Ap u. S. History Unit 5 Outline Industrialism through Turn of the Century



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AP U.S. History - Unit 5 Outline

Industrialism through Turn of the Century (The Gilded Age)


Required Reading: Kennedy Chapters 23-26

Quality Core Standards and College Board Topics




C.1.f.Compare and contrast the experiences of African Americans in various U.S. regions in the late nineteenth century

  • Reconfiguration of southern agriculture – sharecropping and crop lien system

  • Expansion of manufacturing and industrialism

  • The politics of segregation – Jim Crow and disenfranchisement

C.1.g. Identify and evaluate the influences on the development of the American West

C.1.h Analyze significant events for Native American Indian tribes, and their responses to those events, in the late nineteenth century

C.2.a Identify and explain significant issues and components of the Populist movement and their impacts


  • Expansion and development of western railroads

  • Competitors for the west – miners, ranchers, homesteaders, and American Indians

  • Government policy toward American Indians

  • Gender, race, and ethnicity in the far West

  • Environmental impacts of western settlements

  • Populism – agrarian discontent and political issues of the late nineteenth century

C.1.a. Evaluate the impact of new inventions and technologies of the late nineteenth century

C.1.b. Identify and evaluate the influences on business and industry in 19th/20th century

C.1.c. Identify labor and workforce issues of the late nineteenth century


  • Corporate consolidation of industry

  • Effects of technology developments on the worker and the workplace

  • Labor and unions

  • National politics and influence of corporate power

  • Migration and immigration: the changing face of a nation

  • Proponents and opponents of the new order (e.g. Social Gospel and Social Darwinism)

C.1.d. Explain the challenges and contributions of immigrants of the late nineteenth century

C.1.e. Explain the causes and impact of urbanization in the late nineteenth century



  • Urbanization and the lure of the city

  • City problems and machine politics

  • Intellectual and cultural movements and popular entertainment





KEY TERMS

For any 50 of the terms listed below, please indicate the most specific date possible relative to the term and to write a clear, concise statement detailing its main idea and significance. Note – all terms on this list are important and could show up on the AP exam. You should ID the terms you are least familiar with. Key Term ID’s must be hand written.








  • “Cross of Gold”

