Ap exam: test taking tips

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The Multiple Choice Section

1. Read the question slowly. Every word in the stem is important. Skipping one word could change the question’s intent and meaning completely. Underlining or circling key words may be helpful.

2. Eliminate bad choices. Read through all of the answers and cross off the ones that are sure to be incorrect.

3. To guess or not to guess. Answering a question correctly gives you one point. You do not lose any points for an incorrect answer.

4. Skipping questions. Skip the question, marking it with a dash or circle and returning to it after answering the rest of the questions. Don’t spend too much time on one question if you are not sure. It makes you frustrated, and may prevent you from getting to questions that you know and are easier.

5. No.2 Pencil. Make sure you have several number two pencils for the exam.

The Free-Response Section

1. This is not an essay. You do not need to write an introduction, body, and conclusion. There is no need to restate the question. There is no need for an introduction. You should read the question and proceed directly to answering all of its parts.

2. Teach students the exam’s multiple-step format. Most free-response questions are in a multiple-step format with parts (a), (b), (c), and so on. Write A in the exam booklet and proceed to answer the question. When you move on to part (b), follow the same procedure. To make it easy for the AP Readers, skipping lines is acceptable.

3. Read completely and prepare before writing. Read through the entire question and take the time to get yourself organized. Many students feel pressured during the test and rush to finish, which usually has a negative impact on your answer. Preparing and planning an answer in advance of writing it is extremely important and will help you develop a more organized and well thought out response.

4. Read all three questions first. Take a few minutes to read through all the questions, underline key words, and make a brief outline/sketch or jot down key ideas. Spending the time doing this in the beginning will make it easier once you start actually writing your answer.

5. Underline key words. As you are reading/dissecting a question, identify the most important word(s) in the question. Be aware for words/phrases such as:

- Numbers: “Identify THREE things”

- Geographic Regions: “In SOUTHEAST ASIA”

- Action Verbs: “Briefly IDENTIFY” or “DESCRIBE using TWO examples”

6. Use blue or black ink. Pencils are sometimes difficult to read and you want the readers to be able to easily read your responses. You don’t want to do anything that makes this more difficult. Make sure you bring more than one just in case.

7. Write Legibly. Again, you want to make it as easy as possible for the readers to understand your response. If they can’t read it, how can they grade it?


