Serbian assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austro-Hungary.
Causes were laid down many years before.
The Great War: The World in Upheaval
In the wave of nationalism that spread across Europe after the French Revolution, there was a belief that all ethnic groups deserved their own sovereign nations.
However, the concept of self-determination was a threat to the dominant powers who resisted change and suppressed minorities.
Belgians gained independence.
Germany and Italy united.
Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania were free.
The Austro-Hungarians had the opposition of the Slavic peoples under its power.
The Russian government supported a pan-Slavic movement that inspired resistance and rebellion in order to weaken their rival empires.
The Slavic Serbians had come under the control of Austro-Hungary so Russia was obligated to back Serbia.
The Germans felt compelled to support Austrians with whom they shared heritage and language.
Thus the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente were set into place should any international crisis occur.
WW I combatants
Germany’s rapid industrialization had threatened England’s dominance.
Steam power had exacerbated shipping and naval rivalries.
European nations became convinced that global dominance depended upon control of the seas.
German challenge to England’s traditional superiority.
Super warship class of dreadnoughts.
In addition to industrialization and alliances, military staffs had developed extensive inflexible war plans.
France had developed an almost completely offensive plan that gave no thought to possible reactions of the enemy.
The Germans had developed the Schlieffen Plan to defeat France swiftly.
Then turn to meet the Russians.
Key to success depended upon Russian mobilization.
However, the logistics of moving the massive German army were not taken into consideration.
No one had a Plan B.
There were two reactions when war broke out:
Country folk were shocked and fearful.
Urban dwellers were euphoric.
After the assassination of Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914, the assassins were traced to Serbian nationalist interests.
The Alliance system started the war.
Most soldiers and civilians expected the war to be brief so they hurried to get into the action before it was over.
For the next three years, the western front was virtually stationary as the troops dug into trenches and hacked away at each other in futile offensives.
Technological advances of the 19th century were largely responsible for the stalemate.
No Man’s Land.
Life in the trenches:
Presence of waist-deep mud.
German submarine or U-Boat.
As the Great War became a war of attrition, it became apparent that victory would become dependent on keeping the armies supplied than on battlefield wins.
Thus, the burden of total war fell on the civilian population or the home front.
Government took control of civilian industries to maintain the war effort.
Established wage and price controls.
Extended working hours.
Military service extended to teenagers and 60 year olds to fill their ranks.
As war took men away from jobs, unemployment disappeared and women were required to fill the gaps.
Took traditional male jobs.
Were also nurses, physicians, and communications clerks close to the battle lines.
The most important work was the production of ammunition.
Millions of women were exposed to the hazardous conditions of munitions factories which included explosions and poisonings.
Middle- and upper-class women often found the work liberating.
Lower-class women already knew the experience of hard labor.
Women did not stay in those jobs after the war.
One important consequence to women’s war involvement was the extension of the franchise to women.
Allowed women to vote soon after the war.
Russian women after the Russian Revolution of 1917.
In order to maintain the war effort, all governments made extensive use of propaganda and censorship.
Censored the news and arrested dissidents and pacifists.
Vilified the enemy with false atrocity stories and racial stereotyping.
Eventually, the propaganda became so extreme that people doubted the stories.
Terrible ramifications later as people had trouble believing reports of the Holocaust and the Rape of Nanjing.
Conflict in East Asia and the Pacific.
Japan took advantage of Germany’s focus on Europe to confiscate German positions in Asia and the Pacific.
German-leased northeast China.
Battles in Africa and Southwest Asia.
Elevated the status of one Turkish officer, Mustafa Kemal, (Ataturk “Father of the Turks”).
Take control of newly formed Turkey after WW I.
The End Of The War
In 1917, street demonstrations in St. Petersburg were aggravated by military mutinies.
Nicholas II had to abdicate the throne.
Provisional government (Supported the war).
Soviets gained power through their influence on factory workers and the military (against the war).
Germans sent Marxist leader and anti-war activist, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin back to Russia.
Once back in Russia, he and his radical socialists (Bolsheviks) pushed an end to the war and transference of legal authority to the soviets.
Bolsheviks gained control.
“Peace, Land, and Bread”
October 1917, Bolsheviks stormed the Winter Palace.
Power to Lenin and the Bolsheviks.