  • Alexander Graham Bell

  • American Federation of Labor

  • American Protective Association

  • Andrew Carnegie

  • Angel Island

  • Barbed wire

  • Barnum and Bailey

  • Benjamin Harrison

  • Bessemer process

  • Booker T. Washington

  • Boss Tweed

  • Buffalo Bill

  • Chester Arthur

  • Chinese Exclusion Act

  • Company towns

  • Cornelius Vanderbilt

  • Cowboys

  • Coxey’s Army

  • Crazy Horse

  • Credit Mobilier

  • Dawes Act

  • Ellis Island

  • Emily Dickinson

  • Eugene Debs

  • Eugenics

  • Farmers Alliance

  • George Custer

  • George W. Carver

  • Gospel of Wealth

  • Grandfather clause

  • Grover Cleveland

  • Haymarket Riot

  • Henry McNeal Turner

  • Homestead Act

  • Homestead Strike

  • Horace Greeley

  • Horatio Alger

  • Horizontal integration

  • Ida B. Wells

  • Indian Reorganization Act

  • Interstate Commerce Act of 1887

  • J.P. Morgan

  • Jack London

  • James Garfield

  • Jay Gould

  • Jim Crow laws

  • John D. Rockefeller

  • Knights of Labor

  • Literacy test

  • Little Big Horn

  • Mark Twain

  • Mugwumps

  • NAACP

  • National Labor Union

  • NativismOld/New immigrants

  • Pendleton Act of 1883

  • Plessy v. Ferguson

  • Political machines

  • Poll tax

  • Populist Party

  • Pullman strike

  • Railroad Strike of 1877

  • Rutherford B. Hays

  • Samuel Gompers

  • Sears and Roebuck

  • Sharecropping

  • Sherman Antitrust Act

  • Silverites and Goldbugs

  • Sitting Bull

  • Social Darwinism

  • Statue of Liberty

  • Tammany Hall

  • Tenements

  • The Grange

  • Thomas Edison

  • Thomas Nast

  • Transcontinental railroads

  • Trusts

  • Tuskegee Institute

  • Ulysses Grant

  • Vaudeville

  • Vertical Integration

  • W.E.B. DuBois

  • Walt Whitman

  • William Jennings Bryant

  • William McKinley

  • Wounded Knee

  • Yellow-dog contracts





Chapter Questions - Please label each set of questions clearly!
CHAPTER 24 - Industry Comes of Age, 1865–1900 (part 1)

  1. What were the main reasons for the increase in railroad construction?

  2. What was the impact of the transcontinental rail system on the American society and economy in the late nineteenth century?

  3. Identify the abuses in the railroad industry and discuss how these led to the first efforts at industrial regulation by the federal government.

  4. How did the huge industrial trusts develop in industries such as steel and oil, and what was their effect on the economy?

  5. Was the growth of enormous, monopolistic corporations simply the natural end result of economic competition, or did it partly result from corrupt practices designed to eliminate competition?

  6. Should industrialists such as Vanderbilt, Carnegie, and Rockefeller be viewed as “robber barons” or “captains of industry”?

  7. What were the main principles of the Gospel of Wealth and Social Darwinism? In what ways did they attempt to deal with (and justify) the concentration of wealth?

  8. Why were such views so popular during the Gilded Age? What criticisms of such views might be offered?


CHAPTER 24 - Industry Comes of Age, 1865–1900 (part 2)

  1. What were some of the main ways in which the government tried to deal with the trusts? How did the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act deal with monopolies? Were they successful?

  2. Describe how new technological inventions fueled new industries and why American manufacturers increasingly turned toward the mass production of standardized goods.

  3. Explain why the South was generally excluded from American industrial development and remained in a Third World economic subservience to the North.

  4. The text states that “no single group was more profoundly affected by the new industrial age than women.” Why was women’s role in society so greatly affected by these economic changes?

  5. What were some of the biggest challenges facing labor in the second half of the nineteenth century?

  6. Why were business and the middle-class public generally hostile to allowing workers to organize as industry did?

  7. What was admirable and “progressive” in the Knights’ outlook? What was largely nostalgic and doomed to failure?

  8. Explain the failures of the Knights of Labor and the modest success of the American Federation of Labor.

CHAPTER 25 - America Moves to the City, 1865–1900 (Part 1)

  1. Describe the rise of the American industrial city, and place it in the context of worldwide trends of urbanization and mass migration (the European diaspora).

  2. The arrival of immigrants on American shores in the late nineteenth century involved both push and pull factors. Describe the major motives that caused emigrants to leave Europe and come to the United States during this period.

  3. Describe the New Immigration, and explain how it differed from the Old Immigration and why it aroused opposition from many native-born Americans.

  4. What new opportunities and social problems did the cities create for Americans?

  5. Compare the “heroic” story of immigration, as illustrated in the Statue of Liberty, with the historical reality. What explains the ambivalence toward the New Immigrants reflected in Lazarus’s poem?

  6. Why did so many Italian-Americans initially intend to return to Italy after a time? How does that fact fit with the common understanding of immigration to America?

  7. Analyze the changes in American religious life in the late nineteenth century, including the expansion of Catholicism, Orthodoxy, and Judaism, and the growing Protestant division between liberals and fundamentalists.

  8. Describe the impact of the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin on American religious and cultural life? Why did many people find Darwin's ideas challenging or difficult?

  9. Discuss the efforts of social reformers and churches to aid the New Immigrants and alleviate urban problems, and the immigrants’ own efforts to sustain their traditions while assimilating to mainstream America.

CHAPTER 25 - America Moves to the City, 1865–1900 (Part 2)

  1. What were the primary changes in American education in the late nineteenth century? What did the developments in basic public education have in common with the changes in American colleges and universities?