Chapter 1 Chapter 8

1. Everything! 1. Concept of “state”

2. Shapes of states/types of boundaries

3. Federal v. Unitary governments

Chapter 2 Chapter 9

1. Population Concentrations 1. Key Issue 1

2. CBR, NIR, CDR, TFR 2. MDC/LDC regions (where are the

3. Demographic Transition located?)

3. Population Pyramids 3. Self-Sufficiency vs. Int’l Trade

4. Malthus 4. Fair Trade

5. Epidemiological Transition

Chapter 3 Chapter 10

1. Reasons for migration 1. Origins

2. Key Issue 2 2. 3 Revolutions

3. Types and Locations

4. Von Thunen

Chapter 4 Chapter 11

1. Popular vs. Folk Culture 1. Location of Industrialized nations

2. Diffusion/Globalization of culture 2. Key Issue 2

3. Influence of pop/folk culture 3. New Industrial regions

on the environment (uniform landscapes) 4. Key Issue 4

4. Problems caused by globalization of culture

Chapter 5 Chapter 12

1. Location of languages - so recent I would study it, but not as

2. Family, branch, dialect… much as the first 11 chapters

3. Globalization of English/preserving local languages

Chapter 6

1. Location of Religions/Diffusion

2. Impact on culture/environment (architecture, Chapter 13

Calendar, use of space, diet…) - so recent I would study it, but not as

3. Religious conflicts much as the first 12 chapters

Chapter 7 Chapter 14

1. Location of ethnicities - so recent I would study it, but not as

2. Ethnicity vs. race much as the first 12 chapters

3. Migration Patterns

4. Nation, nation-states, nationalism (KI2)

5. Ethnic cleansing


Chapter 1 Chapter 8

1. Time Zones – p.19 1. Fertile Crescent – p.261

2. Climate Regions – p.26

Chapter 2 Chapter 9

1. Population Distribution – p.48 1. HDI – p.293

2. Demographic Transition – p.58 2. GDP – p.294

3. Population Pyramids – 63 3. Sectors - p.295

4. World Regions – p.301

5. GDI – p.310

Chapter 3 Chapter 10

1. Migration Patterns – pp.88,89,90,93 (both),97 1. Hearths – pp.330-331

2. Climate and Vegetation –pp.336-337

3. Von Thunen – p.350

Chapter 4 Chapter 11

1. Pig production – p.123 1. Manufacturing – p.367

2. Burials – p.125 2. Hearth of the IR – p.368

3. Uniform Landscapes – p.139 3. Auto Alley – p.376

Chapter 5 Chapter 12

1. Kurgan Migration – p.160 1. Types of Settlements – pp.404-405

2. Language Families – pp.162-165 2. CPT – p.406

3. Rank Size – p.411

Chapter 6 Chapter 13

1. Religions – pp.184-185 1. Urban Areas – p.433

2. Religions in U.S. – 187 2. Models – p.439-440

3. Holy Sites – figure 6-10 on p.198; Varanasi – p.199 3. Peripheral Model – p.452

Chapter 7 Chapter 14

1. African-American Migration Patterns – p.226 1. Coal and Petroleum – pp.470-471


1. Equal Area Projection – p.9

2. Mercator Projection – Preserves accurate compass direction, distorts the area of landmasses relative to each other. Landmasses become increasingly distorted in size (larger) near latitudes closer to the poles. (p.505)

3. Peters Projection – A cylindrical projection that retains accurate size of all landmasses. Shows how large landmasses near the equator are.

4. Fuller Projection – Maintains accurate size and shape of landmasses but does not maintain accurate cardinal directions.

5. Robinson Projection – Does not maintain accurate shape, distance, or direction but minimizes errors in each. Frequently used by groups such as National Geographic. (p.507)

6. Azimuthal Projection – These are planar, formed when a flat piece of paper is placed on top of the globe and light source projects the surrounding areas onto the map. Either the north or south pole is oriented at the center of the map as if you are looking down on the earth.

7. Large vs. Small scale maps – p.9

8. Resolution – A map’s smallest discernible unit; the smallest thing you can see on a map. For example, of something needs to be 100 meters long to show up on the map, then that map’s resolution is 100 meters.

9. Reference Maps – Work well for locating and navigating between places.

10. Thematic Maps – Display one or more variables (such as language) across a specific space.

11. Topographic Maps – show great detail of physical features and include elevation.

12. Dot Maps – Use points (dots) to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences (such as crimes).

13. Choropleth Maps – Use colors or shadings to represent categories of data for a given geographic area.

14. Menntal Map/Cognitive Maps – p.22

15. Coordinate system – pp.17-20

16. Meridians – pp. 17-20

17. Parallels – pp.17-20

18. Isoline – Used on topographic maps. Each isoline represents a constant elevation.

19. Cartography – p.6,9,15

20. Projection – p.9

21. Map – p.5


First Agricultural Revolution – see p.58 in text

Second Agricultural Revolution – read below

The Second Agricultural Revolution, or The British Agricultural Revolution, describes a period of agricultural development in Britain between the 18th century and the end of the 19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. This in turn supported unprecedented population growth, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, and thereby helped drive the Industrial Revolution. How this came about is not entirely clear. In recent decades, enclosure, mechanization, four-field crop rotation, and selective breeding have been highlighted as primary causes, with credit given to relatively few individuals.


Enclosure is the term used in England and Wales for the process by which arable farming in open field systems was ended. It is also applied to the process by which some commons (a piece of land owned by one person, but over which other people could exercise certain traditional rights, such as allowing their livestock to graze upon it), were fenced (enclosed) and deeded or entitled to one or more private owners, who would then enjoy the possession and fruits of the land to the exclusion of all others.


