Ap u. S. History Mr. Hafter Historians' Interpretations of the American Revolution



Download 40.76 Kb.
Date conversion29.04.2016
Size40.76 Kb.

AP U.S. History Mr. Hafter

Historians' Interpretations of the American Revolution



Historians' Interpretations of the American Revolution


Quotations are from Gerald N. Grob and George Athan Billias, Interpretations of American History, 4th Edition, Vol. I, (New York: The Free Press), 1982.


  1. Mercantilism




    1. George Beer (1907) Stresses mutual reciprocity




    1. Charles Andrews (1930s) Supervision and administration of the empire weak and ineffective




    1. Louis Hacker (1936) [The American Revolution] had as its function the release of American merchant and planting capitalism from the fetters of the English Mercantile System." p. 69




    1. Lawrence Harper (1942) "An analysis of the economic effects of British mercantilism fails to establish its exploitive features as the proximate cause of the Revolution." p. 70




    1. Oliver M. Dickerson (1951) Attacks economic interpretation of the Revolution. "It was only after 1763 . . . when the British altered their mercantilist system to raise revenue rather than to control trade within the empire that the colonists began protesting. In the period after the French and Indian War, the dominant motive of British imperialism changed from regulation of trade and commerce to regulation for the sake of revenue and political exploitation." p. 71




    1. Lawrence H. Gipson (1936-70) "The mother country was perfectly justified in levying taxes to pay part of the costs of administering the empire in America. . . . [I]n view of the protection Britain had provided, the taxes imposed upon the American colonists after 1763 were neither excessive nor oppressive." p. 72




    1. Lewis Namier "Parliament's outlook was narrow-minded, factious, and provincial, and its workings were organized around material interests, family connections, and patronage. This situation made it impossible for Parliament to achieve the kind of broad minded, imperial view required for sound policies of empire . . . . Britain could not have produced a viable imperial policy, resolved her quarrel with the colonies, or prevented the loss of her empire." p. 74




    1. Robert Paul Thomas (1965) "Neither the navigation acts nor the new British imperial regulations applied after 1763 imposed any significant economic burden upon America." p. 76









  1. American Revolution




    1. George Beer, Charles Andrews, Lawrence H. Gipson Imperial School 1893-1960s "All three historians believed that constitutional issues lay at the bottom of the dispute between the colonies and the mother country . . . . By the eve of the Revolution, the colonists had arrived at a new concept of empire--colonies as self-governing units within an empire held together only by a common allegiance to the king." p. 105




    1. Progressive School




      1. "[Carl] Becker . . . took the position that the American Revolution should be considered not as one revolution but two. The first was an external revolution . . . caused by a clash of economic interests between the colonies and mother country. The second was an internal revolution--a conflict between America's social classes--to determine whether the upper or lower classes would rule once the British departed . . . . the 'question of home rule' and the 'question . . . of who should rule at home' " pp. 106-7




      1. Charles Beard, "[a]fter an examination of the economic holdings of the framers of the Constitution, advanced his now-famous hypothesis that the events leading to the convention of 1787 mirrored a split in American society--a conflict between the rich and the poor, farmers and merchants, debtors and creditors, and holders of real and paper wealth. More than any other single work written in the Populist-Progressive era, Beard's book caused Progressive historians to view the period between the 1760s and the 1780s as one of continuous conflict between social classes in America over economic matters." p. 107




      1. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr. "went on to comment about the increasing dread of class conflict once independence was declared . . . . [T]he merchants drew together again in the late 1780s to found a new government that would safeguard their class interests. Once united the merchant class became . . . 'a potent factor in the conservative counterrevolution that led to establishment of the United States Constitution.' To Schlesinger, the Constitution was the antithesis of the Revolution." pp. 107-8




    1. Neoconservative School "The Revolution was basically a conservative movement . . . in order to preserve a social order that was already democratic in colonial days. When British reforms after 1763 threatened to upset the existing democratic social order in America, the colonists rose in rebellion." p. 109




