Ap u. S. History Chapter 3: Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619–1700 Focus Question



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AP U.S. History

Chapter 3: Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619–1700
Focus Question
In the 17th century, New England Puritans tried to create a model society. What were their aspirations, and to what degree were those aspirations fulfilled during the 17th century?
Learning Objectives


  • Describe the Puritans and their beliefs, and explain why they left England for the New World.

  • Explain how the Puritans’ theology shaped the government and society of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

  • Explain how Massachusetts Bay’s conflict with religious dissenters, as well as new economic opportunities, led to the expansion of New England into Rhode Island, Connecticut, and elsewhere.

  • Describe the conflict between colonists and Indians in New England and the effects of King Philip’s War.

  • Summarize early New England attempts at intercolonial unity and the consequences of England’s Glorious Revolution in America.

  • Describe the founding of New York and Pennsylvania, and explain why these two settlements as well as the other middle colonies became so ethnically, religiously, and politically diverse.

  • Describe the central features of the middle colonies, and explain how they differed from New England and the southern colonies.


Questions
The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism

  1. What were the major tenets of Calvinism?


The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth

  1. What religious turmoil in the Old World resulted in the little colony of Plymouth in the New World?

  2. Who were the Separatists, and why did they break away?

  3. Why did the Separatists who fled to Holland eventually settle in the New World?

  4. What is the major significance of the Mayflower Compact?

  5. How successful was the colony founded by the Pilgrims at Plymouth?


The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth

  1. Did the Puritans really come to America seeking religious freedom?

  2. What did Massachusetts governor John Winthrop mean when he said, "We shall be as a city upon a hill"?


Building the Bay Colony

  1. What was the single most important qualification for voting in the Massachusetts Bay Colony?

  2. Why was the initial and subsequent colonization of the Massachusetts Bay Colony more successful than Plymouth?

  3. How did the colony of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colony contribute to the origins of American independence and government?


Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth

  1. How did the Puritans reconcile their own religious dissent from the Church of England with their persecution of dissenters like Hutchinson and Williams? Does their outlook make them hypocrites?


The Rhode Island "Sewer"

  1. Why are both Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams considered heroes today?


Puritans Versus Indians

  1. How did Indians resist encroachment on their lands?


Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence
Andros Promotes the First American Revolution

  1. What was the Dominion of New England?

  2. What events led to the undoing of the Dominion of New England?

  3. What were the contributions to American independence and government from the New England Confederation, the Dominion of New England, and the Glorious Revolution?

  4. Was an American Revolution, separating the colonies from England, inevitable after the Glorious Revolution had encouraged colonists to end the Dominion of New England, England’s serious attempt at enforcing royal authority?

  5. Did England’s “salutary neglect” contribute to future problems in its empire?

  6. How might have England been able to successfully enforce its rule on the colonies without causing rebellion?


Old Netherlanders at New Netherland

  1. Dutch colonization efforts in New Amsterdam most closely resembled English colonization efforts in which region: New England, the middle colonies, or the southern colonies?


Friction with English and Swedish Neighbors

  1. The Dutch had a powerful presence in the East Indies, so why were they less successful in the West Indies and North America?

  2. Besides England, what other nations influenced the colonization of the Atlantic coast of North America?

  3. How did different events in England affect the New England and middle colonies in the New World?


Dutch Residues in New York

  1. How did the Dutch colony of New Netherland become the English colony of New York?

  2. What is the lasting influence of the Dutch in English North America?


Penn's Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania

  1. What were the aspects of Pennsylvania that made it different from the other colonies from the very start?

  2. What do the Mayflower Compact, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, and First Frame of Government in Pennsylvania have in common?


Quaker Pennsylvania and its Neighbors

  1. How were government and religion—or church and state—related in New England and the middle colonies?

  2. How does the colonial view of church-state relations compare with more recent understandings?

  3. How did the colonization of Pennsylvania differ from the New England colonies and other middle colonies?


The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies

  1. What role did religious intolerance play in the founding of New England colonies other than Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay and in the founding of some middle colonies?

  2. How does the founding of the New England colonies compare with the origin of the middle colonies?

  3. In what ways were New England and the middle colonies each like the South, and in what ways were they different?

  4. In what ways were the middle colonies more open and diverse than New England? In what ways were they less democratic?

  5. Which was the most affected and least affected by events in the Old World: New England, middle colonies, or southern colonies?

  6. What were the push and pull factors for immigrants coming to each region of English colonies (New England, the middle colonies, and the southern colonies)?

  7. What did the middle colonies--New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania--all have in common?

  8. How did blue laws affect life in the various colonies?


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