Within 5 months, they had signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany to end their participation in the war.
The treaty was humiliating for the Russians.
The Bolsheviks could move on to its program of remodeling Russia.
This was the event that Woodrow Wilson needed to get the Americans involved in WW I.
Wilson promised nonintervention, but wanted to help the Allies.
Wilson declared war in April 1917.
America’s entry into the war ended the stalemate.
The Germans laid down their weapons on November 11, 1918.
The Paris Peace Conference.
Versailles Peace Treaty.
World War I was devastating.
15 million people killed.
Additional millions dying in the difficult years following the war (flu).
Versailles Peace Treaty exacerbated underlying rivalries and problems.
27 nations negotiated the treaty.
Georges Clemenceau - France.
Lloyd George of Britain.
by far the most dominant in the proceedings.
Noticeably and regrettably, the Soviet Union was not invited and there were no representatives of the Central Powers.
The Allies threatened to resume war if any part of the treaty was rejected.
keep the pressure on Germany.
British blockade was continued throughout the negotiations.
Woodrow Wilson had forwarded a peacetime proposal to the Germans a full year before the negotiations.
His Fourteen Points (Wilson’s peace plan) were set on a philosophical foundation of idealism.
open agreements of peace.
removal of economic barriers.
equal trade opportunities.
reduction in armaments.
solution for colonial disputes.
“general association of nations” or
League of Nations.
Rejected by the U.S. Senate.
While the Germans had accepted its premises, it felt betrayed by the harsh sanctions in the final treaty.
The final form was a series of peace treaties that saved the harshest treatment for the vanquished nations as France pushed to permanently weaken Germany.
The Germans were required to accept full responsibility for the war and pay the full costs of the war (reparations).
$15 billion dollars.
It denied a navy and air force for Germany and limited the size of its army to 100,000 troops.
Territorial break-up of Austria-Hungary was recognized in granting self-determination to some of its regions such as Czechoslovakia and the Balkan nations.
The Ottomans had an even more complicated settlement, losing most of their territories but gaining recognition of the nation of Turkey under Mustafa Kemal in 1920.
Kemal immediately instituted a process of secular modernization and economic development that dictated.
complete separation of church and state.
Emancipation of women.
Adoption of European culture in clothing, law, mathematics, and writing.
Although technically a constitutional ruler, Ataturk functioned as a virtual dictator until his death in 1938.
Turkey’s remarkable successes were exceptions in the outcome of the treaties for the Central Powers.
Neither Germany nor Italy’s expansionist policies were addressed, nor were those of Japan.
The League of Nations was established as an attempt to stave off war but it proved to be largely ineffectual.
Its two major flaws were that it had no power to enforce its decisions and that it depended upon collective security to preserve peace.
It might have been effective if all the major players had been members at the same time but they never were
The United States itself never joined because the Senate rejected the idea and the peace treaty itself.
Germany and Japan left the League in 1933 while Italy resigned after being chided for the invasion of Ethiopia in 1937.
The Soviet Union only joined in 1934 but was kicked out in 1940.
Despite its weaknesses, the League of Nations laid the foundation for a more effective United Nations after World War II.
The promotion of self-determination assuaged the feelings of nationalists everywhere and, in some cases, it functioned quite well.
For instance, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia became independent nations.
Nevertheless, even in these countries, it was impossible to draw lines that did not include a large minority population.
One-third of all Poles did not even speak Polish while Yugoslavia encompassed Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in addition to smaller minorities.
The German-speaking Austrians and Germans were not allowed to form one state.
Self-determination became more difficult when applied to German colonies and Arab territories.
The mandate system was devised to protect former colonies as they ostensibly moved toward independence.
Of course, the victors only applied it to the defeated Central Powers and conveniently failed to look at their own colonies.
Germans saw it as dividing the spoils of war and the Arabs were outraged.
Promises had been made to them in exchange for support by British and French leaders during the war that were not carried out.
Thus the French established mandates in Lebanon and Syria while the British established them in Palestine and Iraq.
Arabs saw the mandate system as a hidden form of imperialism.
The Great War permanently damaged European prestige and set the stage for decolonization.
A commitment to total war had ruined the European economy and left the United States as the primary creditor to the world.
