Ap u. S. History Key Concepts, Events, and People Chapters 4 to 6 Study Guide Chapter 4: American Life in the 17th Century, 1607-1700 lt 4A: Describe the basic economy, demographics, and social structure in the southern colonies



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AP U.S. History

Key Concepts, Events, and People
Chapters 4 to 6

Study Guide

Chapter 4: American Life in the 17th Century, 1607-1700
LT 4A: Describe the basic economy, demographics, and social structure in the southern colonies.

  1. Why was the life expectancy so short for the settlers in the southern colonies?

  2. Why did the population grow so slowly in the 1600s?

  3. Why was family life so difficult during the 1600s?

  4. What were the primary cash crops of the southern colonies?

  5. What impact did an economy based on cash crops have on the colonies?

  6. Why were indentured servants so important to the southern economy?

  7. Explain how both owner and servant benefited from the use of indentured servants?

  8. What difficulties did an indentured servant face during his service?

  9. What difficulties did an indentured servant face at the end of his service?

  10. How did use of the head-right system benefit the colonists of Maryland and Virginia?

  11. Explain what was meant by “first families of Virginia”.

  12. Describe the life of the upper class, wealthy planter class of the South.

  13. What was the largest social group in the South?

  14. What groups made up the lower classes in the hierarchy of southern society?


LT 4B: Explain the factors that caused the increasing use of slave labor in the southern colonies.

  1. Why was the number of African slaves small in the early 1600s?

  2. Why were there fewer indentured servants coming to the South in the late 1600s?

  3. Why did the slave trade to America expand in the late 1600s?

  4. Why did African slaves become increasingly profitable in the late 1600s?

  5. Why did former indentured servants attack the government led by Governor Berkeley at Jamestown in1676?

  6. What role did Nathaniel Bacon play in the rebellion?

  7. What were the short-term results of the rebellion?

  8. Why did Bacon’s Rebellion contribute to the increasing use of slave labor?


LT 4C: Describe the character of slavery in the early southern colonies.

  1. Describe the “Middle Passage” of the West African slave trade.

  2. Summarize the harshness and brutality of life as a slave in the 1600s.

  3. Why was life generally harshest on the rice plantations in Georgia and the Carolinas, compared to the tobacco farms of Virginian and Maryland?

  4. What was the economic base of the British West Indies colonies of Jamaica and Barbados?

  5. Why were slave codes used in the West Indies and the southern colonies?

  6. Summarize the basic regulations contained in the slave codes that developed in the American colonies.

  7. Why was organized resistance to slavery, such as in the NYC Slave Revolt in 1712, usually unsuccessful?

  8. What were the results of the Stono Rebellion of 1739?

  9. Give two examples of how slaves preserved elements of African culture in America.


LT 4D: Describe the similarities among the southern colonies of Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina,

and Georgia.

  1. Explain the similarities of the southern colonies in terms of the economic base.

  2. Describe the similarities of the southern colonies in terms of their social hierarchy.

  3. Describe the similarities of the southern colonies in terms of their religion.

  4. Describe the similarities of the southern colonies in terms of their industry and cities.


LT 4E: Describe the basic economy, demographics, and social structure in the New England colonies.

  1. Why was the life expectancy longer in New England than in England and the Southern colonies?

  2. Why were church leaders often the leaders of the New England towns in the 1600s?

  3. In what ways were town meetings politically democratic?

  4. In what way were town meetings politically undemocratic?

  5. What is meant by subsistence farming?

  6. Why was subsistence farming a common occupation in New England?

  7. How were most New England farms self-sufficient?

  8. What were the dominant industries in New England in the 1600s?

  9. Why was the family such a focal point in the lives of people living in New England?

  10. In what ways were women legally subordinate to men?

  11. What was meant by social mobility in the colonies?

  12. Why were literacy rates higher in New England than anywhere else in British North America?

  13. Why was Harvard College founded by the Massachusetts General Court (legislature) in 1636?

  14. Why did girls not attend school?

  15. Why was their less ethnic diversity in New England than other regions of the country?

  16. How did European settlers frequently justify their confiscation of Indian land?


LT 4F: Describe problems that afflicted the New England social order in the late 17th century.

