Appeasement and the Road to War, to 1939 Assessment



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Appeasement and the Road to War, to 1939
Assessment: In the exam you will write ONE ESSAY on Appeasement from a choice of THREE. Each essay is marked out of 20. You are given marks for Knowledge (6 marks)

Structure (4 marks)

Argument /evaluation( 10 marks).

Course Content: A study of Fascist foreign policy after 1933 and the reactions of the democratic powers to it, the development of the policy of appeasement, its failure and the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, illustrating the themes of ideology, conflict and diplomacy.
1. An evaluation of the reasons for the aggressive nature of the foreign policies of Germany and Italy in the 1930s.

The Peace Settlement of 1919; Fascist ideology; economic difficulties after 1929; weakness of the League of Nations; the British policy of appeasement.


2. An assessment of the methods used by Germany and Italy to pursue their foreign policies from 1933.

Rearmament by Germany; military agreements, pacts and alliances; Fascist strategies employed in the crises between 1933 and 1939.


3. An evaluation of the reasons for the British policy of appeasement, 1936-1938.

Economic difficulties; attitudes to the Paris Peace Settlement; public opinion; pacifism; concern over the Empire; lack of reliable allies; military weakness; fear of spread of Communism; beliefs of Chamberlain.


4. An assessment of the success of British foreign policy in containing fascist aggression, 1935 – March 1938.

Aims; Abyssinia; Rhineland; Naval Agreement; non intervention; the Anschluss of March 1938.

Pages 20-26 27-32 33-53 54-62

5. An assessment of the Munich agreement.

Arguments for and against the settlement; differing views of the Munich settlement.

Pages 66-77
6. An evaluation of the reasons for the decision to abandon the policy of appeasement and for the outbreak of war in 1939.

Changing British attitudes towards appeasement; occupation of Bohemia and the collapse of Czechoslovakia; the developing crisis over Poland: British diplomacy and relations with the Soviet Union; the position of France; the Nazi-Soviet Pact; the invasion of Poland.


Pages 78-88

Task one:

Each topic we study will follow a similar pattern


We will read and discuss the section with this your teacher.
Take detailed notes individually on the key points from the chapter.
As a class you will take turns to run a detailed tutorial and then provide a revision/ recall sheet to the rest of the class at the end of the tutorial. 
Each tutorial should be prepared with discussion points and a video clip if possible by the two students in charge. 
Product Criteria

  • At least 4 knowledge points

  • Structural tips: introduction, conclusion and overall structure

  • Outline the main arguments and how you would put them together

  • A video clip on your topic

Who’s Who?
Do you know anything about the following people?

  • Clement Atlee

  • Stanley Baldwin

  • Neville Chamberlain

  • Winston Churchill

  • Anthony Eden

  • Francisco Franco

  • Adolf Hitler

  • David Low

  • Benito Mussolini

  • Joseph Stalin






Challenge 1

They are some of the key characters to be studied.

Use page 1 of the textbook to make a brief note on each.

T
Italy

  • Italy switched sides in April 1915 so was not going to be punished like Germany and AH.

  • Signor Orlando the Italian PM walked out of the Conference but came back to ensure Italy was not left empty handed.

  • The Treaty of St Germain gave Italy the South Tyrol, Trentino, Istria and the use of the port of Trieste.

  • However, she did not get a share of the German colonies.

  • No share of reparation payments.


he Peace Settlements of 1919



Germany

  • The War Guilt Clause- full responsibility for starting WW1

  • Reparation payments of £6,600,000

  • Disarmament- no tanks, no military air force, no conscription, no u-boats, army of 100,000 men, Rhineland de-militarised, no defences on the French border

  • Loss of overseas colonies

  • No Anschluss

  • Alsace and Lorraine returned to France

  • Eupen and Malmedy returned to Belgium

  • Posen, West Prussia and part of Upper Silesia to go to Poland.

  • The Saar coalfield to be transferred to France for 15 years.






Section One: The Peace Settlements of 1919 & Fascist Ideology
Product Criteria

You are going to produce a handout for the class answering the question


To what extent did the Peace Settlement of 1919 and Fascist ideology cause Germany OR Italy to peruse an aggressive foreign policy?

Form Criteria

-You will split into TWO groups

-One will research Italian reaction to the Peace Settlement and Italian Fascism under Mussolini.

-The other will research German reaction to the Peace Settlement and Germany fascism.


Resources

Using the information above

Appeasement textbook pages 13 & 14.

Growth of Nationalism textbook pages 46-47 (Italy) 125-127 (Germany).