Jethro Tull made the first advancements in agricultural technology with his seed drill (1701)—a mechanical seeder which distributed seeds efficiently across a plot of land. However, he was not the first to invent a seed drill and it took a while to catch on because he was eccentric. It took a century after the publication in 1731 of his Horse hoeing husbandry for farmers to widely adopt the technology. Jethro Tull also invented the horse-drawn hoe

Joseph Foljambe's Rotherham plough of 1730, while not the first iron plough, was the first iron plough to have any commercial success, combining an earlier Dutch design with a number of technological innovations. Its fittings and coulter were made of iron and the mouldboard and share were covered with an iron plate making it lighter to pull and more controllable than previous ploughs. It remained in use in Britain until the development of the tractor. It was followed by John Small of Doncaster and Berwickshire in 1763, whose 'Scots Plough' used an improved cast iron shape to turn the soil more effectively with less draft, wear, or strain on the ploughing team.[1]

Andrew Meikle's threshing machine of 1786 was the final straw for many farm laborers, and led to the 1830 agricultural rebellion of Captain Swing (a mythical character).

In the 1850s and '60s John Fowler, an agricultural engineer and inventor, produced a steam-driven engine that could plough farmland more quickly and more economically than horse-drawn ploughs. His ploughing engine could also be used to dig drainage channels, thereby bringing into cultivation previously unused swampy land. Although faster than horse-drawn ploughing, the capital costs of a pair of engines would often be too much for a single farmer to purchase for his own exclusive use, which lead to the development of an independent contracting industry for ploughing.

Four Field Crop Rotation

During the Middle Ages, the open field system had employed a four year crop rotation, with a different crop in each of the three fields, eg. wheat and barley in two, with the third fallow. 'Fallow' is a term which means that the field is empty, there is nothing growing there. Over the following two centuries, the regular planting of nitrogen-rich legumes in the fields which were previously to fallow slowly increased the fertility of croplands. The planting of legumes (leguminosae, plants of the pea/bean family) helped to increase plant growth in the empty field because they used a different set of nutrients to grow than the grains. The legumes put back nutrients the grains used, nitrates produced from nitrogen in the atmosphere, and the grains put back the minerals the legumes used. In a way, they fed each other. When the pastures were brought back into crop production after their long fallow, their fertility was much greater than they had been in medieval times. The farmers in Flanders (current day Belgium), however, discovered a still more effective four-field rotation system, introducing turnips and clover to replace the fallow year. Clover was both an ideal fodder crop, and it actually improved grain yields in the following year (clover is part of the pea family, leguminosae). The improved grain production simultaneously increased livestock production. Farmers could grow more livestock because there was more food, and manure was an excellent fertilizer, so they could have even more productive crops. Charles Townshend learned the four field system from Flanders and introduced it to Great Britain in 1730.

Selective Breeding

In England, Robert Bakewell and Thomas Coke introduced selective breeding (mating together two animals with particularly desirable characteristics), and inbreeding (to stabilize certain qualities) in order to reduce genetic diversity in desirable animals programs from the mid 18th century. These methods proved successful in the production of larger and more profitable livestock.

Third Agricultural Revolution (Green Revolution) – see your class notes, also in Chapter 10 notes on teacher site.



Changing attributes of place

built landscape - those features and patterns reflecting human occupation

and use of natural resources

sequent occupance - the notion that successive societies leave their cultural

imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative

cultural landscape

Dispersion (concentration)

dispersed/scattered - characterized by a low density and a wide spacing of units

agglomerated – characterized by a closely packed density and

clustered spacing of units

Spatial interaction

accessibility - the ability to reach a place with respect to another place

connectivity - the degree of direct linkage between one particular

location and other locations in a transport network

network - the entire regional system of transportation connections

and nodes through which movement can occur

friction of distance - quantity of interaction will decline with distance, because

distance usually requires some amount of effort, money,

and/or energy to overcome; spatial interactions tend to

take place more often over shorter distances

Age distribution - Population growth based on the age of the population.

When drawn as a population pyramid, it can provide clues

to the patterns of growth.

Carrying capacity - The number of living organisms an ecosystem/environment

can support without negative effects.

Cohort - A population of people who are grouped together due to a

commonality or significant event. These groups are

commonly five-year periods when studying demographics.

Demographic equation - A formula for measuring population change.

Birth minus deaths (natural increase) plus net migration.

Demographic momentum - The ability for a population to continue expanding despite

reproductive rates being reduced

Demographic regions - Areas of the world grouped and divided based on

population data.

