Api rp520 Part ii2, Sixth Fifth Edition, Ballot 2 Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries Part ii2 – Installation contents



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API RP520 Part II2, Sixth Fifth Edition, Ballot 2

Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries

Part II2 – Installation

CONTENTS


API RP520 Part II2, Sixth Fifth Edition, Ballot 2 1

Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries 1

Part II2 – Installation 1

Part II – Installation 3

SCOPE 3

SCOPE 3


REFERENCES 3

REFERENCES 3

Informative References 3

Normative References 3

DEFINITION OF TERMS 3

DEFINITION OF TERMS 3

1.PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE LOCATION AND POSITION 3

1.PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE LOCATION AND POSITION 3

4.8 Turbulence In Pressure-Relief Device Inlets 3

Proximity tTo Pressure Source Protected Equipment 4

Pressure Fluctuations 4

PROXIMITY TO OTHER EQUIPMENT 4

Reducing Stations 4

Orifice Plates And Flow Nozzles 4

Other Valves And Fittings 4

Vibration Considerations 4

1.Operating Environment 5

2.Free Draining 5

3.Maintainability 5

INLET PIPING REQUIREMENTSTO PRESSURE-RELIEF DEVICES 5

INLET PIPING REQUIREMENTSTO PRESSURE-RELIEF DEVICES 5

1.General Requirements 5

Flow and Stress Considerations 5

2.Minimum Diameter 5

3.Layout Configuration of Inlet Piping for Pressure-Relief Valves 5

Isolation Valves iIn Inlet Piping 5

Process Laterals Connected tTo Inlet Piping oOf Pressure-ReliefPressure Relief Valves 5

4.PRV Inlet Line Length and Pressure Loss 6

Inlet Stresses tThat Originate fFrom Static Loads iIn tThe Discharge Piping 6

Thermal Stresses 6

Mechanical Stresses 6

Inlet Stresses tThat Originate fFrom Discharge Reaction Forces 6

Determining Reaction Forces iIn aAn Open Discharge System 6

Determining Reaction Forces in a Closed Discharge System 8

DISCHARGE PIPING FROM PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES 8

DISCHARGE PIPING FROM PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES 8

1.General Requirements 8

Safe Disposal oOf Relieving Fluids 8

Back Pressure Limitations aAnd Sizing oOf Pipe 8

General 8

Thermal Relief Valves 9

Considerations fFor Pilot-Operated Pressure Relief Valves 9

Stresses iIn Discharge Piping During Release 9

Isolation Valves iIn The Discharge Piping 9

Rupture Disks Installed aAt Outlet oOf Pressure Relief Valve 9

2.PRV STABILITY 10

2.PRV STABILITY 10

General 10

PRV Cycling 10

PRV Flutter 10

PRV Chatter 10

4.Potential Causes of PRV Instability 11

General 11

Excessive PRV Inlet Pressure Loss 11

Excessive Built-up Backpressure 11

Acoustic Interaction 11

Retrograde Condensation 12

Improper Valve Selection 12

Oversized Pressure Relief Valves 12

PRV Inlet Pressure-Drop Limitations And Piping Configurations 12

Pressure Loss at The Pressure-Relief Valve Inlet 12

General 12

Pressure Relief Valve Capacity 13

Adjustments to Set Pressures Based on Upstream System 13

PRV Inlet Pressure Loss Criteria 13

Background on PRV Inlet Pressure Loss Criteria 14

Engineering Analysis 14

Calculating Non-recoverable PRV Inlet Losses 15

Inlet Loss Criteria for Thermal Relief Valves 16

Inlet Loss Criteria for Remote Sensing for Pilot-Operated Pressure-Relief Valves 17

Remote sensing for pilot-operated pressure-relief valves can be utilized when there is excessive inlet pipe pressure loss or when the main valve must be located at a pressure source different from the pilot sensing point because of service limitations of the main valve(see Figure 6). 17

4.2.3.1 Inlet Pipe Loss 17

Remote sensing permits the pilot to sense the system pressure upstream of the piping loss. at a location that most accurately reflects the actual pressure of the protected system. Remote sensing will mitigate the effect of excessive inlet pressure losses due to the inlet piping configuration (see Figure 6). The addition of a remote sense line allows the pilot to correctly sense system pressure and to keep the valve from rapid cycling or chattering due to high inlet piping pressure losses. Remote sensing may eliminate uncontrolled valve cycling or chattering for a pop action pilot-operated pressure relief valve and will permit a modulating pilot-operated pressure relief valve to achieve full lift at the required overpressure. 17