Colonial people had viewed the war as a massive, bloody civil war that disproved the superiority of European civilization so the colonials became less inclined to behave as loyal subjects.
Self-determination was an appealing notion that had not been extended to the colonies of the victorious nations and revolutionary leaders took note of it.
Furthermore, they took inspiration from the Soviet Union which had denounced imperialism.
Despite postwar disappointments, the desire for self-rule had become a permanent feature in colonial societies.
Unit 10 – Chapters 33 – 38
Probing Cultural Frontiers
Ernest Hemingway – A Farewell to Arms.
Erich Maria Remarque – All Quiet on the Western Front.
Albert Einstein – Theory of relativity.
Sigmund Freud psychoanalysis.
Art and Architecture:
Influenced by Pacific, Asian, and African traditions.
Bauhaus – institution which brought together architects, designers, and painters from several countries to focus on functional design suited to the urban landscape.
Causes of the Great Depression:
Overproduction of agricultural goods.
Reduced income of farm families.
High inventories in manufactured goods.
Mismanaged stock market practices.
Shaky mortgage financing.
Improvements in industrial processes reduced the demand for certain raw materials.
October 1929, U.S. stock market crashed.
The worldwide depression affected every industrialized society.
Japan and Germany suffered the most.
Agricultural economies in Latin America, Africa, and Asia suffered the most.
Countries had 25%-35% unemployment.
policies which are guided by the idea of protecting domestic consumption, labor and capital formation, even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital.
It is in opposition to globalization in many cases, or at least it questions the benefits of unrestricted free trade.
Economic nationalism may include such doctrines as protectionism and import substitution.
At first, women lost their jobs at a much slower rate as they were paid less than man.
Government enacted policies to limit female employment.
Especially married women.
“A woman’s place was in the home.”
People were desperate to protect their jobs, homes, savings.
As the years passed, the struggle for food, clothing, and shelter grew desperate.
Workers and farmers came to resent the wealthy.
Government responses to the Great Depression were based on classical economics.
Capitalism was a self-correcting system.
Capitalism operated best without government interference.
Crisis would inevitably resolve itself.
However, as misery increased, governments attempted a more corrective role.
Curtailing public spending.
In sharp contrast, John Maynard Keynes stated:
Government should stimulate the economy by increasing the money supply.
Public works projects.
New tax policy to redistribute income.
Advisor to FDR.
Challenges to the Liberal Order
The Red Terror.
Lenin’s campaign to extinguish all opposition.
Relied on secret police.
“Whites” – opponents of Lenin’s regime.
Russia’s civil war ended in 1920.
Reds were victorious.
Former allies were concerned about the spread of communism.
Policy in which the Bolshevik government assumed control of banks, industries, estates and church holdings.
Seizure of private property was unpopular.
Government seized crops from peasants in the rural areas to feed the urban populace.
Crop production plummeted.
Lenin needed a new plan.
National Economic Plan (NEP).
Temporarily restored the market economy.
Government controlled only large industries.
Peasants could sell surplus at market prices.
Lenin dies in 1924.
Lenin’s death produced a bitter power struggle.
Joseph Stalin annihilated his rivals through treachery, deceit, and violence.
Dictator of the Soviet Union by 1928.
Trashed Lenin’s NEP.
First Five-Year Plan.
Set targets for increased productivity, especially in the steel and machinery industries.
Centralization of the entire economy.
Stalin’s plan for centralization.
collectivization of agriculture.
extremely unpopular and problematic even for the “man of steel.”
Collectivization was enforced most ruthlessly against peasants who had risen to prosperity during the NEP.
known as kulaks.
less than 5 percent of the Russian peasantry.
Many of them chose to slaughter their animals and burn their crops rather than to turn these resources over to the government.
those who stayed often starved to death.
Millions left the land and went to the cities in search of work.
It is estimated that at least three million peasants died as a result of the push for collectivization of agriculture.
Stalin was forced to abandon the policy in 1931.
He claimed the fiasco as a huge success.
The floundering world of capitalism made Stalin’s centrally planned economy appear somewhat attractive.
Stalin would find it much more problematic to be “successful” with his fellow Communist Party members.
questioned Stalin’s intellectual abilities to be the Party’s sole decision maker.
