Ap world History Unit 11 – Chapters 33 – 38 – 1900 to Present



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  • Unit 11 – Chapters 33 – 38 – 1900 to Present

  • The Great War: The World in Upheaval

  • THE WAR TO END ALL WARS

  • The Great War: The World in Upheaval

  • Spark:

  • Serbian assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austro-Hungary.

  • Causes were laid down many years before.

  • The Great War: The World in Upheaval

  • National rivalries.

  • Ethnic hatreds.

  • Colonial struggles.

  • Technological competition.

  • Secret alliances.

  • In the wave of nationalism that spread across Europe after the French Revolution, there was a belief that all ethnic groups deserved their own sovereign nations.

  • However, the concept of self-determination was a threat to the dominant powers who resisted change and suppressed minorities.

  • Nationalism.

  • Nevertheless,

  • Belgians gained independence.

  • Germany and Italy united.

  • Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania were free.

  • The Austro-Hungarians had the opposition of the Slavic peoples under its power.

  • The Russian government supported a pan-Slavic movement that inspired resistance and rebellion in order to weaken their rival empires.

  • The Slavic Serbians had come under the control of Austro-Hungary so Russia was obligated to back Serbia.

  • The Germans felt compelled to support Austrians with whom they shared heritage and language.

  • Thus the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente were set into place should any international crisis occur.

  • Triple Alliance:

  • Germany

  • Austro-Hungary

  • Italy

  • Triple Entente:

  • Great Britain

  • France

  • Russia

  • WW I combatants

  • Allies:

  • Great Britain

  • France

  • Russia

  • USA (1917)

  • Canada

  • Australia

  • Italy

  • Serbia

  • Japan

  • Central Powers:

  • Germany

  • Austria-Hungary

  • Ottoman Empire

  • Bulgaria

  • Germany’s rapid industrialization had threatened England’s dominance.

  • Steam power had exacerbated shipping and naval rivalries.

  • European nations became convinced that global dominance depended upon control of the seas.

  • German challenge to England’s traditional superiority.

  • Super warship class of dreadnoughts.

  • In addition to industrialization and alliances, military staffs had developed extensive inflexible war plans.

  • France had developed an almost completely offensive plan that gave no thought to possible reactions of the enemy.

  • The Germans had developed the Schlieffen Plan to defeat France swiftly.

  • Then turn to meet the Russians.

  • Key to success depended upon Russian mobilization.

  • However, the logistics of moving the massive German army were not taken into consideration.

  • No one had a Plan B.

  • Global War

  • There were two reactions when war broke out:

  • Country folk were shocked and fearful.

  • Urban dwellers were euphoric.

  • After the assassination of Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914, the assassins were traced to Serbian nationalist interests.

  • The Alliance system started the war.

  • Most soldiers and civilians expected the war to be brief so they hurried to get into the action before it was over.

  • For the next three years, the western front was virtually stationary as the troops dug into trenches and hacked away at each other in futile offensives.

  • Technological advances of the 19th century were largely responsible for the stalemate.

  • Barbed wire.

  • No Man’s Land.

  • Machine Guns.

  • Poison Gas.

  • Life in the trenches:

  • Presence of waist-deep mud.

  • Half-decayed corpses.

  • Trench rats.

  • Lice.

  • Tanks.

  • Airplanes.

  • Ace flyers”

  • dogfights”

  • German submarine or U-Boat.

  • As the Great War became a war of attrition, it became apparent that victory would become dependent on keeping the armies supplied than on battlefield wins.

  • Thus, the burden of total war fell on the civilian population or the home front.

  • Government took control of civilian industries to maintain the war effort.

  • Established wage and price controls.

  • Extended working hours.

  • Military service extended to teenagers and 60 year olds to fill their ranks.

  • As war took men away from jobs, unemployment disappeared and women were required to fill the gaps.

  • Took traditional male jobs.

  • Were also nurses, physicians, and communications clerks close to the battle lines.

  • The most important work was the production of ammunition.

  • Millions of women were exposed to the hazardous conditions of munitions factories which included explosions and poisonings.

  • Middle- and upper-class women often found the work liberating.

  • Lower-class women already knew the experience of hard labor.

  • Women did not stay in those jobs after the war.

  • One important consequence to women’s war involvement was the extension of the franchise to women.

  • Britain.

  • Germany.

  • Austria.

  • USA.

  • Allowed women to vote soon after the war.

  • Russian women after the Russian Revolution of 1917.

  • In order to maintain the war effort, all governments made extensive use of propaganda and censorship.

  • Censored the news and arrested dissidents and pacifists.

  • Posters.

  • Pamphlets.

  • Films.