The Impact of the Great Depression on Italy and Germany
Group challenge
One group will research Italy and the other Germany you must provide an information sheet for the class. Your teacher will give you a range of resources to help with your notes.
Section Two: Weaknesses of the League of Nations
1. Read pages 6 to 10 and think about how it helps you to fill in the table below question: Use the info from pages 8-11 to exemplify the reactions.
Reaction to the League of Nations

Germany France Britain Italy USSR USA




  1. Take notes on what impact the Manchurian crisis had on The League, Britain, France, Italy, USA and possibly Germany and Italy.

  2. Section Three: German and Italian Foreign Policy 1933- 35

1. Read pages 13-19 and make notes using the following headings to help you.



  • German motives/aims

  • The Failure of the Disarmament Conference

  • German Rearmament and Arms Appeasement

1. Read pages 20-26 and make notes on the following



  • Italy’s immediate motives in Abyssinia

  • British and French reaction

  • Role of the League/ Hoare Laval Pact

  • British public reaction to the Hoare Laval Pact

  • Implications of the incident on the future of European security.


Group Presentation One.

Rule Criteria

  • Group of 3 people

  • You must meet your deadline: One week,

  • Prepare a revision sheet

Form Criteria

  • You must evaluate the reasons for the aggressive nature of the foreign policies of Germany and Italy in the 1930s.




  • You must mention the following points and their individual significance:

  • The Peace Settlement of 1919;

  • Fascist ideology

  • Economic difficulties after 1929

  • Weakness of the League of Nations

  • The British policy of appeasement.

    • You must have a KU section




    • You must have an argument and evaluation section.




    • You must have a historiography section.




    • Video clip.



Section Four : The Rhineland Crisis March 1936
1. Outline Hitler’s motives for re-militarising the Rhineland in 1936.

2. British reaction

3. French Reaction

4. The methods used by Germany to further peruse her foreign policy objectives

5. Evaluate the reasons why Britain followed a policy of non-

Intervention and the success of this policy. (mention public opinion; pacifism; concern over the Empire; lack of reliable allies; military weakness; economic problems; fear of spread of Communism)


THE RHINELAND –

POINTS FOR DISCUSSION
Could Hitler Have been stopped at this stage?”

  • Split the class into two groups

  • Prepare at least three detailed ARGUMENTS which support OR reject this view.

  • Use detailed KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING evidence to support each of your arguments.



YES


  • Britain and France could have resisted the invasion

  • French army was bigger and stronger then the German one

  • Sanctions could have been imposed



NO:

  • France and Britain were not confident enough

  • Politicians in Britain were pro-German

  • Public lack of support for war

  • Fear of communism greater than fascism

Group Presentation Two.

Rule Criteria

  • Group of 3 people

  • You must meet your deadline: One week,

  • Prepare a revision sheet


Form Criteria

  • You must evaluate the reasons for the Rhineland Crisis and the reaction to it.




  • You must mention the following points and their individual significance:

    • Outline Hitler’s motives for re-militarising the Rhineland in 1936;

  • Italian reaction

  • British reaction- popular opinion and political reaction

  • French reaction

  • The British policy of appeasement.




    • You must have a KU section




    • You must have an argument and evaluation section.




    • You must have a historiography section.




    • Video clip.

Section Five: The Spanish Civil War 1936-39 p33- 53


  1. Pages 33-40 it is just background so do not take notes. Your teacher will discuss it with you.

  2. The methods used by Germany and Italy to further peruse their foreign policy objectives.

  3. Evaluate the reasons why Britain followed a policy of non-intervention and the success of this policy. (mention public opinion; pacifism; concern over the Empire; lack of reliable allies; military weakness; economic problems; fear of spread of Communism)



Group Presentation Three.

Rule Criteria

  • Group of 3 people

  • You must meet your deadline: One week,

  • Prepare a revision sheet


Form Criteria

  • You must evaluate the impact the Spanish Civil War has on European security

  • You must mention the following points and their individual significance:

      • German and Italian intervention

      • British reaction- popular opinion and political reaction

      • French reaction

      • German and Italian reaction to NYON conference

      • The British policy of appeasement.




    • You must have a KU section




    • You must have an argument and evaluation section.




    • You must have a historiography section.




    • You must have a clip.



Homework then timed Essay1:

To what extent do economic difficulties explain the aggressive nature of fascist foreign policies up until 1936?



Section Six: An assessment of the British reasons for pursuing a policy of appeasement and the Anschluss.