  1. Why were there fewer Puritan church members by the mid-1600s?

  2. What was the purpose of jeremiad sermons?

  3. What was the purpose of Half-way Covenants?

  4. What social and economic factors led to the Salem witch trials in 1692?

  5. What was the impact of the Salem trials on the Puritan Church?


LT 4G: Describe the unique characteristics of the Middle Colonies.

  1. What was meant by the “middle way”?

  2. Why were the Middle Colonies referred to as the “bread basket” colonies?

  3. Why were the Middle Colonies the most ethnically mixed?

  4. What were the dominant industries in the Middle Colonies?

  5. What is meant by the “fall line”?

  6. Why did the settlers of the backcountry frontier frequently disagree with the colonial legislatures?

  7. What were the causes of Leisler’s Rebellion (1689-1691)?

  8. What were the results of Leisler’s Rebellion?


LT 4H: Compare and contrast the central features of the Southern, Middle, and New England colonies.

  1. How were settlers in all thirteen colonies similar in terms of the economy?

  2. How were settlers in all thirteen colonies similar in terms of class distinctions?

  3. How were settlers in all thirteen colonies similar in terms of freedom?

  4. What basic differences existed between the Northern and Southern colonies in terms of family life

  5. What basic differences existed between the Northern and Southern colonies in terms of ethnic diversity?

  6. What basic differences existed between the Northern and Southern colonies in terms of education?

  7. What basic differences existed between the Northern and Southern colonies in terms of local government?


Chapter 5: Colonial Society, 1700-1775
LT 5A: Describe the basic characteristics of the colonial population in the 1700s.

  1. What factor led to the rapid population growth of the British colonies in the 1700s?

  2. Where did most Americans live?

  3. What major role did colonial cities play in society in the 1700s?

  4. Why did many people leave Germany to come to America?

  5. Where did most Germans settle?

  6. Why did many Scots-Irish leave Ireland to come to America?

  7. Where did most of the Scots-Irish settle?

  8. What evidence is given that the Scots-Irish in America were highly individualistic and anti-British?

  9. Why did many French Huguenots come to America?

  10. What was the largest single non-English group in America? Why did they come to America?

  11. What was the most ethnically diverse part of America?

  12. What was the least ethnically diverse?

  13. Why was there more equality and opportunity in America than in Europe?

  14. Why did class distinctions increase in America between 1700 and 1775?

  15. What were some of the visible signs of the differences between the social classes?

  16. What group was on the top of the social pyramid in the 1700s?

  17. What group was on the bottom?

  18. What group was the largest?

  19. What was the most honored profession in the 1700s?

  20. Why were physicians not highly respected at that time?

  21. Why did the prestige of lawyers grow in the late 1700s?


LT 5B: Describe the basic characteristics of the colonial economy during the 1700s.

  1. Why was life in the mid-1700s better for most white colonists than it would have been in Europe?

  2. What was the center of work in the colonial days?

  3. What was the most common occupation of the colonists in the 1700s?

  4. What were the most common crops grown in the South?

  5. In what section of the colonies was fishing and whaling the most important occupation?

  6. What other industries benefited from the fishing and whaling industry?

  7. In what sections of the colonies were coastwise and foreign (commerce) trading dominant?

  8. Describe the triangular trade pattern that developed in the 1600s and 1700s?

  9. What products were manufactured on a small scale in the colonies in the 1700s?

  10. What was the largest manufacturing activity in the colonies at the time?

  11. Explain what is meant by naval stores?

  12. Why were naval stores so important to the British?


LT 5C: Explain the causes of the Great Awakening, and describe its effects on American society.

