extremely rare (circa 50)." Dr. Quinsac also observes that the Campanella collection contains more than 50% of the holdings of the world's largest collection, that of the Risorgimento Museum, Milan. She observes that this is "an extraordinary result for any private collection. There are to my knowledge no other comparable collections in the US."

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