  1. Read pages 54-58 and page 63 and review why Britain pursued a policy of Appeasement from 1930-1936.

  2. Read pages 58-62 and highlight Germany’s motives for the Anshluss and how it helped her and Italy peruse their fascist foreign policy

  3. Read pages 58-65 on the Anschluss to help you answer the question and address the reasons why Britain followed the policy of appeasement and how successful her policy was.



Group Presentation Four.

Rule Criteria

  • Group of 3 people

  • You must meet your deadline: One week,

  • Prepare a revision sheet


Form Criteria

  • You must evaluate the reasons why Britain followed a policy of Appeasement.

  • You must evaluate the success of the policy by using examples from all the crisis’s you have looked at so far.




    • You must have a KU section




    • You must have an argument and evaluation section.




    • You must have a historiography section




    • Video clip.


Timed essay: How successful was Britain’s policy of Appeasement in containing fascist aggression between 1935-38? 20 marks.

HIGHER HISTORY ESSAY MARKING RUBRIC: EYE OF THE TIGER

CRITERIA

D – Novice

Historian



C – Apprentice

Historian



B – Practitioner

Historian



A – Master

Historian



A +

STRUCTURE



Basic attempt at an introduction and conclusion. Possible lack of focus on question.

Some organisation of the response. Minimal establishment of context.

Connection made to question.



Clear attempt at introduction, conclusion and development. Line of argument established. Conclusion linked to issue.

Intro establishes the context and demonstrates a solid line of argument. Conclusion based on evidence presented and relates directly to issue.



SUPERB!

ARGUMENT


Focus is weak and little/ no argument made.



There is some meaningful comment on issue but not discussed in depth. Overall style is narrative and descriptive in approach.

Some evidence with meaningful comments that recognise the issue. There is a clear awareness of the issue to be addressed.

Evidence is used to lead the development of the argument. The evidence is integrated into a developed and sustained analysis. Awareness of areas of debate.



WOW!

K.U.


(KNOWLEDGE & UNDERSTANDING

Points are narrative and lack detail.

Narrative approach lack of specific detail and evidence.


Knowledge and understanding of the issue is evident. Points are explained.

Knowledge and understanding of the issue is extensive and points are well explained and developed.


SUPERB!

HISTORIOGRAPHY



No attempt made to include historiography.


Possible attempt at historiography but not developed.



Use of historiography to support points made.

Extensive historiography included to enhance debate. Awareness of differing interpretations.



WOW!

Section Seven: An assessment of the British reasons for

pursuing a policy of appeasement and the Anschluss.

Read pages 66-79

Take notes which assess the Munich agreement.

Give arguments for and against the settlement; differing views of the Munich settlement.


Czech Crisis Challenge
Rule Criteria

Working in random groups of 5

You must meet your deadline

At least 3 of your group must appear in your trailer.


Form Criteria

  • You must pitch must explain your action film/ soap opera/ musical/ bbc period drama in every detail

  • You must include a 2 minute “trailer” for your action film/ soap opera / musical/ bbc period drama/ romantic comedy.

  • You must have a tagline for your production.

  • You must have a poster to advertise your production

  • You must have a name for your project, relevant soundtrack and a cast

  • There must be a clear, relevant plot line explaining what factors lead up to the Czech Crisis, the negotiations to stop it, the consequences of it and what type of appeasement it was.

Content Criteria

  • You must refer to accurate information from the textbook.

  • You must have a plot

  • Your pitch must be no longer than 5 minutes long including your 2 minute trailer.

Deadline week from now…




sert guide on how to write essays. At end of unit one so they can write the first essay.

Appeasement and the Road to War, to 1939
Later Modern History - Appeasement and the Road to War, to 1939

A study of Fascist foreign policy after 1933 and the reactions of the democratic powers to it, the development of the policy of appeasement, its failure and the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, illustrating the themes of ideology, conflict and diplomacy.


1. An evaluation of the reasons for the aggressive nature of the foreign policies of Germany and Italy in the 1930s.

The Peace Settlement of 1919; Fascist ideology; economic difficulties after 1929; weakness of the League of Nations; the British policy of appeasement.


Unit 1:

To what extent do economic difficulties explain the aggressive nature of fascist foreign policies in the 1930s?


UNIT 1: How important a role did economic problems play in the development of fascist foreign policy in the 1930s?
22 How important a role did ideology play in the development of fascist foreign policy in the 1930s?
Unit 1. To what extent did German and Italian foreign policy in the 1930s depend on the use of military force?
NAB To what extent did fascist foreign policy in the 1930s depend on the use of military force?
2. An assessment of the methods used by Germany and Italy to pursue their foreign policies from 1933.