  • Vilified the enemy with false atrocity stories and racial stereotyping.

  • Eventually, the propaganda became so extreme that people doubted the stories.

  • Terrible ramifications later as people had trouble believing reports of the Holocaust and the Rape of Nanjing.

  • Conflict in East Asia and the Pacific.

  • Japan took advantage of Germany’s focus on Europe to confiscate German positions in Asia and the Pacific.

  • German-leased northeast China.

  • Marshall Islands.

  • Marianas.

  • Carolines.

  • Palua.

  • Samoa.

  • New Guinea.

  • Battles in Africa and Southwest Asia.

  • Gallipoli.

  • Elevated the status of one Turkish officer, Mustafa Kemal, (Ataturk “Father of the Turks”).

  • Take control of newly formed Turkey after WW I.

  • The End Of The War

  • In 1917, street demonstrations in St. Petersburg were aggravated by military mutinies.

  • Nicholas II had to abdicate the throne.

  • Provisional government (Supported the war).

  • Soviets gained power through their influence on factory workers and the military (against the war).

  • Germans sent Marxist leader and anti-war activist, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin back to Russia.

  • Once back in Russia, he and his radical socialists (Bolsheviks) pushed an end to the war and transference of legal authority to the soviets.

  • Bolsheviks gained control.

  • Peace, Land, and Bread”

  • October 1917, Bolsheviks stormed the Winter Palace.

  • Bloodless coup.

  • Power to Lenin and the Bolsheviks.

  • Within 5 months, they had signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany to end their participation in the war.

  • The treaty was humiliating for the Russians.

  • The Bolsheviks could move on to its program of remodeling Russia.

  • This was the event that Woodrow Wilson needed to get the Americans involved in WW I.

  • Wilson promised nonintervention, but wanted to help the Allies.

  • Lusitania.

  • Wilson declared war in April 1917.

  • America’s entry into the war ended the stalemate.

  • The Germans laid down their weapons on November 11, 1918.

  • The Paris Peace Conference.

  • Versailles Peace Treaty.

  • World War I was devastating.

  • 15 million people killed.

  • Additional millions dying in the difficult years following the war (flu).

  • Versailles Peace Treaty exacerbated underlying rivalries and problems.

  • 27 nations negotiated the treaty.

  • Woodrow Wilson.

  • Georges Clemenceau - France.

  • Lloyd George of Britain.

  • by far the most dominant in the proceedings.

  • Noticeably and regrettably, the Soviet Union was not invited and there were no representatives of the Central Powers.

  • The Allies threatened to resume war if any part of the treaty was rejected.

  • keep the pressure on Germany.

  • British blockade was continued throughout the negotiations.

  • Woodrow Wilson had forwarded a peacetime proposal to the Germans a full year before the negotiations.

  • His Fourteen Points (Wilson’s peace plan) were set on a philosophical foundation of idealism.

  • open agreements of peace.

  • removal of economic barriers.

  • equal trade opportunities.

  • reduction in armaments.

  • solution for colonial disputes.

  • general association of nations” or

  • League of Nations.

  • Rejected by the U.S. Senate.

  • Why?

  • While the Germans had accepted its premises, it felt betrayed by the harsh sanctions in the final treaty.

  • The final form was a series of peace treaties that saved the harshest treatment for the vanquished nations as France pushed to permanently weaken Germany.

  • The Germans were required to accept full responsibility for the war and pay the full costs of the war (reparations).

  • $15 billion dollars.

  • It denied a navy and air force for Germany and limited the size of its army to 100,000 troops.

  • Territorial break-up of Austria-Hungary was recognized in granting self-determination to some of its regions such as Czechoslovakia and the Balkan nations.

  • The Ottomans had an even more complicated settlement, losing most of their territories but gaining recognition of the nation of Turkey under Mustafa Kemal in 1920.

  • Kemal immediately instituted a process of secular modernization and economic development that dictated.

  • complete separation of church and state.

  • Emancipation of women.

  • Adoption of European culture in clothing, law, mathematics, and writing.

  • Although technically a constitutional ruler, Ataturk functioned as a virtual dictator until his death in 1938.

  • Turkey’s remarkable successes were exceptions in the outcome of the treaties for the Central Powers.

  • Neither Germany nor Italy’s expansionist policies were addressed, nor were those of Japan.

  • The League of Nations was established as an attempt to stave off war but it proved to be largely ineffectual.

  • Its two major flaws were that it had no power to enforce its decisions and that it depended upon collective security to preserve peace.

  • It might have been effective if all the major players had been members at the same time but they never were

  • The United States itself never joined because the Senate rejected the idea and the peace treaty itself.

