Ap human geography



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AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE: Units 1-3  CHAPTERS 1-7
ATTENTION! You are expected to complete this final exam study guide to assist you for preparation for our semester final exam. Mr. Powell, Mr. Mackey and Mrs. Mosquera developed this study guide so you can isolate the important information to aid your studying. There will be 125 multiple-choice questions on the final exam. Remember final exams are worth 20% of your final grade; therefore, you need to take time & prepare.
Directions: Be familiar with the following questions because they will aide you in preparing for the final exam.

UNIT 1: Its Nature and Perspectives – CHAPTER 1: THINKING GEOGRAPHICALLY


  1. Define the following terms/concepts: scale, projection, distortion, topography, cartography, toponym, cultural landscape, density, concentration, hearth, environmental determinism, possibilism, distance decay, and environmental geography.

  2. Know the different types and kinds of scale.

  3. Be able to contrast the differences between remote sensing, GIS, and GPS.

  4. Examine how site and situation differ.

  5. Be familiar with the different types of regions (functional, formal, and vernacular).

  6. Know the differences that exist in diffusion: relocation, expansion – stimulus, contagious, hierarchical

  7. Examine globalization and how it affects culture and the economy.

  8. Be familiar with the types and projections of maps


UNIT 2: POPULATION – CHAPTER 2: POPULATION

  1. Be ready to interpret information, examine global trends (MDC vs. LDC), and define the following terms/concepts: crude birth rate, life expectancy, infant mortality rate, natural increase rate, crude death rate, dependency rate, S-curve, and population pyramid(s).

  2. In regards to population, know critical demographics including: top 3 most populated countries, top 4 most populated regions, urban populated regions, and where the extremes of life expectancy exist.

  3. Be able to define and dictate major observations when examining the following concepts: arithmetic density, agricultural density, and physiological density.

  4. Know the significance, stages, as well as all the pertinent information regarding the DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL. Examine historical trends that contributed to the different stages. Finally, examine how MDCs/LDCs have advanced in stages of the demographic transition model.

  5. What was Thomas Malthus’s theory and concern about population?

  6. Examine trends in birth control and LDCs; birth control and MDCs.

  7. Know the stages of the epidemiological transition.


UNIT 2: POPULATION – CHAPTER 3: MIGRATION

  1. Define the following terms/concepts: migration, mobility, intervening obstacle, fortified barrier (and examples), push factor, pull factor, voluntary and forced migration, brain drain, U.S. Center of population, interregional and intraregional migration, counterurbanization, suburbanization, cyclic movement, periodic movement, chain migration, Rust Belt, Sun Belt, chain migration, and transhumance.

  2. Examine historical trends in migration including:
    a. Southeast Asia migration f. Brazilian government encouraging migration
    b. African-American interregional migration g. peaks and regions from Europe
    c. Largest legal immigrants arriving to the U.S.
    d. major reason why millions of Europeans faced forced migration
    e. when migrants traveled from Asia and Latin America to the U.S.

  3. Be able to describe Ravenstein’s beliefs and trends in migration.

  4. Know what a guest worker is and describe major trends involving guest workers.

  5. Be familiar with the concept of (and example of) the gravity model.

UNIT 3: CULTURAL PATTERNS AND THE PROCESS – CHAPTER 4: CULTURE



  1. Define the following terms/concepts: distance decay, rapid diffusion and culture, customs, hearth, assimilation, acculturation, and cultural geography.

  2. Be able to define and clearly explain major differences and impact that exist in folk and popular culture.

  3. Be familiar with the differences between material and non-material cultural components.

UNIT 3: CULTURAL PATTERNS AND THE PROCESS – CHAPTER 5: LANGUAGE



  1. Define the following terms/concepts: literary tradition, pidgin language, creolized language, ideogram, dialects, toponym, and isogloss.

  2. Be ready to define and distinguish differences/examples for the following concepts: language family, language branch, language group, how new languages emerge, major language families, lingua franca, and trade language.

  3. Examine major demographical trends regarding language including: English, Icelandic, Mandarin, Hebrew, Swahili, African colonies reaching independence, multilingual and monolingual.

  4. Describe the differences that exist and major components in the following theories:
    a. Marija Gimbutas
    b. Colin Renfrew

  5. Be familiar with the major components of dialect.

UNIT 3: CULTURAL PATTERNS AND THE PROCESS – CHAPTER 6: RELIGION



  1. Define the following terms/concepts: branch, sect, denomination, universalizing religion, ethnic religion, polytheism, monotheism, hierarchical religion, Diaspora, secularism, fundamentalism, and syncretism

  2. Examine major demographical trends regarding religion including: universalizing and ethnic religions, physical environment and religion.

  3. Be prepared to answer questions regarding the following religions: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Animists, Confucianism, Daoism, Judaism, and Sikhism

  4. Examine major concerns/conflicts in global religions including: Palestinians, Taliban

UNIT 3: CULTURAL PATTERNS AND THE PROCESS – CHAPTER 7: ETHNICITY



  1. Define the following terms/concepts: race, ethnicity, nationality, self-determination, nation-state, cultural diversity, and racism.

  2. Be familiar with the concepts of centripetal and centrifugal forces as it pertains to Human Geography – including examples.

  3. Be familiar with the concept of Apartheid and the events that occurred in South Africa.

  4. Be familiar with the concept of blockbusting, white flight, and balkanization.

  5. Be familiar with the statistical ranking and locations of the various ethnic groups within the United States.

  6. List the various ways that human geographers describe the distribution of ethnicities within the United States.

  7. Be familiar with ethnic conflicts in South Asia, Southwest Asia

  8. Be familiar with the two U.S. Supreme Court cases Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education.



FINAL EXAM ADVICE:

1. Study older chapters first and for longer duration of time.

2. Make a game plan.

3. Develop an answer key using this information.



4. STUDY IN MULTIPLE SETTINGS!

5. Remember you never know a concept, theme, etc. unless you know all aspects about it!


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