  2. Explain the debate between DuBois and Washington over the goals of African American education.

  3. Why did sensational journalism and scandal-mongering expand, even as Americans' levels of education and cultural achievement increased?

  4. What were some of the major reform movements during the second half of the nineteenth century?

  5. Who were some of the significant artistic and literary figures of the Gilded Age? What contributions did they make to American society?

  6. Why did urban life alter the condition of women and bring changes like birth control and rising divorce rates to the family?

  7. How did American social criticism, fiction writing, and art all reflect and address the urban industrial changes of the late nineteenth century? Which social critics and novelists were most influential, and why?

  8. How did the new urban forms of sports and recreation reflect both the greater opportunities and the greater stresses of big-city life?

CHAPTER 23 - Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age, 1869–1896 (Part 1)

  1. Describe the political corruption of the Grant administration and the mostly unsuccessful efforts to reform politics in the Gilded Age.

  2. What made politics in the Gilded Age so extremely popular—with over 80 percent voter participation—yet so often corrupt and unconcerned with important national issues?

  3. Explain the intense political partisanship of the Gilded Age, despite the parties’ lack of ideological difference and poor quality of political leadership.

  4. Describe the economic crisis of the 1870s, and explain the growing conflict between hard-money and soft-money advocates.

  5. What were the main issues surrounding the election of 1876? Did the Compromise of 1877 resolve those issues?

  6. What caused the end of the Reconstruction? In particular, why did the majority of Republicans abandon their earlier policy of support for black civil rights and voting in the South?

  7. Describe how the end of Reconstruction led to the loss of black rights and the imposition of the Jim Crow system of segregation in the South.

  8. How did the suppression of blacks through the sharecropping and crop-lien systems depress the economic condition of the South for whites and blacks alike?


CHAPTER 26 - The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution, 1865–1896 (part 1)

  1. Compare the Plains Indians’ history and culture, especially before the coming of the whites, to that of the Iroquois (see Chapter 2). How does this comparison prove the assertion that the cultures of various Indian peoples differed greatly?

  2. Describe the nature of the cultural conflicts and battles that accompanied the white American migration into the Great Plains and the Far West.

  3. Explain the development of federal policy towards Native Americans in the late nineteenth century.

  4. What social, ethnic, environmental, and economic factors made the trans-Mississippi West a unique region among the successive American frontiers?

  5. Analyze the brief flowering and decline of the cattle and mining frontiers, and the settling of the arid West by small farmers increasingly engaged with a worldwide economy.

  6. Summarize Frederick Jackson Turner’s thesis regarding the significance of the frontier in American history and describe its strengths and weaknesses.

  7. How does the myth of the frontier West differ from the actual reality, in the late nineteenth century, and after?

  8. Was the federal government biased against farmers and workers in the late nineteenth century? Why or why not?

  9. Why did landowning small American farmers—traditionally considered by Jefferson, Jackson, and others the backbone of American society—suddenly find themselves trapped in a cycle of debt, deflation, and exploitation in the late nineteenth century? Was their plight due primarily to deliberate economic oppression corporate business, as they saw it, or was it simply an inevitable consequence of agriculture’s involvement in world markets and economy?


CHAPTER 23 - Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age, 1869–1896 (Part 2)

  1. What were the main reasons for Chinese immigration in the second half of the nineteenth century?

  2. Explain the rise of class conflict between business and labor in the 1870s and the growing hostility to immigrants, especially the Chinese.

  3. Explain the economic crisis and depression of the 1890s, and indicate how the Cleveland administration failed to address it.

  4. To what extent did the political leaders of the time address issues of race and sectional conflict, and to what extent did they merely shove them under the rug?

  5. What were the causes and political results of the rise of agrarian protest in the 1880s and 1890s?

  6. Why were the Populists’ attempts to form a coalition of white and black farmers and industrial workers ultimately unsuccessful?

  7. Was the apparent failure of the American political system to address the industrial conflicts and racial tensions of the Gilded Age a result of the two parties’ poor leadership and narrow self-interest, or was it simply the natural inability of a previously agrarian, local, democratic nation to face up to a modern, national industrial economy?