  1. Explain what is meant by the Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s?

  2. What role did Jonathan Edwards play in the Great Awakening?

  3. What role did George Whitefield play?

  4. What impact did the Great Awakening have on the religious “spirit” of Americans?

  5. Explain the difference between the Old Lights and the New Lights?

  6. What impact did the Great Awakening have on missionary work?

  7. What impact did the Great Awakening have on the interaction of America?

  8. What impact did the Great Awakening have on colleges?

  9. , democracy in religion, missionary work, colleges, and the interaction of Americans?

  10. Why did the Great Awakening increase the “religious spirit” among Americans?


LT 5D: Define established church, identify the major religious denominations in the late 1700s, and indicate their

role in American society.

  1. What is meant by an established church?

  2. In what areas of the country was the Anglican Church established?

  3. In what areas of the country was the Congregational Church established?

  4. What religious groups generally supported the American Revolution?

  5. What group tended to support the British during the Revolution?

  6. In what ways had religious toleration increased since the founding of the English colonies?


LT 5E: Describe the origins and development of education, culture, and journalism in the American colonies.

  1. What group of students generally received the most formal education in the 1700s?

  2. Why was education so important in colonial New England?

  3. What did the Massachusetts public school law called the Old Deluder Law require?

  4. Why did the Southern colonies rely more on private tutors than public schools for education?

  5. What was the purpose of a dame school?

  6. What was the only college not founded by a religious denomination in the 1700s?

  7. Who founded it?

  8. Why was there little concern for artistic efforts in the colonial days?

  9. Name three famous American artists from this time period.

  10. What architectural style was adopted from the Swedes?

  11. What architectural style was adopted from the British?

  12. What contributions to American literature were made by Phillis Wheatly?

  13. What contributions to American literature were made by Ben Franklin?

  14. What contributions to American science were made by Ben Franklin?

  15. Who started the first privately-supported circulating library in America? Where?

  16. Why was John Peter Zenger arrested and put on trial for seditious libel?

  17. What was the result of the Zenger trial?

  18. What was the significance of the Zenger trial for freedom of the press?




LT 5F: Describe the basic features of colonial governments, including the role of various officials and political

institutions.

  1. In what ways were colonial governments similar to Britain’s?

  2. How were colonial governors chosen in a self-governing colony?

  3. How were colonial governors chosen in a proprietary colony?

  4. How were colonial governors chosen in a royal colony?

  5. What basic powers and responsibilities did the governor have?

  6. What was the purpose of colonial legislatures?

  7. What groups made up the Upper House or Council of the legislature?

  8. How were the members of the Upper House chosen?

  9. How were members of the Lower House or Assembly chosen?

  10. What was meant by the power of the purse?

  11. Where was the town meeting the most common type of local government?

  12. Why was the town meeting often a direct form of democracy?

  13. Where was the county government the most important type of local government?

  14. What types of officials were common in county governments?

  15. What general requirements were there to vote by 1775?

  16. In what ways was America considered more democratic than Britain?


LT 5G: Explain the conflicts between the frontier settlers and the established colonial governments in the Regulator

Movement and the Paxton Revolt of the late 1700s.

  1. What was the purpose of the Regulator movement in the Carolinas in the 1760s?

  2. What was the outcome of the Regulator movement in South Carolina?

  3. What was the outcome of the Regulator movement in North Carolina?

  4. Why did the “Paxton Boys” march on Philadelphia in 1764?

  5. What role did Ben Franklin play in settling the disputes of the Paxton rebels?


LT 5H: Describe key qualities of daily existence in the 1700s, including forms of socialization and recreation.

  1. Why was daily life in the colonies difficult?

  2. Why did the Puritans disapprove of Christmas as a holiday in colonial times?

  3. What forms of amusement were common in the North? In the South?


Chapter 6: The Duel for North America, 1608-1763
LT 6A: Describe the basic characteristics of the Spanish Empire in North America and its conflicts with the British

settlements.

  1. What was the extent of the Spanish colonies in the New World in the 1700s?

  2. Where did most of the conflicts between the Spanish and British settlers in America occur?


LT 6B: Describe the exploration and development of New France, and compare New France with Britain’s colonies in North America.

