Ap european History Unit 8 – Age of Realpolitik, Mass Politics, La Belle Êpoque



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Particularly committed to form and ordered design.

  • Later works became increasingly abstract and nonrepresentational; also moved away from the traditional 3-dimensional perspective toward the 2-dimensional plane.

    • Henri Matisse (1869-1954)

    • Most important French artist of the 20th century

    • Expressionism of a group of painters led by Matisse was so extreme that an exhibition of their work in Paris prompted shocked critics to call the les fauves—“the wild beasts.”

    • Matisse and his followers painted real objects, but their primary concern was the arrangement of color, line, and form as an end in itself.

    • Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) – Spanish

    • Most important artist of the 20th century

    • Founded Cubism in 1907.

    • Les Madamoselle d’Avignon (1907) is considered the first cubist masterpiece.

    • Cubism (also known as analytical cubism) concentrates on a complex geometry of zigzagging lines and sharply angled, overlapping planes.

    • Picasso worked with Georges Braque (1882-1963) in developing analytical cubism

    • Expressionism: In 1910 came the ultimate stage in the development of abstract, nonrepresentational art.

    • Russian painter, Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944), turned away from nature completely with his non-figural paintings.

    • Colors were used to express emotion and symbolism but not any recognizable form.

    • Imperialism

    • "Old Imperialism": occurred between the 16th and 18th centuries

    • European powers did not usually acquire territory in Africa and Asia but rather built a series of trading stations

    • Portugal established a series of trading posts along the west coast of Africa, India and Indonesia

    • Spice trade

    • First to establish the African slave trade in the New World

    • The Netherlands likewise established trading posts in Indonesia and Ceylon (Sri Lanka)

    • Europeans in Asia respected and frequently cooperated with local rulers in India, China, Japan, Indonesia, and other areas where trade flourished between locals and European coastal trading centers.

    • The New World was the exception

    • Spain established an enormous empire in Central and South America and lay claim to large portions of western North America.

    • Native Americans in Mesoamerica and South America were severely subjugated

    • Portugal established Brazil as a sugar colony and imported massive numbers of slaves from Africa

    • England colonized the east coast of North America (eventually developing into 13 American colonies) and several islands in the Caribbean as sugar colonies

    • France established a colony in modern-day Canada as well as sugar colonies in the Caribbean

    • European Migration

    • Between 1815 & 1932 over 60 million people left Europe

    • Great Britain, Ireland, Italy and Germany saw the largest number of emigrants leave their homelands.

    • Migrants went primarily to European-inhabited areas: North & South America, Australia, New Zealand & Siberia

    • European migration provided further impetus for Western expansion

    • Most emigrants were poor and from rural areas, though seldom from the poorest classes (due to oppressive land policies)

    • Jewish emigrants who went to the U.S. in large numbers were the least likely to return to their homelands due to the persecution of Jews in eastern Europe.

    • New Imperialism

    • Began in 1880s in Africa; earlier in Asia

    • In 1800 Europeans controlled about 7% of the world’s territory; by 1914, they controlled 84%!

    • British Empire controlled about 25% of the world’s population by 1900 and 20% of the world’s territory: “Empire upon which the sun never sets”

    • One could travel around the world by railroad & sea, moving only through British territories

    • Included Australia, Canada, India, colonies in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean

    • Europeans colonized Africa and Asia by using military force to take control of local governments, exploiting local economies for raw materials required by Europe’s growing industry and imposing Western values to benefit the “backwards” colonies.

    • Britain’s control of Egypt in the 1880s became the model for the “New Imperialism”

    • Major causes for the imperialist impulse

    • Search for new markets and raw materials

    • The industrial revolution created a surplus of goods; capitalists sought new markets for goods

    • New markets proved elusive as colonial peoples were too poor to purchase European goods

    • Germany’s trade with its colonies comprised a mere 1% of its total trade internationally

    • France imported more goods from its colonies than it sold to them

    • Examples of raw materials: ivory and rubber in the Congo, diamonds in South Africa, cocoa in Niger, tea in China and Ceylon (Sri Lanka), cotton from India, spices from Indonesia

    • Missionary work

    • Strong current of religious revivalism in the mid-19th century occurred in western Europe.

    • Particularly strong among the middle class

    • New emphasis on spreading Christianity to Africa and Asia.

    • Missionary activities proved far more successful in sub-Saharan Africa than in Asia and Islamic North Africa.

    • Dr. David Livingston: first white man to do humanitarian and religious work in south and central Africa

    • H. M. Stanley found Livingston (whom westerners thought to be dead) and his newspaper reports created European interest in Africa; Stanley sought aid of king of Belgium to dominate the Congo region.

    • New military and naval bases to protect one's interests against other European powers

    • Britain concerned by French & German land grabs in 1880s

    • Those countries might seal off their empires with high tariffs & restrictions; future economic opportunities might be lost forever

    • Increased tensions between the “haves” (e.g. British Empire) and the “have nots" (e.g. Germany & Italy) who came in late to the imperialistic competition.