2.PRV Selection 18

ISOLATION (STOP) VALVES IN PRESSURE RELIEF PIPING FOR MAINTENANCE PURPOSES 20

ISOLATION (STOP) VALVES IN PRESSURE RELIEF PIPING FOR MAINTENANCE PURPOSES 20

1.General 20

Application 20

Isolation Valve Requirements 20

1.General 20

2.Inlet and Outlet Isolation Valves 21

3.Installation of Spare Relief Capacity 22

4.Three-Way Changeover Valves fFor Dual Pressure Relief Device Installations 22

5.Use of Ball Valves as Three-Way Changeover Valve 23

Examples oOf Isolation Valve Installations 23

Administrative Controls Related tTo Isolation Valves 23

3.RUPTURE DISK INSTALLATIONS 23

3.RUPTURE DISK INSTALLATIONS 23

Rupture Disk Devices iIn Combination wWith Pressure Relief Valves 23

1.Rupture Disks In Series 24

BONNET OR PILOT VENT PIPING 24

BONNET OR PILOT VENT PIPING 24

1. General 24

Conventional Valves 24

Balanced Bellows Valves 24

1.General 24

2.Bonnet Vent for Bellows Valve Handling Non-Hazardous Vapors 25

3.Bonnet Vent for Bellows Valve Handling Hazardous Vapors 25

4.Bonnet Vent for Bellows Valve Handling Non-Hazardous Liquids 25

5.Bonnet Vent for Bellows Valve Handling Hazardous Liquids 25

Balanced Piston Valves 25

Pilot-Operated Valves 26

DRAIN PIPING 26

DRAIN PIPING 26

1.Installation Conditions tThat Require Drain Piping 26

Safe Practice fFor Installation oOf Drain Piping 26

PRE-INSTALLATION HANDLING AND INSPECTION 27

PRE-INSTALLATION HANDLING AND INSPECTION 27

1.General 27

2.Storage aAnd Handling oOf Pressure Relief Devices 27

3.Inspection aAnd Cleaning oOf Systems Before Installation 27

PRESSURE-RELIEF DEVICE LOCATION AND POSITION INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE 27

PRESSURE-RELIEF DEVICE LOCATION AND POSITION INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE 27

Mounting Position 27

Care iIn Installation 27

4.Inspection And Testing Of Pressure Relief Valves 28

5.Inspection Of Rupture Disk Devices 28

6.Inspection And Maintenance Of Pin-Actuated Devices 28

BOLTING AND GASKETING 28

BOLTING AND GASKETING 28

Proper Gasketing aAnd Bolting fFor Service Requirements 28

Inspection Aand Maintenance 28

Test oOr Lifting Levers 29

Heat Tracing aAnd Insulation 29

MULTIPLE PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVES WITH STAGGERED SETTINGS 29

MULTIPLE PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVES WITH STAGGERED SETTINGS 29

BIBLIOGRAPHY 29

BIBLIOGRAPHY 29

Figure 1 – Typical Pressure Relief Valve Installation: Atmospheric (Open) Discharge 31

Figure 1 – Typical Pressure Relief Valve Installation: Atmospheric (Open) Discharge 31

Figure 2 – Typical Pressure Relief Valve Installation: Closed System Discharge 32

Figure 2 – Typical Pressure Relief Valve Installation: Closed System Discharge 32

Figure 3A - Typical Rupture Disk Device Installation: Atmospheric (Open) Discharge 33

Figure 3A - Typical Rupture Disk Device Installation: Atmospheric (Open) Discharge 33

Figure 3B - Typical Rupture Disk Device Installation: Atmospheric (Open) Discharge 34

Figure 3B - Typical Rupture Disk Device Installation: Atmospheric (Open) Discharge 34