Rearmament by Germany; military agreements, pacts and alliances; Fascist strategies employed in the crises between 1933 and 1939.


Unit 2:

“Bullying and bluff.” How accurate is this description of the methods used by the fascist powers to pursue their foreign policy aims in the years after 1933?



3. An evaluation of the reasons for the British policy of appeasement, 1936-1938.

Economic difficulties; attitudes to the Paris Peace Settlement; public opinion; pacifism; concern over the Empire; lack of reliable allies; military weakness; fear of spread of Communism; beliefs of Chamberlain.


UNIT 3: How far was Britain’s policy of appeasement the result of criticisms of the economic difficulties/ public opinion/ pacifism/ lack of reliable allies/ military weakness/ fear of the spread of communism?
NAB: How far was Britain’s policy of appeasement the result of criticisms of the Paris Peace Settlement?
Unit 3: To what extent was Britain's adoption of a policy of appeasement between 1936 and 1938 the result of economic difficulties?
NAB To what extent was Britain's adoption of a policy of appeasement between 1936 and 1938 the result of military weakness?

4. An assessment of the success of British foreign policy in containing fascist aggression, 1935 – March 1938.

Aims; Abyssinia; Rhineland; Naval Agreement; non intervention; the Anschluss of March 1938.


Unit 4:

How successfully did British governments achieve their aims in foreign policy before the outbreak of the Czechoslovakian Crisis in 1938?


Unit 4: How successful was British foreign policy in achieving its aims between 1933 and March 1938? Needs to be reworded.
22 How successful was British foreign policy in achieving its aims between 1933 and March 1938?

5. An assessment of the Munich agreement.

Arguments for and against the settlement; differing views of the Munich settlement.


UNIT 5: ‘A total and unmitigated defeat’. How justified was this ass

essment by Churchill of the Munich Agreement of 1938? Needs to be reworded.
23 ‘A total and unmitigated defeat’. How justified was this assessment by

Churchill of the Munich Agreement of 1938?


6. An evaluation of the reasons for the decision to abandon the policy of appeasement and for the outbreak of war in 1939.
Changing British attitudes towards appeasement; occupation of Bohemia and the collapse of Czechoslovakia; the developing crisis over Poland: British diplomacy and relations with the Soviet Union; the position of France; the Nazi-Soviet Pact; the invasion of Poland.
UNIT 6: How important was occupation of Bohemia and the collapse of Czechoslovakia; the developing crisis over Poland: British diplomacy and relations with the Soviet Union; the position of France; the Nazi-Soviet Pact; the invasion of Poland. in the decision of the British Government to abandon the policy of Appeasement after 1938?
NAB How important was changing British public opinion in the decision of the British Government to abandon the policy of Appeasement after 1938?
UNIT 6: How important were changing attitudes toward appeasement as a factor contributing to the outbreak of war in September 1939?Needs re-write
24 How important was the Nazi-Soviet Pact as a factor contributing to the

outbreak of war in September 1939?


Unit 1.

To what extent did German and Italian foreign policy in the 1930s depend on the use of military force?


NAB To what extent did fascist foreign policy in the 1930s depend on the use of military force?
The candidate assesses the extent to which fascist foreign policy in the 1930s

relied on the use of military force by comparison with political, diplomatic,

economic and other methods, using evidence and arguments such as:
Military force

The militaristic nature and image of Fascism/Nazism.

The speed and scale of rearmament, including conscription.

The emphasis on air power and the growing threat from the air.

Italy's naval ambitions in the Mediterranean – 'Mare Nostro'.

Italian invasion of Abyssinia – provocation, methods, and relatively poor

performance against very poorly equipped enemy.

German remilitarisation of Rhineland – Hitler's gamble and timing, his

generals' opposition, lack of Allied resistance.

Spanish Civil War – aid to Nationalists, testing weapons and tactics,

aerial bombing.

Anschluss – attempted coup 1934; relations with Schuschnigg. Invasion

itself relatively botched militarily. Popularity of Anschluss in Austria.

Czechoslovakia – threats of 1938; invasion of March 1939.

Italian invasion of Albania – relatively easy annexation of a client state.

Poland – escalating demands; provocation, invasion.

The extent to which it was the threat of military force which was used

rather than military force itself – eg Czechoslovakia in 1938; and the

extent to which military force itself was effective and/or relied on an

element of bluff – eg Rhineland.