Stalin responded to these real, perceived, and imagined threats by ruthlessly “cleansing” any and all real or potential opposition through a series of purges between 1935 and 1938.
By 1939, all opposition to Stalin had been silenced as more than three million Soviets were dead and more than eight million others were in labor camps.
Fascism developed as a reaction to both communism and liberal democracy.
Fascist parties developed across the world in the 1920s and 1930s.
Only in Italy and Germany did these parties become powerful enough to overthrow existing parliamentary systems.
Fascism was appealing to the middle classes who felt threatened by the communist class conflicts.
abandoned by their government’s unfulfilled promises during the Great War.
radicalized by economic and social crises of the 1920s and 1930s.
Fascists are experts at dedicating themselves to perceived “lost traditions.”
promoting the veneration of the state.
“worshiping” a strong leader.
The state, not the individual, was the fascists’ focus and indeed the individual must always be subordinate to the needs and service of the state.
Widespread disillusionment with ineffective government and political leadership.
extensive economic turmoil.
anger at Italy’s “mistreatment” at the Versailles Peace Conference.
growing fear of socialism.
Coupled with an arrogant, outspoken, virulent nationalist like Benito Mussolini as its leader, Italian fascism gained wide support after 1920.
Mussolini understood the effectiveness of violence.
Unit 11 – The Bipolar World/The End of Empire/A World Without Borders – Chapters 38-40
The wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union deteriorated quickly after World War II
Competition for control of Europe combined with earlier competing ideologies of communism and capitalism acted as catalysts to drive the two superpowers apart
It split Europe into separate spheres, then became global with the Korean War
Blocs of nations lined up behind the two superpowers and competed economically, politically, and militarily
Western European nations aligned themselves with the interest of the United States while eastern European nations were forced to align themselves with the USSR
Western Europe continued to embrace capitalism and democratic institutions while Eastern European countries became communist under the watchful eye of occupation armies
Germany was the first to be divided as the occupation forces carved up the country and its capital, Berlin, into sectors
Access to Berlin was through the Soviet zone which further complicated matters
A very tense relationship built up between the French, American, and British occupiers and their opposing Soviet occupiers and once the western powers decide to merge their zones, it got worse
In an attempt to gain total control of Berlin, the Soviet Union blocked its rail and road access in June 1948
The western forces responded with a year-long Berlin airlift of supplies and embargoed products from Soviet-controlled countries
The Soviet Union called off the blockade and the western forces kept their outpost deep within Soviet territory intact
The western sectors became the Federal Republic of Germany with its capital in West Berlin
Eastern sector became known as the German Democratic Republic with East Berlin as its capital
For the next twelve years, the borders were fairly easy to cross so East Germany lost many citizens to booming West Germany
In 1961, the communists reinforced their border in Berlin with barbed wire that became a wall with watchtowers, mines, and border guards with orders to shoot to kill
The Berlin Wall stemmed the flow of immigrants but its reputation was sullied by incidents at the wall where over the years several hundred East Germans lost their lives
It remained a symbol of oppression
In both the Berlin airlift and the Berlin Wall episodes, it became clear that it was possible to avoid a shooting war, so the “cold war” had its moniker
Quite amazingly, despite the build-up of massive stores of nuclear weapons, the war remained cold
Treaties firmed up the two military alignments with the western powers’ North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed in 1949 and the Soviet-controlled Warsaw Pact in response in 1955
of nuclear and conventional weapons but not until the 1960s did the Soviet Union approach the number that the west had
The cold war continued despite outbreaks of conventional warfare like the Korean War
The first to challenge the global balance of powers occurred in the summer of 1950, when the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea (North Korea) invaded the Republic of Korea (South Korea)
After World War II, Korea had been partitioned along the thirty-eight parallel because the two superpowers could not agree on a timeline for reunification
The international response marked one of the first effective uses of the newly-formed United Nations which voted to allow member countries “to provide the Republic of South Korea with all necessary aid to repel the aggressors”
The United States with token support from twenty countries responded by pushing the North Koreans back with their borders
Approached the border with China, they were met by three hundred thousand Chinese forces
The United States and its allies were pushed back to the south and after two years of a stalemate, no peace treaty was ever signed
So Korea remained in a hostile state of potential warfare at the same lines set up in 1949
The “containment” of communist North Korea proved the efficacy of such policies and became the dominant policy of the United States