  • Germany and Japan left the League in 1933 while Italy resigned after being chided for the invasion of Ethiopia in 1937.

  • The Soviet Union only joined in 1934 but was kicked out in 1940.

  • Despite its weaknesses, the League of Nations laid the foundation for a more effective United Nations after World War II.

  • The promotion of self-determination assuaged the feelings of nationalists everywhere and, in some cases, it functioned quite well.

  • For instance, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia became independent nations.

  • Nevertheless, even in these countries, it was impossible to draw lines that did not include a large minority population.

  • One-third of all Poles did not even speak Polish while Yugoslavia encompassed Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in addition to smaller minorities.

  • The German-speaking Austrians and Germans were not allowed to form one state.

  • Self-determination became more difficult when applied to German colonies and Arab territories.

  • The mandate system was devised to protect former colonies as they ostensibly moved toward independence.

  • Of course, the victors only applied it to the defeated Central Powers and conveniently failed to look at their own colonies.

  • Germans saw it as dividing the spoils of war and the Arabs were outraged.

  • Promises had been made to them in exchange for support by British and French leaders during the war that were not carried out.

  • Thus the French established mandates in Lebanon and Syria while the British established them in Palestine and Iraq.

  • Arabs saw the mandate system as a hidden form of imperialism.

  • The Great War permanently damaged European prestige and set the stage for decolonization.

  • A commitment to total war had ruined the European economy and left the United States as the primary creditor to the world.

  • Colonial people had viewed the war as a massive, bloody civil war that disproved the superiority of European civilization so the colonials became less inclined to behave as loyal subjects.

  • Self-determination was an appealing notion that had not been extended to the colonies of the victorious nations and revolutionary leaders took note of it.

  • Furthermore, they took inspiration from the Soviet Union which had denounced imperialism.

  • Despite postwar disappointments, the desire for self-rule had become a permanent feature in colonial societies.

  • Unit 10 – Chapters 33 – 38

  • Probing Cultural Frontiers

  • Postwar Pessimism:

  • Ernest Hemingway – A Farewell to Arms.

  • Erich Maria Remarque – All Quiet on the Western Front.

  • Intellectual Developments:

  • Albert Einstein – Theory of relativity.

  • Sigmund Freud psychoanalysis.

  • Repressed consciousness.

  • Art and Architecture:

  • Edgar Degas.

  • Paul Gauguin.

  • Pablo Picasso.

  • Influenced by Pacific, Asian, and African traditions.

  • Bauhaus – institution which brought together architects, designers, and painters from several countries to focus on functional design suited to the urban landscape.

  • Global Depression

  • Causes of the Great Depression:

  • Overproduction of agricultural goods.

  • Reduced income of farm families.

  • High inventories in manufactured goods.

  • Production cutbacks.

  • Labor layoffs.

  • Mismanaged stock market practices.

  • Shaky mortgage financing.

  • Improvements in industrial processes reduced the demand for certain raw materials.

  • October 1929, U.S. stock market crashed.

  • The worldwide depression affected every industrialized society.

  • Japan and Germany suffered the most.

  • Agricultural economies in Latin America, Africa, and Asia suffered the most.

  • Countries had 25%-35% unemployment.

  • Economic Nationalism:

  • policies which are guided by the idea of protecting domestic consumption, labor and capital formation, even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital.

  • It is in opposition to globalization in many cases, or at least it questions the benefits of unrestricted free trade.

  • Economic nationalism may include such doctrines as protectionism and import substitution.

  • At first, women lost their jobs at a much slower rate as they were paid less than man.

  • Government enacted policies to limit female employment.

  • Especially married women.

  • A woman’s place was in the home.”

  • People were desperate to protect their jobs, homes, savings.

  • As the years passed, the struggle for food, clothing, and shelter grew desperate.

  • Workers and farmers came to resent the wealthy.

  • Government responses to the Great Depression were based on classical economics.

  • Capitalism was a self-correcting system.

  • Capitalism operated best without government interference.

  • Crisis would inevitably resolve itself.

  • However, as misery increased, governments attempted a more corrective role.

  • Balance budgets.

  • Curtailing public spending.

  • In sharp contrast, John Maynard Keynes stated:

  • Government should stimulate the economy by increasing the money supply.

  • Encourage investments.

  • Public works projects.

  • New tax policy to redistribute income.

  • Provide jobs.

  • Deficit spending.

  • Unbalanced budgets.

  • Advisor to FDR.

  • Challenges to the Liberal Order

  • Russia:

  • The Red Terror.

  • Lenin’s campaign to extinguish all opposition.

  • Relied on secret police.

  • Whites” – opponents of Lenin’s regime.

  • Russia’s civil war ended in 1920.