Figure 4 – Typical Pressure Relief Valve Mounted on Process Line 36

Figure 4 – Typical Pressure Relief Valve Mounted on Process Line 36

Figure 5 – Typical Pressure Relief Valve Mounted on Long Inlet Pipe 38

Figure 5 – Typical Pressure Relief Valve Mounted on Long Inlet Pipe 38

Figure 6 – Typical Pilot-Operated Pressure Relief Valve Installation 39

Figure 6 – Typical Pilot-Operated Pressure Relief Valve Installation 39

Figure 7 – Typical Pressure Relief Valve Installation with Vent Pipe 40

Figure 7 – Typical Pressure Relief Valve Installation with Vent Pipe 40

Figure 8 - Typical Rupture Disk Device iIn Combination With Relief Valve: Inlet Side Installation 41

Figure 8 - Typical Rupture Disk Device iIn Combination With Relief Valve: Inlet Side Installation 41

Figure 9 – Avoiding Process Laterals Connected to Pressure Relief Valve Inlet Piping 42

Figure 9 – Avoiding Process Laterals Connected to Pressure Relief Valve Inlet Piping 42

Figure 10 – Typical Pressure Relief Device Installation with an Isolation Valve 44

Figure 10 – Typical Pressure Relief Device Installation with an Isolation Valve 44

Figure 11 – Typical Pressure Relief Device Installation for 100 Percent Spare Relieving Capacity 45

Figure 11 – Typical Pressure Relief Device Installation for 100 Percent Spare Relieving Capacity 45

Figure 12 – Alternate Pressure Relief Device Arrangement for 100 Percent Spare Relieving Capacity 46

Figure 12 – Alternate Pressure Relief Device Arrangement for 100 Percent Spare Relieving Capacity 46

Figure 13 – Alternate Pressure Relief Device Installation Arrangement for 100 Percent Spare Relieving Capacity 47

Figure 13 – Alternate Pressure Relief Device Installation Arrangement for 100 Percent Spare Relieving Capacity 47

Figure 14 – Three-Way Changeover Valve – Shuttle Type 48

Figure 14 – Three-Way Changeover Valve – Shuttle Type 48

Figure 15 – Three-Way Changeover Valve – Rotor Type 49

Figure 15 – Three-Way Changeover Valve – Rotor Type 49

Figure 16 – Three-Way Changeover Valve – Ball Types 50

Figure 16 – Three-Way Changeover Valve – Ball Types 50

Figure 17 – Typical Flare Header Block Valves 51

Figure 17 – Typical Flare Header Block Valves 51

Figure 18 – Typical Isolation Block Valves for Spare Compressor 52

Figure 18 – Typical Isolation Block Valves for Spare Compressor 52

Figure 2319 – Typical Installation Avoiding Unstable Flow Patterns at Pressure relief Valve Inlet 59

Figure 2319 – Typical Installation Avoiding Unstable Flow Patterns at Pressure relief Valve Inlet 59

APPENDIX A – RUPTURE DISK INSTALLATION GUIDELINES 60

APPENDIX A – RUPTURE DISK INSTALLATION GUIDELINES 60

Figure A.1 – Typical Configuration of Companion Flanges, Gaskets and Rupture Disk Assembly 66

Figure A.1 – Typical Configuration of Companion Flanges, Gaskets and Rupture Disk Assembly 66

Figure A.2 – Proper Handling of a Rupture Disk 67

Figure A.2 – Proper Handling of a Rupture Disk 67

Figure A.3 – Improper Handling of a Rupture Disk 68

Figure A.3 – Improper Handling of a Rupture Disk 68

Figure A.4 – Proper Alignment of Rupture Disk indicated by Tag Arrows 69

Figure A.4 – Proper Alignment of Rupture Disk indicated by Tag Arrows 69

APPENDIX B – INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE OF PIN-ACTUATED NON-RECLOSING PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES 70

APPENDIX B – INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE OF PIN-ACTUATED NON-RECLOSING PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES 70

APPENDIX C – TECHNICAL INQUIRIESPRV Acoustic Interaction 72

APPENDIX C – TECHNICAL INQUIRIESPRV Acoustic Interaction 72

C.1 PRV Acoustic Interaction 72

C.1.1 Applicability 72

C.1.2 PRV Inlet Line Length Limits 72

C.1.3 Maximum Acoustic Length Calculation 73

C.1.4 Speed of Sound 73

C.1.5 Speed of PRV Opening 74

Bibliography 75

Bibliography 75



Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries

Part II – Installation


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