CHAPTER 26 - The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution, 1865–1896 (part 2)

  1. Explain how the growing discontent of the farmers gets transformed into the Populist Party. What are the main objectives of the populist?

  2. Describe how the Populist Party organized to protest their oppression, attempted to forge an alliance with urban workers, and vigorously attacked the two major parties after the onset of the depression of the 1890s.

  3. Describe the Democratic party’s revolt against President Cleveland and the rise of the insurgent William Jennings Bryan’s free silver campaign.

  4. What were the major issues in the crucial campaign of 1896? Why did McKinley win, and what were the long-term effects of his victory?


Unit Schedule (Subject to Change and Additions): Monday/Thursday
MONDAY

TUESDAY

WEDNESDAY

THURSDAY

FRIDAY

12/1
Topic: Industrialism I

PD: In Praise of Mechanization

PD: How to Make a Millionaire


HW: Ch. 24

Ch. 23 – “Class Conflicts”

Ch. 25 – “New Immigration” until “Churches Confront…”

HW: review Ch. 14 – “March of Millions” thru “Antiforeignism,”
12/2

12/3


Quiz Chapter 24
Topic: Immigration

PD: Immigration


HW: Ch. 23 - “Bloody Shirt,” “Era of Good Stealings,”

Ch. 25 – “Urban Frontier,” and “Apostles of Reform” until the end

12/4
Quiz 25


Topic: Urbanization and Culture

PD: Defense of Graft
HW: Ch.23 – “Birth of Jim Crow,”

Ch. 25 - “Lust for Learning”, “Booker T”

12/5


12/8
Topic: The New South

PD: New South


HW: Ch. 26 – stop at “Farmers Take Their Stand”
12/9

12/10 (A)

12/11

Topic: The West



PD: Western Settlement
HW: Ch. 23 – “Depression, Deflation, Inflation,””Palid Politics,” “Cleveland Battles,” till end of ch23.

Ch. 26 – “Farmers Take Their Stand” till end of ch24
12/12

12/15


Quiz 23/26

Topic: Gilded Age Politics and the call for Reform



PD: Cross of Gold
HW: TBA


COMPREHENSIVE FINAL!! (15% of grade)

Key Terms and CH. Questions Due Day of Final
12/16(A)

12/12 (B)

12/13 (A)

12/14 (B)


ENJOY THE BREAK!


Tuesday/Friday



MONDAY

TUESDAY

WEDNESDAY

THURSDAY

FRIDAY

12/1



12/2
Topic: Industrialism I

PD: In Praise of Mechanization

PD: How to Make a Millionaire
HW: Ch. 24

Ch. 23 – “Class Conflicts”

Ch. 25 – “New Immigration” until “Churches Confront…”

HW: review Ch. 14 – “March of Millions” thru “Antiforeignism,”


12/3


12/4



12/5

Quiz Chapter 24
Topic: Immigration

PD: Immigration


HW: Ch. 23 - “Bloody Shirt,” “Era of Good Stealings,”

Ch. 25 – “Urban Frontier,” and “Apostles of Reform” until the end


12/8


12/9

Quiz 25
Topic: Urbanization and Culture

PD: Defense of Graft
HW: Ch.23 – “Birth of Jim Crow,”

Ch. 25 - “Lust for Learning”, “Booker T”


12/10 (A)

Topic: The New South

PD: New South

Topic: The West



PD: Western Settlement

HW: Ch. 23 – “Depression, Deflation, Inflation,””Palid Politics,” “Cleveland Battles,” till end of ch23.

Ch. 26 – all



12/11


12/12

Quiz 23/26

Topic: Gilded Age Politics and the call for Reform



PD: Cross of Gold
HW: TBA



12/15





COMPREHENSIVE FINAL!! (15% of grade)

Key Terms and CH. Questions Due Day of Final
12/16(A)

12/12 (B)



12/13 (A)

12/14 (B)


ENJOY THE BREAK!





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