  • Reds were victorious.

  • Price:

  • Starvation.

  • Disease.

  • Political oppression.

  • Former allies were concerned about the spread of communism.

  • War Communism.

  • Policy in which the Bolshevik government assumed control of banks, industries, estates and church holdings.

  • Seizure of private property was unpopular.

  • Government seized crops from peasants in the rural areas to feed the urban populace.

  • Crop production plummeted.

  • Lenin needed a new plan.

  • National Economic Plan (NEP).

  • Temporarily restored the market economy.

  • Government controlled only large industries.

  • Peasants could sell surplus at market prices.

  • Electrification.

  • Lenin dies in 1924.

  • Lenin’s death produced a bitter power struggle.

  • Joseph Stalin annihilated his rivals through treachery, deceit, and violence.

  • Dictator of the Soviet Union by 1928.

  • Trashed Lenin’s NEP.

  • Stalin’s plan:

  • First Five-Year Plan.

  • Set targets for increased productivity, especially in the steel and machinery industries.

  • Centralization of the entire economy.

  • Stalin’s plan for centralization.

  • collectivization of agriculture.

  • extremely unpopular and problematic even for the “man of steel.”

  • Collectivization was enforced most ruthlessly against peasants who had risen to prosperity during the NEP.

  • known as kulaks.

  • less than 5 percent of the Russian peasantry.

  • Many of them chose to slaughter their animals and burn their crops rather than to turn these resources over to the government.

  • those who stayed often starved to death.

  • Millions left the land and went to the cities in search of work.

  • It is estimated that at least three million peasants died as a result of the push for collectivization of agriculture.

  • Stalin was forced to abandon the policy in 1931.

  • He claimed the fiasco as a huge success.

  • The floundering world of capitalism made Stalin’s centrally planned economy appear somewhat attractive.

  • Stalin would find it much more problematic to be “successful” with his fellow Communist Party members.

  • questioned Stalin’s intellectual abilities to be the Party’s sole decision maker.

  • Stalin responded to these real, perceived, and imagined threats by ruthlessly “cleansing” any and all real or potential opposition through a series of purges between 1935 and 1938.

  • By 1939, all opposition to Stalin had been silenced as more than three million Soviets were dead and more than eight million others were in labor camps.

  • Fascism developed as a reaction to both communism and liberal democracy.

  • Fascist parties developed across the world in the 1920s and 1930s.

  • Only in Italy and Germany did these parties become powerful enough to overthrow existing parliamentary systems.

  • Fascism was appealing to the middle classes who felt threatened by the communist class conflicts.

  • abandoned by their government’s unfulfilled promises during the Great War.

  • radicalized by economic and social crises of the 1920s and 1930s.

  • Fascists are experts at dedicating themselves to perceived “lost traditions.”

  • promoting the veneration of the state.

  • worshiping” a strong leader.

  • Ultra-nationalism.

  • Ethno-centrism.

  • Militarism.

  • The state, not the individual, was the fascists’ focus and indeed the individual must always be subordinate to the needs and service of the state.

  • Italy:

  • Widespread disillusionment with ineffective government and political leadership.

  • extensive economic turmoil.

  • social discontent.

  • anger at Italy’s “mistreatment” at the Versailles Peace Conference.

  • growing fear of socialism.

  • Coupled with an arrogant, outspoken, virulent nationalist like Benito Mussolini as its leader, Italian fascism gained wide support after 1920.

  • Mussolini understood the effectiveness of violence.

  • squash opposition.

  • used the “Black Shirts” to quell any dissent, or “chaos” as he termed the opposition.

  • In 1922, the mere presence of the fascist black-shirted troops in Rome convinced the Italian king to make Mussolini the prime minister of Italy and to allow him to form a new government.

  • In 1922, Mussolini inaugurated a fascist regime in Italy.

  • Taking the title IL Duce, Mussolini moved quickly to eliminate all other political parties

  • limit the freedom of the press.

  • outlaw free speech.

  • Aligning himself with business interests, Mussolini crushed labor unions and outlawed strikes.

  • corporatism” in which the different interest in society came together under state control.

  • Mussolini’s interactions with Hitler began to color Italian fascism after 1936.

  • racism and anti-Semitism became much more emphasized as part of Italian fascism and Mussolini began to speak of a Rome-Berlin Axis of world power in 1938.

  • By 1939, the two men had signed the Ten-year Pact of Steel to illustrate the strong ties between these two fascist nations.

  • Nazi Party

  • made its first major public appearance in 1923 when party members, including Adolf Hitler.

  • attempted to overthrow the government of the Weimar Republic which had been established after 1919.