J-curve - The line showing population growth over time, where time

is the x-axis, and total population is the y-axis.

Natality - Birth; birth rate.

S-curve - A graph of population growth that produces a

characteristic curve because the population increases

rapidly until it reaches the carrying capacity where it

begins to decelerate and stabilize.

Underpopulation - The idea or concept that the population may be too small to

efficiently use the resources available. It is usually when a

country's population has declined too much to support its

current economic system.

Activity space - Area in which regular, cyclical human activity takes place.

The magnitude of activity space varies greatly from


Personal space - The region/area surrounding each person (or group of

people), which if entered by another person (or group) creates uneasiness or friction.

Place utility - The level of satisfaction that a person (or group) considers

to be attainable at a given location.

Cultural adaptationChanging one’s belief systems, attitudes, languages, social relationships, institutions, and material goods transmitted within a society

Cultural core/periphery patternThe contrasting spatial characteristics of, and linkage between, the have (core) and have-not (periphery) components of a national or regional system

Innovation adoption - Study of how why and at what rate new technology spreads throughout a culture

Maladaptive diffusion - Diffusion of a process with negative side effects or what works well in one region may not in another

Sequent occupanceThe notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape

Anglo-American landscape characteristicsTraits of an area that are common to people of mixed English and American influence or heritage, or those parts of or groups within the Americas which have a tie to or which are influenced by England

Built environment – the parts of an area that are man made

Material culture - objects made or modified by man reflect, consciously or unconsciously, directly or indirectly, the beliefs of the individuals who made, commissioned, purchased, or used them and, by extension, the beliefs of the larger society to which they belonged

Nonmaterial culture - The products of collective human activity that have no physical reality, including symbols, language, music, beliefs, values, norms, and attitudes

Trade language - A language, especially a pidgin, used by speakers of different native languages for communication in commercial trade

Cargo cult pilgrimage - believe western goods have been traded to them by ancestral spirits. It takes place in Melanesia

Exclave - A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state.

EnclaveA piece of a territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which it is not a part

Fundamentalism - The strict adherence to a particular doctrine

Geomancy (feng shui) - is a method of prediction that interprets markings on the ground, or how handfuls of dirt land when someone tosses them. The Arabic tradition consists of sketching sixteen random lines of dots in sand.

Interfaith boundaries - the boundaries between the world's major faiths, such as Christianity, Muslim, and Buddhism. This isn’t the same as Intrafaith boundaries which describes the boundaries within a major religion. .

Secularism - The idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife.

TheocracyA state whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided or under the control of a group of religious leaders.

Barrio - a Spanish word meaning district or neighborhood. The word has come into use in English mostly through the large Hispanic populations on both coasts of the United States.

Plural societyA society composed of numerous ethnic groups

Social distance - the distance between different groups of society which includes all differences such as social class, race/ethnicity or sexuality, but also the fact that the different groups do not mix

Dowry death - the deaths of young women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husbands and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry

Enfranchisement - To endow with the rights of citizenship, especially the right to vote

Gender gapThe difference between levels of health, education, income, opportunity, and participation in politics and public life that exists between males and females.

Infanticide - The practice of killing newborn infants

Longevity gapthe difference in the average length of life between males and females

Maternal mortality rate - The number of maternal deaths related to childbearing divided by the number of live births (or by the number of live births + fetal deaths) in that year

Decolonization - To free (a colony) from dependent status

Devolution -The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government

Domino theory - A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control

EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) - An oceanic zone extending up to 200 nautical miles within which the coastal state can control fishing and other economic activity

Forward capital - In some cases positioned in contested territory as testimony to a country's interest in keeping the territory. In the Case of Brazil, Brazilia was an economic statement of Brazil's intent to economically develop its hinterlands

Geopolitics - A study of the interplay between international political relations and the territorial/environmental context in which they occur

Global commons - that which no one person or state may own or control and which is central to life

Heartland Theory - A Geopolital hypothesis by Halford MacKinder around 1900-1920 that the power that controls the heart of the Eurasian landmass will control the world. He argued that this would give the ruler of this territory unlimited access to the East

Rimland - The outer area of Eurasia. A theory was created that if you controlled the Rimland you would rule the world.