Other methods

Diplomacy and the protestation of 'peaceful' intentions and 'reasonable'

demands.

Appeals to sense of international equality and fairness and the righting

of past wrongs eg Versailles.

Withdrawal from League and Disarmament Conference.

Signing of pacts, agreements and alliances:

– German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact

– Stresa Front – Italy, France, Britain

– Anglo-German Naval Agreement

– Austro-German agreement

– Rome-Berlin Axis and Anti-Comintern Pact

– Munich Agreement

– Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.


Clever timing and exploitation of weaknesses/divisions among potential

opponents.

Use of economic influence and pressure, eg on south-eastern European

states.


Any other relevant factors.

UNIT 1: How important a role did Versailles/ economic problems play in the development of fascist foreign policy in the 1930s?


22 How important a role did ideology play in the development of fascist foreign policy in the 1930s?
The candidate evaluates the relative importance of fascist ideology in

explaining the aggressive nature of fascist foreign policies in the 1930s, using

evidence and arguments such as:
Fascist ideology

• Extreme nationalism and chauvinism.

• Social-Darwinism and survival of the fittest.

• Militarism and glorification of war.

• Anti-communism: pathological hatred of communism, anti-Soviet

crusade.


• Contempt for democracy and democratic powers.

• Racism: Slav and other ‘untermenschen’ to be conquered, enslaved and

exterminated.

• Cult of the leader: Fuhrer and Duce – including role as military leaders/

icons.

Other factors

• German desire to get revenge for defeat in WW1; 'dolchstoss' legend.

• Determination to revise/overturn Paris Peace Settlement:

– German resentment of war guilt, reparations, disarmament, lost

territory

– Italian resentment of failure to gain control of Adriatic: ‘mutilated

victory’.

• Economic factors:

– the impact of the World Economic Crisis 1929-32 on the German

and Italian economies, intensified international competition and

protectionism

– continuing economic problems in the 1930s, eg needs of

rearmament and domestic consumption

– economic imperatives, eg need for additional resources, leading to

aggressive, expansionist foreign policies, eg Italy in Abyssinia,

German drive to the east.

• Imperialism:

– Mussolini’s ‘Roman’ ambitions in the Mediterranean and Africa

– Hitler’s ambitions in Eastern Europe and Russia

– Irredentism, eg Hitler’s commitment to incorporation of all Germans

within Reich.

• Weakness of opposition:

– failure of the League of Nations

– divided response of other powers, eg British appeasement, French

political divisions, US isolationism, mutual suspicion of Soviet Union

– relative weakness of East European successor states.



Any other relevant factors.
Unit 3: To what extent was Britain's adoption of a policy of appeasement between 1936 and 1938 the result of economic difficulties?
NAB To what extent was Britain's adoption of a policy of appeasement between 1936 and 1938 the result of military weakness?

The candidate evaluates the relative importance of military weakness in

accounting for Britain's policy of appeasement between 1936 and 1938 by

comparison with other relevant factors, using evidence and arguments such

as:
Military weakness

Run-down state of armed forces following WW1.

Army: conscription ended post WW1, scaled right down in size.

Navy: not so run-down but not fully maintained and many obsolete

ships.

Air Force: lack of adequate air defences and fear of aerial bombing.



Multiple threats – Japan in the East, Italy in the Mediterranean and North

Africa, Germany in Central Europe.

Warnings of Chiefs-of-Staff.

Exaggerated assessments of German military strength.



Other factors

1919 Peace Settlement was seen as too harsh on Germany and there

was sympathy for what were seen by many as genuine grievances.

Reluctance to enforce Treaty provisions and preference for policy of

making concessions.

Fear of another World War – recent memories of losses/horrors of

WW1.

Public anti-war feeling – Peace Ballot, Oxford 'King and Country' debate.



Economic difficulties – impact of 1929-32 economic crisis and

depression, reluctance to further damage international trade and

commerce.

Fear of communism – suspicion of Soviet Russia; Nazi Germany seen

as a buffer and destabilising the Nazi regime might lead to questions

over communist revolution in Germany.

Perceived lack of reliable allies (but there are doubts as to how reliable

Britain was as an ally herself):

– failure of League of Nations, eg Manchuria, Abyssinia

– French political divisions, military weakness and Maginot mentality

– US isolationism

– mutual suspicions vis-à-vis Soviet Russia

– relative weakness of eastern European successor states

– doubts over commitment of Empire and the Dominions in event of

war.

Italy also appeased in vain attempt to prevent alliance with Germany.



Belief that Hitler would moderate views in power and be reasonable.