  • Hitler and his followers were imprisoned for a year, where he had ample time to write and reflect on his tactics once he was released.

  • Hitler attracted people who felt alienated from society and frightened by world events and the future.

  • He capitalized on

anger from the settlement of World War I.

  • Disillusioned Germans, particularly members of the lower middle classes who had lost faith in the democratic system.

  • By 1932, Hitler was selected as Chancellor of Germany who promised a German Reich and who delivered on that promise.

  • Under the cover of a national emergency, Hitler and his Nazi party used all available means to destroy the Weimar Republic and establish a one-party democracy.

  • Purged the judicial and civil service of any non-Nazis.

  • Firmly established a highly centralized state leaving little local or regional autonomy.

  • They outlawed all civil and constitutional rights, suppressed, terrorized, and eventually outlawed all competing political parties and factions.

  • Once firmly in power, it was relatively simple to translate their racist ideology into effective practice.

  • The Nazis effectively touted the science of eugenics to improve the quantity and quality of the “German race.”

  • They launched a campaign to increase the births of “racially valuable” children through.

  • tax credits. special child allowances. marriage loans.

  • laws allowing for divorce only on the grounds of sterility.

  • successfully regulated women to the sole role of wife and mother.

  • Access to information regarding family planning, birth-control devices, and abortions became almost impossible to find.

  • a “cult of motherhood” which included medals for particularly prolific child-producing women.

  • However, not all people in Germany were encouraged to have children.

  • Indeed there was a parallel campaign to prevent births from people who had been identified as having “hereditary determined” illnesses.

  • soon people who were seen as “racial aliens” were added to that effort.

  • Nazi eugenic measures included sterilization, abortion, and soon state-sponsored euthanasia in the mania clothed as “racial health.”

  • Anti-Semitism became the hallmark of Nazi rule.

  • Based on nineteenth-century biological race theories, the Nazis skillfully built on deeper underlying religious hatreds to identify who was a Jew.

  • The 1935 Nuremberg Laws deprived Germans of Jewish ancestry of their civil and citizenship rights, which then gave the Nazis unlimited power to deal with the Jews as they wished.

  • The stated official goal was Jewish emigration and the numbers of German Jews seeking to emigrate increased dramatically after Kristallnacht.

  • The “night of broken glass” in November 1938, a clear signal that conditions for Jews in Germany were going to quickly deteriorate.

  • New Conflagrations: World War II

  • Although the official starting date for World War II is usually given as

  • September 1, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland or

  • December 7, 1941 when Japan bombed Pearl Harbor

  • Origins of the war were already clear when Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931

  • Throughout the 1930s, the world was dividing into two camps:

  • Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan

  • Allied Powers including Great Britain and the Commonwealth nations, Russia, France, China, the United States, and its Latin American allies

  • The Japanese conquest of Manchuria in 1931-1932 was the first major step in Japan’s process of aggression and expansionism

  • Militarist factions within Japan’s government triumphed over civilian opposition

  • 1933 Japan withdrew from the League of Nations

  • Ultranationalist and pro-military policies

  • Japan began a full-scale invasion of China in 1937

  • Japanese conquest and occupation of China was particularly brutal and shockingly foreshadowed the suffering in the World War to come

  • The 1937 “Rape of Nanjing,” in which more than four hundred thousand Chinese residents met death through unimaginable horrors

  • Perhaps the most gruesome example of brutality tied to an ethos of racial superiority the world had yet seen

  • Chinese attempted to resist the much better-equipped, better-trained, and better-led Japanese armies

  • Though not successful in defeating the superior Japanese forces

  • Manage to keep 750,000 Japanese troops tied down and out of other war fronts

  • The communist faction of the Chinese opposition was particularly effective against the superior Japanese forces

  • The Chinese used guerilla tactics of hit-and-run operations, sabotaged bridges and railroads, and harassed Japanese troops for nearly eight years

  • Though the communist Chinese faction never defeated the Japanese, they did win the support of the Chinese peasantry which would leave the communists poised to rule China once World War II was over

  • Italy was still smarting from its perceived mistreatment during WWI.

  • It had lost 600,000 soldiers and had not been granted expected compensation in colonial territory and reparations

  • Mussolini promised to bring glory to Italy and to take the territorial spoils of war denied after the Great War

  • Italy took Libya and Ethiopia in 1935-1936

  • Intervened in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)

  • Annexed Albania in 1939

  • The conquest of Ethiopia was unnecessarily brutal as 275,000 Ethiopians lost their lives to the Italians tanks, poison gas, and artillery

  • 2,000 Italian soldiers died in the conflict

  • Germany’s prewar aggression was ultimately the destroyer of the fragile peace

  • After “test running” his troops and war machinery in the Spanish Civil War, Hitler was poised to begin the campaign of aggression which ultimately led to the outbreak of World War II in Europe

  • Hitler justified German Anschluss, or “forced union,” with Austria in 1938 as part of a natural rejoining of German peoples separated by artificial boundaries

  • Britain and France said little and did nothing in response.