International organization - Separate entity composed of three or more states that forge and association and form an administrative structure for economic benefits

Iron Curtain - often Iron Curtain The military, political, and ideological barrier established between the Soviet bloc and western Europe from 1945 to 1990

Irredentism - advocating the recovery of territory culturally or historically related to one's nation but now subject to a foreign government.

Law of the Sea - United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea AKA UNCLOS, signed by 157 states in 1982, established rights and responsibilities concerning the use of the Earth’s seas and their resources

Manifest destiny - The 19th-century doctrine that the United States had the right and duty to expand throughout the North American continent

National iconography –the identification, description, and the interpretation of nations

Reapportionment - The process of determining representation in politics within a legislative body by creating districts

Regionalism - Political division of an area into partially autonomous regions

Reunification - To cause (a group, party, state, or sect) to become unified again after being divided

Satellite state - political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country

Supranationalism - Ventures involving three or more independent states involving political, economic or cultural cooperation

Territorial disputes - disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states

Territorial morphology (compact, fragmented, elongated, prorupt, perforated)

Territoriality - Attempt of an individual or group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area.

Treaty ports - A port kept open for foreign trade according to the terms of a treaty, especially formerly in China, Korea, and Japan.

UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) – see Law of the Sea

Women’s enfranchisement - To endow women with the rights of citizenship, especially the right to vote.

Aquaculture - the cultivation of aquatic animals and plants, esp. fish, shellfish, and seaweed, in natural or controlled marine or freshwater environments; underwater agriculture

Biotechnology - the use of living organisms or other biological systems in the manufacture of drugs or other products or for environmental management, as in waste recycling: includes the use of bioreactors in manufacturing, microorganisms to degrade oil slicks or organic waste, genetically engineered bacteria to produce human hormones, and monoclonal antibodies to identify antigens

Dairying - an agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese and butter  

Debt-for-nature swap - an agreement between a developing nation in debt and one or more of its creditors. Many developing nations are severely limited by huge debts they have accrued. In a debt for nature swap, creditors agree to forgive debts in return for the promise of environmental protection

Environmental modificationthings such as pesticides, soil erosion, desertification that have an impact on the environment

Extractive industry - made up of the mining, quarrying, dredging, oil and gas extraction industries where things are taken from the environment and used for everyday life

Growing season - the time of year during which a crop grows best

Market gardening - a garden or farm for growing vegetables to be shipped esp. to local or nearby markets

Mineral fuels - fossil source fuels (hydrocarbons) found within the top layer of the earth’s crust.

Planned economy - an agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the government controls both agricultural production and distribution  

Staple grains - rice, corn, beans

Suitcase farm - A farm devoted to specialized fruit, vegetable, or vine crops for sale

Tragedy of the commons” - a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over finite resources between individual interests and the common good

Ancillary Activities – Economic activities that surround and support large scale industries such as shipping and food service.

Core-periphery model – A model of special structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region

Dependency theory - the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former

Foreign direct investment – overseas business investments made by private companies.

Neocolonialism - used by some to describe an indirect form of imperialism where rich countries are able to exert control over poorer countries by using their economic power.

Physical Quality of Life Index - an attempt to measure the quality of life or well-being of a country. The value is a single number derived from basic literacy rate, infant mortality, and life expectancy at age one.

Purchasing power parity – a monetary measurement of development that takes into account what money buys in different countries

World Systems Theory – Theory developed by Immanuel Wallerstein that explains the emergence of a core, periphery, and semi-periphery in terms of economic and political connections first established at the beginning of exploration in the late 15th century and maintained through increased economic access up until the present.

Agglomeration economies - cost savings resulting from location near other firms

Bid rent theory - variations in land rents payable by different users with distance from some point in the market, usually the CBD. Since transport costs rise with distance from the market, rents generally tend to fall correspondingly, but different forms of land use (retail, service, industrial, housing, or agricultural) generate different bid-rent curves

Comparative advantage - explains how trade can benefit all parties involved (countries, regions, individuals and so on), as long as they produce goods with different relative costs.