Chamberlain's personal convictions and control of foreign policy.



Any other relevant factors.

Unit 5 :To what extent can the Munich Agreement be seen as a failure for British foreign policy?


24 To what extent can the Munich Agreement be seen as a triumph for British

foreign policy?

The candidate assesses the Munich Agreement in the light of Churchill's

judgement alongside the views of others both at the time and since, using

evidence and arguments such as:
Munich was a triumph

Munich bought time for rearmament which Britain had to put to good use.

Britain (and France) were not in a position to prevent a German attack

on Czechoslovakia in terms of:

– geography – difficulties of getting assistance to Czechoslovakia

– public opinion – reluctant to risk war over mainly German-speaking

Sudetenland.

Military unpreparedness for wider war – especially Britain's air defenses.

Lack of alternative, unified international response to Hitler's threats:

– failure of the League of Nations

– French doubts over commitments to Czechoslovakia

– US isolationism

– mutual suspicion of Soviet Russia

– strong reservations of rest of British Empire and Dominions

concerning support in event of war.

Hitler himself was dissatisfied by Munich – felt 'robbed' of his war with

the hated Czechs.

Czechoslovakian defences were effectively outflanked anyway following

Anschluss.

Attitudes of Poland and Hungary – willing to benefit from dismemberment

of Czechoslovakia.

Munich was a defeat

Churchill's long-standing criticisms of Chamberlain and appeasement.

A humiliating surrender to Hitler's threats.

Another breach in the post-WW1 settlement.

A betrayal of Czechoslovakia and democracy.

Czechoslovakia wide open to further German aggression – cf.

destruction of Czechoslovakia, March 1939.

Further augmentation of German manpower and resources.

Furtherance of Hitler's influence and ambitions in Eastern Europe.

Further alienation of Soviet Union.

Poland left further exposed.

A British, French, Soviet agreement was a more effective alternative.

Churchill and the judgement of posterity.

Any other relevant factors.

Appeasement and the Road to War, to 1939
Appeasement and the Road to War, to 1939

Unit 4: How successful was British foreign policy in achieving its aims between 1933 and March 1938? Needs to be reworded.
22 How successful was British foreign policy in achieving its aims between 1933 and March 1938?

The candidate assesses the degree of success of British foreign policy in

achieving its aims between 1933 and March 1938, using evidence and

arguments such as:



The preservation of peace

• This was Britain’s foremost aim, and up to March 1938 (and later), this

was achieved.

• Conflicts that did occur (Abyssinia, Spain) were on the periphery of

Europe/the Mediterranean.

Relations with Germany

• Rearmament:

– Hitler successful in reintroducing conscription and rearming but

there were significant economic restraints and by the late 1930s

Germany’s potential enemies were rearming at a faster rate

– the growth of the Luftwaffe was a serious reverse for Britain

– The Anglo German Naval Agreement (1935) successfully limited

German naval strength to 35% of British, but this was of lesser

concern to Germany.

• Rhineland:

– Hitler successfully remilitarised Rhineland – more as a result of

bluff, clever timing and French/British weakness than German

military strength.

• Anschluss:

– failure of attempted Nazi coup in 1934 due to Italian opposition, but

successful annexation of Austria in 1938 – although invasion itself

was chaotic and inefficient from military point of view. This was

another fait accompli, but Britain could have done little to prevent it.



Relations with Italy

• Mussolini’s plans for a new Roman Empire in the Adriatic, the

Mediterranean and North Africa were a blow to British foreign policy in

hoping to convert Mussolini into an ally.

• Stresa Front (1935) initially seemed successful.

• Hoare-Laval Pact – public revulsion to Franco-British connivance at

Italian aggression led to Hoare’s resignation.

• Imposition of limited sanctions on Italy alienated Mussolini therefore

driving him closer to Hitler, yet failed to save Abyssinia.

Scottish Qualifications Authority 59

National Assessment Bank/ V1.0

Higher History: Historical Study: European and World September 2009



The Spanish Civil War

• Britain’s main aim to prevent this becoming an international war, and in

this was successful.

• The policy of non-intervention sponsored by Britain also guaranteed that

Britain would be on good terms with the victors.

• The policy was openly breached by Germany and Italy, and to a lesser

extent the Soviet Union. Resolute action did end attacks on British

merchant shipping.



Any other relevant factors.


UNIT 5: ‘A total and unmitigated defeat’. How justified was this assessment by Churchill of the Munich Agreement of 1938? Needs to be reworded.
23 ‘A total and unmitigated defeat’. How justified was this assessment by

Churchill of the Munich Agreement of 1938?