  • Hitler accurately took their silence as proof that they would not seek to stop German expansion and used it to further validate his contempt for democracies

  • Using the same rationale in 1938

  • Germany invaded the Sudetenland

  • German-speaking region of Czechoslovakia

  • Britain and France actually tried to convince the Czechoslovakian government that this would be a limited expansion

  • At the Munich Conference in September 1938, the policy of appeasement was adopted as Britain and France continued to seek peace, even if it meant acquiescing to Germany’s aggressive actions

  • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain returned home to joyous crowds waving a document which he ironically said guaranteed “peace for our time”

  • Germany took the rest of Czechoslovakia in spring 1939 and Poland in 1939

  • Appeasement clearly did not work

  • Hitler had help in dismantling Poland

  • Stalin crafted an uneasy pact, the “Russian-German Treaty of Nonaggression”

  • Gave Germany and Russia free hands to divide much of eastern Europe

  • Total War: The World Under Fire

  • Traditionally, nations have made public declarations of war preceding the fighting

  • World War II would prove different

  • The Germans perfected a strategy known as Blitzkrieg, or “lightning war”

  • They successfully demonstrated this highly effective strategy against the Poles in September 1939

  • Luftwaffe – German Air Force

  • RAF – Royal Air Force Battle of Britain

  • Operation Barbarossa- German invasion of Russia

  • Why? German “living space”

  • Vast Russian territory reduced effectiveness of Blitzkrieg

  • Lend-Lease Act (1941)

  • Japanese expansion into French Indochina

  • December 7, 1941 – Pearl Harbor

  • June 6, 1944 – D-Day – Allied invasion of France to drive the Germans out

  • Germans surrender on May 8, 1945

  • island hopping”

  • Kamikaze

  • Nagasaki Hiroshima

  • Emperor Hirohito surrenders on September 2, 1945

  • Life During Wartime

  • Total war

  • Resistance movements

  • Holocaust

  • Genocide “final solution”

  • Cold War – USA vs. USSR

  • United Nations

  • iron curtain”

  • Truman Doctrine

  • containment”

  • Marshall Plan or European Recovery Program

  • NATO Warsaw Pact

  • Unit 11 – The Bipolar World/The End of Empire/A World Without Borders – Chapters 38-40

  • The wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union deteriorated quickly after World War II

  • Competition for control of Europe combined with earlier competing ideologies of communism and capitalism acted as catalysts to drive the two superpowers apart

  • It split Europe into separate spheres, then became global with the Korean War

  • Blocs of nations lined up behind the two superpowers and competed economically, politically, and militarily

  • Western European nations aligned themselves with the interest of the United States while eastern European nations were forced to align themselves with the USSR

  • Western Europe continued to embrace capitalism and democratic institutions while Eastern European countries became communist under the watchful eye of occupation armies

  • Germany was the first to be divided as the occupation forces carved up the country and its capital, Berlin, into sectors

  • Access to Berlin was through the Soviet zone which further complicated matters

  • A very tense relationship built up between the French, American, and British occupiers and their opposing Soviet occupiers and once the western powers decide to merge their zones, it got worse

  • Berlin Blockade

  • In an attempt to gain total control of Berlin, the Soviet Union blocked its rail and road access in June 1948

  • The western forces responded with a year-long Berlin airlift of supplies and embargoed products from Soviet-controlled countries

  • The Soviet Union called off the blockade and the western forces kept their outpost deep within Soviet territory intact

  • The western sectors became the Federal Republic of Germany with its capital in West Berlin

  • Eastern sector became known as the German Democratic Republic with East Berlin as its capital

  • For the next twelve years, the borders were fairly easy to cross so East Germany lost many citizens to booming West Germany

  • In 1961, the communists reinforced their border in Berlin with barbed wire that became a wall with watchtowers, mines, and border guards with orders to shoot to kill

  • The Berlin Wall stemmed the flow of immigrants but its reputation was sullied by incidents at the wall where over the years several hundred East Germans lost their lives

  • It remained a symbol of oppression

  • In both the Berlin airlift and the Berlin Wall episodes, it became clear that it was possible to avoid a shooting war, so the “cold war” had its moniker

  • Quite amazingly, despite the build-up of massive stores of nuclear weapons, the war remained cold

  • Treaties firmed up the two military alignments with the western powers’ North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed in 1949 and the Soviet-controlled Warsaw Pact in response in 1955