Cumulative causation - The unfolding of events connected with a change in the economy. These changes apply to a whole set of variables as a consequence of the multiplier effect. Thus, the location of a new factory may be the basis of more investment, more jobs both in that factory and in ancillary and service industries in the area, and have a better infrastructure which would, in turn, attract more industry

Deglomeration - The process of industrial deconcentration in response to tech advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition

Deindustrialization - Process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the new deindustrialized area to shift to a service economy leaving the area to work through a period of high unemploymnent.

Economies of scale - Lower production costs as a result of larger volumes of production

Export processing zone – areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export oriented industries

Fixed costs - expenses that do not change in proportion to the activity of a business

Footloose industry – Manufacturing activities in which cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for determining the location of the firm

Industrial location theory - an industry is located where the transportation costs of raw materials and final product is a minimum

Least-cost Theory - Developed by Alfred Weber as model for location of industrial plants . Theory says costs should be reduced in the following order to minimize costs. 1. transportation 2. labor 3. Agglomeration (locating near like industries to share talents etc

Market orientation - the tendency for an industry to locate near population centersin order to save on transport costs, which usually occurs when the final product is more expensive to transport than the raw materials

Multiplier effect - The expansion of a country's money supply that results from banks being able to lend.

Postindustrial - Emerging mode of production and consumption of the late 20th and early 21st centuries featuring huge transnational corporations and localized agglomerations in telecommunications and technology with enhanced tertiary quaternary sector employment

Specialized economic zones - a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws

Substitution principle - the substitution of a product, service or process to another that is more efficient or beneficial in some way while retaining the same functionality

Variable costs - A cost that fluctuates directly with output changes

Barriadas – Spanish word for slums or run down neighborhoods

Centrality - The degree to which a town serves its surrounding area. This depends on the ease of access to the town and the range of goods and services offered

Commercialization - Final step in new product development when the product developer makes a major marketing commitment to the product. At this stage the product developer implements a total marketing plan and works toward production capacity

Decentralization - spontaneous movement away from the cities which has been compounded by the increasing locational freedom of shops, offices, and industries to move to out-of-town shopping centers, office parks, and industrial estates, respectively, together with the increase in numbers of white-collar workers and the consequent rise in incomes, and mass car ownership

Employment structure - the organization and proportions of the various job types and skill levels in an enterprise or economy

Entrepôt - A place where goods are stored or deposited and from which they are distributed or a trading market or center

Favela - A shantytown or slum, especially in Brazil.

Gateway city - Airport or seaport that serves as the entry point to a country by being the primary arrival and departure point

Hydraulic civilization - according to the theories of the German-American historian Karl A. Wittfogel, any culture having an agricultural system that is dependent upon large-scale government-managed waterworks—productive (for irrigation) and protective (for flood control).

In-filling - The use of vacant land and property within a built-up area for further construction or development, especially as part of a neighborhood preservation or limited growth program

Informal sector - economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's Gross National Product (GNP); as opposed to a formal economy

Inner city - The usually older, central part of a city, especially when characterized by crowded neighborhoods in which low-income, often minority groups predominate

Lateral commuting - Commuting between two suburbs

Office park - An area in which a number of office buildings are constructed together, often on landscaped grounds with ancillary structures such as those housing health clubs and day-care centers

Peak land value intersection - the region within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce

Planned communities - a residential district that is designed for a certain class of residents

Restrictive covenants - An agreement between two or more individuals, incorporated within a deed which stipulates how land may be used. The constraints may include: the specific use to which a property can be put, the location and dimensions of fences, the setback of buildings from the street, the size of yards, the type of architecture, the cost of the house, etc.

Slum - A heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor.

Urban heat island - a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surroundings. The temperature difference usually is larger at night than during the day and larger in winter than in summer, and is most apparent when winds are weak. The main cause of the urban heat island is modification of the land surface by urban development

Urban hierarchy - a term that relates to the structure of towns within an area

Supranationalism - Ventures involving three or more independent states involving political, economic or cultural cooperation (example – European Union)

Dependency Theory - the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.

(see http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/depend.htm)

Nomothetic View of Geography – this notion suggests that similarities between places can be explained by using universal laws.

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