It began to offer aid to other Asian nations in an effort to contain communism, and it set up an Asian counterpart to NATO, the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO)
According to President Dwight Eisenhower(1890-1969), Asia was viewed in terms of the “domino theory” which held that if one nation fell to communism, the rest would follow
Subsequent administrations would extend the theory to Latin America and Africa
Cuba became the focus of U.S. concern in the western hemisphere
In 1959, Cuban revolutionary Fidel Castro overthrew the corrupt, U.S.-supported government
He denounced Yankee imperialism, seized businesses, and accepted assistance from the Soviet Union
The U.S. response was to cut off sugar imports and diplomatic ties
In addition to that, the United States began a secret program to take back Cuba
The Soviet Union used its entrée into Cuba to set up a large contingent of advisers and military weaponry while Fidel Castro loudly supported its goals in the in the U.N. General Assembly
President John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) approved an invasion by anti-Castro Cubans soon after he got into office
The insurgents, backed by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), landed on the beach in the Bay of Pigs and were quickly captured or killed
The episode diminished U.S. prestige and strengthened Castro’s popularity in Cuba
It also may have been a factor in Castro’s decision to accept Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuban shores
The Soviets had other reasons for the assertive move such as protection of the Cuban government, to gain influence in Latin America, and to increase their diplomatic leverage with the United States
At the beginning of the Cuban missile crisis, October 1962, President Kennedy announced on television that there were photographs of missiles pointed right at the United States and that the United States would blockade the island until they were removed
The superpowers came as close to nuclear warfare as they ever would, and for one week, disaster seemed imminent
Tense negotiations resulted in Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971) withdrawing the missiles in return for a U.S. promise not to invade Cuba
There was also a secret agreement that the United States would remove its secret missiles from Turkey
The world breathed a collective sigh but it became more evident that nuclear weapons and the tense balance of power could propel the world into a third world war
The so-called “kitchen debate” between American vice-President Richard Nixon and Soviet premier Khrushchev personified the differences between the values and attributes of each society and their allies
For example, the United States had wonderful new appliances to simplify women’s lives, and on top of that, they did not need to have a job to attain this lifestyle
In contrast, Soviet women had few conveniences and were required to work
Nevertheless, all was not safe and secure as concerns about global communism cast a shadow on American lives and reached a panic level in the early 1950s
Congress began investigations that caused thousands of Americans to be purged from their jobs on suspicion of being members- or having been members-of the Communist Party
Despite the advantages, more married women worked during the cold war than they had during WW II
Global feminist movement
Many resented the domestic image on television
Women began to press for more recognition and equality
Books by French author Simone de Beauvoir and American author Betty Friedan put their concerns into words
Women activists also began to use Marxist, anti-imperialist rhetoric like “oppression” and “women’s liberation” to describe their position in society
As decolonization became more likely, black nationalism became more prominent throughout the globe
In the United States and the Caribbean, citizens of African descent began to identify with Africans in revolutionary battles against colonial powers
Marcus Garvey Kwame Nkrumah in Africa
Dr. Martin Luther King
all advocated the unity
The cold war coincided with the civil rights movement in the United States as King also borrowed passive nonresistance strategies from another anti-imperialist movement, that of Gandhi in India
The southern United States had institutionalized segregation since the Civil War, but in the early 1950s, it was challenged in federal courts and changes began to take place
The first change was Brown v. the Board of Education (1954) which ruled against segregation in schools
Then a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama resulted in desegregation of interstate transportation
Many changes followed and coincided with African liberation efforts and the cold war
Huge contrasts existed between the materialism of the western powers and the deprivation of the Warsaw Pact countries
The devastation of World War II had been improved in the west by the U.S. Marshall Plan that granted over $13 billion to rebuild western Europe
The western European economy responded quickly and its gain in the 1950s were enormous, outpacing the United States growth rate during the same period
The only area that the Soviets could compete well in was their space program and sports programs
In 1957, they put the first satellite into space, which horrified the west
Then the Russians sent the first man into space
With an infusion of government money and force, the Americans were the first to land on the moon in 1969
The space race fueled concerns that there was a large “missile gap” and contributed to increased nuclear armament on both sides