The candidate assesses the Munich Agreement in the light of Churchill’s

judgement alongside the views of others both at the time and since, using

evidence and arguments such as:
Churchill’s judgement justified – Munich a defeat

• Churchill’s long-standing criticisms of Chamberlain and appeasement.

• A humiliating surrender to Hitler’s threats.

• Another breach in the post WW1 settlement.

• A betrayal of Czechoslovakia and democracy.

• Czechoslovakia wide open to further German aggression – destruction of

Czechoslovakia, March 1939.

• Further augmentation of German manpower and resources.

• Furtherance of Hitler’s influence and ambitions in Eastern Europe.

• Further alienation of Soviet Union.

• Poland left further exposed.

• A British, French, Soviet agreement might have been a more effective

alternative.

• Churchhill and the judgement of posterity.



Churchill’s judgement not justified – Munich not a defeat

• Churchill’s view was a one-sided, minority view at the time.

• Hitler himself was dissatisfied by Munich – felt ‘robbed’ of a war with the

hated Czechs.

• Czechoslovakian defences were effectively outflanked anyway following

Anschluss.

• Britain and France not in a position to prevent German attack on

Czechoslovakia in terms of:

– geography – difficulties of getting assistance to Czechoslovakia

– public opinion – reluctant to risk war over mainly German-speaking

Sudetenland.

• Military unpreparedness for wider war – especially Britain’s air defenses.

• Lack of alternative, unified international response to Hitler’s threats:

– failure of League of Nations

– french doubts over commitments to Czechoslovakia

– US isolationism

– mutual suspicion of Soviet Russia

– strong reservations of rest of British Empire and Dominions

concerning support in event of war.

• Attitudes of Poland and Hungary – willing to benefit from dismemberment

of Czechoslovakia.

• Munich bought another year for rearmament which Britain put to good

use.

Any other relevant factors.

UNIT 6: How important were changing attitudes toward appeasement as a factor contributing to the outbreak of war in September 1939?Needs re-write

24 How important was the Nazi-Soviet Pact as a factor contributing to the

outbreak of war in September 1939?

The candidate evaluates the relative importance of the Nazi-Soviet Pact in

explaining the outbreak of war in September 1939, using evidence and

arguments such as:



Importance of Nazi-Soviet Pact

• Pact – diplomatic, economic, military co-operation; division of Poland.

• Unexpected – Hitler and Stalin’s motives.

• Put an end to British-French talks with Russia on guarantees to Poland.

• Hitler was freed from the threat of Soviet intervention and war on two

fronts.


• Hitler’s belief that Britain and France would not go to war over Poland

without Russian assistance.

• Hitler now felt free to attack Poland which led to the British and French

ultimata and declaration of war on Germany.

• But, given Hitler’s consistent, long-term foreign policy aims on the

destruction of the Versailles settlement and lebensraum in the east, the

Nazi-Soviet Pact could be seen more as a factor influencing the timing of

the outbreak of war rather than as one of its underlying causes.



Other factors

• Hitler’s long-term aims for the destruction of Versailles, including

regaining of Danzig and Polish Corridor.

• Hitler’s long-term aims for destruction of Soviet state and conquest of

Russian resources – lebensraum.

• Hitler’s need for new territory and resources to sustain Germany’s

militarised economy.

• British and French realisation, after Hitler’s breaking of Munich

Agreement and invasion of Czechoslovakia in March 1939, that Hitler’s

word was worthless and that his aims went beyond the incorporation of

ex-German territories and ethnic Germans within the Reich.

• British and French decision to stick to their guarantees to Poland.

• Hitler’s belief that British and French were ‘worms’ who would not turn

from the previous policy of appeasement and avoidance of war at all

costs.

• Hitler’s belief that the longer war was delayed, the more the balance of



military and economic advantage would shift against Germany.

• But, in view of the ‘phoney war’, lack of British and French military action

and Chamberlain’s continuing hopes for a settlement, there is even a

question extent to which war did actually break out in September 1939.



Any other relevant factors


Appeasement and the Road to War, to 1939

UNIT 3: How far was Britain’s policy of appeasement the result of criticisms of the economic difficulties/ public opinion/ pascifism/ lack of reliable allies/ military weakness/ fear of the spread of communinsm?