  • of nuclear and conventional weapons but not until the 1960s did the Soviet Union approach the number that the west had

  • The cold war continued despite outbreaks of conventional warfare like the Korean War

  • The first to challenge the global balance of powers occurred in the summer of 1950, when the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea (North Korea) invaded the Republic of Korea (South Korea)

  • After World War II, Korea had been partitioned along the thirty-eight parallel because the two superpowers could not agree on a timeline for reunification

  • The international response marked one of the first effective uses of the newly-formed United Nations which voted to allow member countries “to provide the Republic of South Korea with all necessary aid to repel the aggressors”

  • The United States with token support from twenty countries responded by pushing the North Koreans back with their borders

  • Inchon

  • Approached the border with China, they were met by three hundred thousand Chinese forces

  • The United States and its allies were pushed back to the south and after two years of a stalemate, no peace treaty was ever signed

  • So Korea remained in a hostile state of potential warfare at the same lines set up in 1949

  • The “containment” of communist North Korea proved the efficacy of such policies and became the dominant policy of the United States

  • It began to offer aid to other Asian nations in an effort to contain communism, and it set up an Asian counterpart to NATO, the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO)

  • According to President Dwight Eisenhower(1890-1969), Asia was viewed in terms of the “domino theory” which held that if one nation fell to communism, the rest would follow

  • Subsequent administrations would extend the theory to Latin America and Africa

  • Cuba became the focus of U.S. concern in the western hemisphere

  • In 1959, Cuban revolutionary Fidel Castro overthrew the corrupt, U.S.-supported government

  • He denounced Yankee imperialism, seized businesses, and accepted assistance from the Soviet Union

  • The U.S. response was to cut off sugar imports and diplomatic ties

  • In addition to that, the United States began a secret program to take back Cuba

  • The Soviet Union used its entrée into Cuba to set up a large contingent of advisers and military weaponry while Fidel Castro loudly supported its goals in the in the U.N. General Assembly

  • President John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) approved an invasion by anti-Castro Cubans soon after he got into office

  • The insurgents, backed by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), landed on the beach in the Bay of Pigs and were quickly captured or killed

  • The episode diminished U.S. prestige and strengthened Castro’s popularity in Cuba

  • It also may have been a factor in Castro’s decision to accept Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuban shores

  • The Soviets had other reasons for the assertive move such as protection of the Cuban government, to gain influence in Latin America, and to increase their diplomatic leverage with the United States

  • At the beginning of the Cuban missile crisis, October 1962, President Kennedy announced on television that there were photographs of missiles pointed right at the United States and that the United States would blockade the island until they were removed

  • The superpowers came as close to nuclear warfare as they ever would, and for one week, disaster seemed imminent

  • Tense negotiations resulted in Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971) withdrawing the missiles in return for a U.S. promise not to invade Cuba

  • There was also a secret agreement that the United States would remove its secret missiles from Turkey

  • The world breathed a collective sigh but it became more evident that nuclear weapons and the tense balance of power could propel the world into a third world war

  • The so-called “kitchen debate” between American vice-President Richard Nixon and Soviet premier Khrushchev personified the differences between the values and attributes of each society and their allies

  • For example, the United States had wonderful new appliances to simplify women’s lives, and on top of that, they did not need to have a job to attain this lifestyle

  • In contrast, Soviet women had few conveniences and were required to work

  • Nevertheless, all was not safe and secure as concerns about global communism cast a shadow on American lives and reached a panic level in the early 1950s

  • Congress began investigations that caused thousands of Americans to be purged from their jobs on suspicion of being members- or having been members-of the Communist Party

  • Despite the advantages, more married women worked during the cold war than they had during WW II

  • Global feminist movement

  • Many resented the domestic image on television

  • Women began to press for more recognition and equality

  • Books by French author Simone de Beauvoir and American author Betty Friedan put their concerns into words

  • Women activists also began to use Marxist, anti-imperialist rhetoric like “oppression” and “women’s liberation” to describe their position in society

  • As decolonization became more likely, black nationalism became more prominent throughout the globe

  • In the United States and the Caribbean, citizens of African descent began to identify with Africans in revolutionary battles against colonial powers

  • Marcus Garvey Kwame Nkrumah in Africa

  • Dr. Martin Luther King

  • all advocated the unity

  • The cold war coincided with the civil rights movement in the United States as King also borrowed passive nonresistance strategies from another anti-imperialist movement, that of Gandhi in India

  • The southern United States had institutionalized segregation since the Civil War, but in the early 1950s, it was challenged in federal courts and changes began to take place

  • The first change was Brown v. the Board of Education (1954) which ruled against segregation in schools