  1. Why was France a “latecomer” to colonization in the New World?

  2. Who were the Huguenots?

  3. What two changes occurred in France that encouraged French colonization in North America in the 1600s?

  4. What regions were explored by French explorer Samuel de Champlain?

  5. What regions were explored by French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet

  6. What regions were explored by French explorer Robert de La Salle?

  7. Why was Robert de La Salle’s colonizing mission in 1685 a failure?

  8. In what region did the French build forts, missions, settlements, and trading posts?

  9. Why did the French establish the settlement of New Orleans in 1718?

  10. Why did many French settlers become active in the fur trade in North America?

  11. What role did the coureurs de bois and voyageurs play in the French fur trade?

  12. What impact did the fur trappers have on the French settlement of North America?

  13. Why was the government of New France considered autocratic?

  14. What were three reasons why the French colonies in the North America grew so slowly?

  15. Why did the French generally have better relations with the Indians than the British?

  16. Explain three problems that resulted from the Indians’ contacts with the French.


LT 6C: Explain how Britain’s American colonies became involved in the mother country’s wars with France.

  1. Why did England, Spain, and France fight four world wars between 1688 and 1763?

  2. In what ways were Americans impacted by King William’s War from 1688 to1697?

  3. In what ways were Americans impacted by Queen Anne’s War from 1701 to 1713?

  4. Why did Britain declare war on Spain in 1739, leading to what became known as the “War of Jenkin’s Ear?

  5. In what ways were Americans impacted by the War of Jenkin’s Ear?

  6. In what ways were Americans impacted by King George’s War from 1740 to 1748?

  7. Why were Americans upset with the peace treaty signed in 1748 that ended the War of Austrian Succession?


LT 6D: Describe the causes of the French and Indian War and the role that Americans played in that war.

  1. What caused the French and English to argue over land claims in the Ohio River Valley?

  2. Why did the French begin to build a series of forts and trading posts on the Ohio River in the early 1750s?

  3. Why did the governor of Virginia send George Washington to Fort Duquesne in 1754?

  4. What early conflict between the French and the English marked the official start of the French and Indian War?

  5. Why did Washington build Fort Necessity?

  6. What were the results of the Battle of Fort Necessity?

  7. What was the purpose of the Albany Congress which met in June 1754?

  8. What were three results of the meeting of the Albany Congress?

  9. Explain Ben Franklin’s Albany Plan of Union which was debated by the delegates at the Albany Congress.

  10. Why did the American colonies reject the Albany plan?

  11. Why did the English Parliament reject the plan?

  12. How was the French and Indian War different from the first three world wars which involved the French and English?

  13. Why was the French and Indian War (a.k.a. Seven Year War) considered a world war?

  14. Why did British General Braddock lose the Battle of the Monongahela in 1755?

  15. What role did George Washington play in defending America’s western frontier in the French and Indian War?

  16. What four changes did the new British Prime Minister William Pitt make that helped the British begin to win the war?

  17. What major battlefield victories did the British have in 1758 and 1759?

  18. How did British General Wolfe get in position to fight the French General Montcalm in Quebec in 1759?

  19. What were the results of the Battle of Quebec?

  20. What major battlefield victories did the British have in 1760 and 1761?

  21. What were three main terms of the Treaty of Paris which officially ended the French and Indian War?




LT 6E: Explain the consequences of the British/American victory in the French and Indian War and explain how it

became one of the causes of the American Revolution.

  1. What impact did the French and Indian War have on US military confidence?

  2. What impact did the French and Indian War have on relations between British and American soldiers?

  3. What actions by Americans showed a lack of support for Britain during the French and Indian War?

  4. What were the writs of assistance?

  5. Why did the British use writs of assistance during the French and Indian War?

  6. Why did the French and Indian War encourage a colonial spirit of independence?

  7. What financial problems did Britain face at the end of the French and Indian War?

  8. How did the British decide to raise money to help pay their financial debt from the war?











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