NAB: How far was Britain’s policy of appeasement the result of criticisms of the Paris Peace Settlement?
The candidate evaluates the relative importance of criticisms of the Paris

Peace Settlement in accounting for Britain’s policy of appeasement in 1936-

1938, using evidence and arguments such as:
Criticisms of Paris Peace Settlement

• 1919 Peace Settlement seen as too harsh on Germany, eg territorial

losses including German minorities, one-sided disarmament, war guilt

and reparations.

• Sympathy for what were seen by many as genuine grievances

• Strong tendency to blame France for perceived harshness of Peace

Settlement.

• Reluctance to enforce Treaty provisions, eg conscription, Rhineland,

Anschluss.

• Preference for policy of making concessions, eg Anglo-German Naval

Agreement, Munich.

Other factors

• Fear of another World War – recent memories of losses/horrors of WW1.

• Public anti-war feeling – Peace Ballot, Oxford ‘King and Country’ debate.

• Economic difficulties – impact of 1929-32 economic crisis and

depression, reluctance to further damage international trade and

commerce.

• Military weakness:

– run-down state of armed forces

– multiple threats – Japan in the East, Italy in Mediterranean and

North Africa, Germany in Central Europe

– fear of aerial bombing and lack of adequate air defences.

• Fear of communism – suspicion of Soviet Russia. Nazi Germany seen

as a buffer and destabilising the Nazi regime might lead to Communist

revolution in Germany.

• Perceived lack of reliable allies (but there are questions over how reliable

Britain was herself as an ally):

– failure of League of Nations, eg Manchuria, Abyssinia

– French political divisions, military weakness and Maginot mentality

– US isolationism

– mutual suspicions vis-à-vis Soviet Union

– relative weakness of eastern European successor states

– doubts over commitment of Empire and the Dominions in event of

war.

• Italy also was appeased in vain attempt to prevent her alliance with



Germany; brief success with the formation of the Stresa Front.

Scottish Qualifications Authority 61

National Assessment Bank/V1.0

Higher History: Historical Study: European and World September 2009

• Belief that Hitler would moderate his views once in power and be

reasonable.

• Chamberlain’s personal convictions and control of foreign policy.

Any other relevant factors.

UNIT 6: How important was occupation of Bohemia and the collapse of Czechoslovakia; the developing crisis over Poland: British diplomacy and relations with the Soviet Union; the position of France; the Nazi-Soviet Pact; the invasion of Poland.in the decision of the British Government to abandon the policy of Appeasement after 1938?


NAB How important was changing British public opinion in the decision of the British Government to abandon the policy of Appeasement after 1938?

The candidate evaluates the extent to which changing British public support forappeasement was responsible for the decision to abandon the policy, using

evidence and arguments such as:

General points

• Elusive and shifting nature of public opinion at the time.

• Opinion divided across political parties and social groups.

• Allegations of political ‘management’ of press/radio/cinema and public

opinion, cf role of ‘The Times’.

A more critical attitude towards appeasement after 1938

• Left increasingly critical of appeasement especially as practiced by

Chamberlain.

• Left particularly critical of Non-intervention policy towards Spain as

evidenced by their support for the Republic, the International Brigades

and public sympathy for Republic.

• Communists viewed appeasement as an anti-Soviet policy, designed to

encourage Hitler to attack the Soviet Union.

• Also criticisms from Churchill, Duff Cooper and Conservative antiappeasers.

• Criticisms that appeasement rewarded aggression, strengthened fascism

and increased the danger/likelihood of war – need for more/faster

rearmament.

• Significant press coverage, editorials, correspondence critical of appeasement.

• Adverse public reaction to leaking of Hoare-Laval plan for Abyssinia.

• Considerable disquiet even among supporters of appeasement over

treatment of Czechoslovakia at Munich.

• Concern over the worsening strategic position after Munich.

Effects of German actions after Munich.

• The occupation of Prague (Bohemia and Moravia) in March 1939 was

arguably the turning point in attitudes towards Hitler.

– He had deliberately broken undertakings given at Munich.

– The occupation of non-German lands indicated that expansionism

was Hitler’s main aim, rather than the unification of German

speaking peoples.

• This increase in tension over the Polish Corridor reinforced British fears,

and led to guarantees being given to Poland (and Romania).

Scottish Qualifications Authority 63

National Assessment Bank/V1.0

Higher History: Historical Study: European and World September 2009



The changing military situation

• British re-armament had closed the gap with Germany.

• French forces were seen as strong and modern. Together with the

British, they held the military advantage in the west.

• British air defences had improved significantly, particularly the

development of the radar screen.



The changing economic position

• Britain’s economy was much stronger than in 1936-7, but this was partly



due to the effects of rearmament.

Any other relevant factors.


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