      1. Robert E. Brown . . . set out specifically to challenge the thesis of the Progressive school of historians that the Revolution was, in part, a class conflict over the question of who should rule at home. One of the starting assumptions of the Progressive scholars . . . was that the structure of American society was undemocratic because property qualifications for suffrage prevented many persons from voting. After studying the structure of society in Massachusetts, Brown concluded that the vast majority of adult males in that colony were farmers whose real estate holdings were sufficient to meet the necessary property qualifications for voting. Middle class democracy in Massachusetts before the war was an established fact." p. 109




      1. Daniel Boorstin "Americans were fighting to retain traditional rights and liberties granted to them under the British constitution. . . . In refusing to accept the principle of no taxation without representation [sic], . . . the patriots were insisting upon an old liberty, and not a new right.." pp. 109-10




    1. Bernard Bailyn (1967) "The colonists . . . were convinced that there was a sinister plot against liberty in both England and America . . . . From the American view, then, the British measures after 1763 were nothing less than a widespread plot to rob all Englishmen of their liberties at home and abroad." pp. 112-13

Historians' Interpretations of the American Revolution


Form A
Matching

-------- 1) Louis Hacker A) Navigation acts imposed no economic burden

-------- 2) Robert Paul Thomas B) middle class democracy in Massachusetts

-------- 3) Charles Beard C) release of American capitalism from mercantilist

influence

-------- 4) Robert E. Brown D) British mercantilism not the proximate cause of the

Revolution

-------- 5) Lawrence Harper E) conflict between rich and poor, farmers and

merchants, debtors, and creditors
Historians' Interpretations of the American Revolution
Form B
Matching

-------- 1) Arthur Schlesinger A) release of American capitalism from mercantilist

fetters

--------2) Bernard Bailyn B) after 1763, dominant British motive becomes

revenue

-------- 3) Oliver Dickerson C) Parliament too factious to cope


-------- 4) Lewis Namier D) conspiracy to rob colonists of liberty


-------- 5) Louis Hacker E) Constitution as antithesis of the Revolution




Historians' Interpretations of the American Revolution
Form C
Matching

-------- 1) Lawrence Harper A) Parliament too factious to cope

-------- 2) George Beer B) British mercantilism not the proximate cause of the

Revolution


-------- 3) Oliver Dickerson C) After 1763, dominant British motive becomes revenue


--------4) Robert E. Brown D) middle class democracy in Massachusetts


-------- 5) Lewis Namier E) mutual reciprocity; colonies as self governing units

Historians' Interpretations of the American Revolution
Form D
Matching

-------- 1) Charles Beard A) Americans fought to retain traditional rights

-------- 2) Louis Hacker B) release of American capitalism from mercantilist fetters

-------- 3) Daniel Boorstin C) British mercantilism not the proximate cause of the

Revolution

-------- 4) Robert Paul Thomas D) Conflict between rich and poor, farmers and merchants,

debtors and creditors

-------- 5) Lawrence Harper E) navigation acts imposed no economic burden

Historians' Interpretations of the American Revolution
Form E
Matching

-------- 1) Oliver Dickerson A) navigation acts imposed no economic burden

-------- 2) Arthur Schlesinger B) After 1763, dominant British motive becomes revenue

-------- 3) Robert Paul Thomas C) Americans fought to retain traditional rights


-------- 4) Lawrence Harper D) Constitution as the antithesis of the Revolution


-------- 5) Daniel Boorstin E) British mercantilism not the proximate cause of the

Revolution

Quiz Key
Form A Form D


1) C 1) D

2) A 2) B

3) E 3) A

4) B 4) E

5) D 5) C
Form B Form E
1) E 1) B

2) D 2) D

3) B 3) A

4) C 4) E

5) A 5) C
Form C
1) B

2) E


3) C

4) D


5) A


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page