  • Then a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama resulted in desegregation of interstate transportation

  • Many changes followed and coincided with African liberation efforts and the cold war

  • Huge contrasts existed between the materialism of the western powers and the deprivation of the Warsaw Pact countries

  • The devastation of World War II had been improved in the west by the U.S. Marshall Plan that granted over $13 billion to rebuild western Europe

  • The western European economy responded quickly and its gain in the 1950s were enormous, outpacing the United States growth rate during the same period

  • The only area that the Soviets could compete well in was their space program and sports programs

  • In 1957, they put the first satellite into space, which horrified the west

  • Then the Russians sent the first man into space

  • With an infusion of government money and force, the Americans were the first to land on the moon in 1969

  • The space race fueled concerns that there was a large “missile gap” and contributed to increased nuclear armament on both sides

  • The Olympics became the premier venue for the sports competition, as it had been before World War II

  • During the cold war, both East and West Germany sent teams while the People’s Republic of China boycotted it until Taiwan lost its recognition

  • Violence even played into it

  • Palestinian terrorists killed 11 Israeli athletes in 1972

  • A United States boycott of the games in 1980 was followed by a Soviet boycott in 1984

  • Despite competition, the relationship between the superpowers began to temper after Stalin’s death and the communist “witch trials” in the United States after 1953

  • Both governments realized that mutual destruction was a distinct possibility so they began to move toward “peaceful coexistence”

  • The End of the Cold War

  • U.S. President Ronald Reagan (1911-2004) advocated a return to full cold war with a military build up and anti-Soviet rhetoric based on Hollywood imagery, like “the evil empire”

  • However, internal problems had existed in the USSR that led it to collapse before the United States could win the cold war

  • Economic distress and political reforms brought on by Soviet premier Mikhail S. Gorbachev (1931-) prompted multiple revolutions in satellite countries which doomed communist regimes

  • Despite Soviet influence and tanks, nationalism had failed to fuse with communist ideology in eastern Europe

  • The early reforms of the Khrushchev era seemed to provide a solution, but after the harsh repression of Hungary, it faded

  • As he seemed to liberalize again, he was despised in 1964 by communist hardliners

  • Again the chance to win over the satellite peoples was lost

  • However, the hardliners were followed by Gorbachev who was determined to improve the economic and political situation in the Soviet Union

  • Eastern Europeans greeted his announcements with enthusiasm and soon managed to overthrow the communist regimes of most countries

  • In 1989, the Soviet pact countries fell to democratic forces

  • Poland was the scene of the first change as Solidarity, the labor union under Lech Walsea (1943-), a former dockworker and future president, took on the government

  • In the same year, the Bulgarians overthrew their government while the Hungarians did the same

  • Czechoslovakia’s “velvet revolution,” very little violence occurred as the Czechs rejected communist government and three years later divided the two countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia

  • A violent uprising in Romania overthrew the harsh dictator Ceausescu who with his wife was executed on television

  • East Germany’s communist leader had objected to the liberal policies of Gorbachev but it too succumbed to revolution in 1989

  • The sight of the Berlin Wall being torn down became the symbol of the end of communism

  • By Gorbachev’s election in 1985, it had become apparent that the Russian economy was in a state of collapse

  • It had to import grain to feed its population

  • Its standard of living was falling, and its health care system was deteriorating

  • Pollution threatened the country while the educational system lost increasing amounts of funding

  • Gorbachev decided to restructure (perestroika) and that needed to be linked to an increasing openness in government or glasnost

  • Both policies proved to be more difficult to implement than he had foreseen

  • Decentralization of the economy threatened those dependent on the old system, and open government led to harsh criticism

  • At the same time, long simmering ethnic resentments bubbled to the surface in the republics

  • In 1990, the Soviet economy disintegrated, and the Baltic peoples (Estonians, Latvians, and Lithuanians) rebelled in 1991

  • In the next year, twelve more republics followed

  • The Russian republic itself under Boris Yeltsin (1931-) led the independence movement

  • An attempted coup against Gorbachev was stopped but he was forced to resign

  • Yeltsin went on to dismantle the Communist Party and push Russia toward a market economy

  • By December 1991, the Soviet Union was no more

  • The cold war, while potentially perilous, had provided a certain comfort in the balance of its powers

  • An easy familiarity with the forces of good and evil had a certain security as well

  • With the dismantling of the Soviet Union and its allies, critics and supporters of the cold war were unclear as to new direction the world would take

  • The communist model had proved itself to be unworkable even though a few impoverished states- Cuba and North Korea among them-retain the form today

  • A radical shift in power relations seemed imminent and is still working itself out today


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