    • Ideology: nationalism and Social Darwinism

    • Survival of the fittest” ideology (Herbert Spencer) rationalized the conquest of weak countries by stronger more civilized ones

    • Justified military superiority and conquest by the Europeans

    • "White Man's Burden": racist and patronizing view that preached that the “superior” Westerners had an obligation to bring their culture to “uncivilized” peoples in other parts of the world.

    • Sought to protect and improve the lives of non-Europeans

    • This phrase was coined by Rudyard Kipling in his poem by the same name

    • Germany and Russia especially used imperialistic drives to divert popular attention from the class struggle at home and to create a false sense of national unity.

    • The “Scramble for Africa”

    • In 1880, Europeans controlled 10% of Africa; by 1914, controlled all except Liberia & Ethiopia

    • Penetration into the African interior began in the late 1870s when Belgium took control of the Congo

    • Britain’s conquest of Egypt in the early 1880s became the model for the “New Imperialism”

    • The Berlin Conference in 1884-85 established the rules among European powers for carving up Africa

    • The Congo became a colony of Belgium

    • 1879, at the behest of Leopold II, British-American journalist H. M. Stanley established trading stations in the Congo and signed specious treaties with African chiefs that gave Leopold control of the Congo.

    • In 1884-85 the Berlin Conference recognized the region as the “Congo Free State” and as Leopold’s personal possession.

    • The Belgian rulers savagely treated the indigenous peoples in their quest for rubber and ivory

    • The Belgian Parliament, horrified by revelations of atrocities in the Congo, took the personal colony away from Leopold in 1908 and made it a Belgian colony

    • Leopold’s incursion into Congo basin raised the question of the political fate of black Africa (south of the Sahara); as did Britain's conquest of Egypt

    • Britain’s control of Egypt in 1883 became the model for the “New Imperialism”

    • Turkish general Muhammad Ali had made Egypt into a strong and virtually independent state by 1849

    • Egypt's inability to satisfy foreign investors led to control of its finances by France & Britain

    • 1875, Britain bought a significant portion of shares for the Suez Canal and began managing it.

    • In 1883, Britain declared Egypt a protectorate, setting the stage for similar practices by other European powers.

    • Protection of the Suez Canal was a key motive in British occupation of Egypt and its bloody conquest of the Sudan.

    • Britain claimed the protectorate would only be temporary.

    • Technically, Egypt was still part of the Ottoman Empire but Britain actually controlled the country.

    • Egypt remained a protectorate of Great Britain from 1883 until 1956

    • Berlin Conference, 1884-85: established the "rules" for conquest of Africa

    • Provisions:

    • No imperial power could claim a territory in Africa unless it effectively controlled that territory

    • Slavery and the slave trade in Africa was terminated

    • Sought to prevent international conflicts between European nations over the issue of imperialism

    • Sponsored by German chancellor Bismarck & Jules Ferry ; sought to prevent conflict over imperialism

    • The Congress coincided with Germany's rise as an imperial power and its desire to play Britain and France off each other

    • As a result, the “scramble for Africa” was on

    • The British Empire in Africa

    • Britain prided itself on being the most enlightened of the imperialist powers (though its rule can still be considered oppressive).

    • Took control of Egypt in 1883

    • Sudan

    • After taking control of Egypt Britain pushed southward to the Sudan

    • Battle of Omdurman (1898): General Horatio H. Kitchener defeated Sudanese tribesman and killed 11,000 (with machine guns) while only 28 Britons died

    • Fashoda Incident (1898)

    • France & Britain nearly went to war over Sudan

    • France backed down (partly because it was in the midst of the Dreyfus Affair)

    • South Africa and the Boer War (1899-1902)

    • Cecil Rhodes had become Prime Minister of Cape Colony in South Africa

    • Principal sponsor of the “Cape-to-Cairo” dream where Britain would dominate the African continent.

    • Diamonds and gold were discovered in the Transvaal region and Rhodes wanted to extend his influence there but Boers controlled the region (the descendants of white Dutch settlers)

    • Boers initially successful in repelling British troops

    • Kruger Telegram (1902): Kaiser Wilhelm II dispatched a telegram to the Boers congratulating them on defeating British invaders without need of German assistance

    • Anger at Germany swept through Britain

    • Massive British force eventually defeated Boers and in 1910 the Transvaal, Orange Free State, Cape Colony, & Natal combined to form the Union of South Africa.

    • By 1890, Britain controlled Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda and Zanzibar

    • Germany recognized British control of these regions in return for British recognition of German control of an island naval station in the North Sea

    • Since 1830, the French had controlled Algeria in North Africa.

    • The attack on French shipping by Barbary pirates was used as a pretext for conquest.

    • Algeria remained under French control until the early 1960s.

    • Tunisia

    • 1881, France justified its annexation of Tunisia due to frequent raids into Algeria by Tunisian rebels.

    • Tunisia became a French protectorate

    • Britain abandoned its claims to Tunisia at the Berlin Conference in 1884-85.

    • French control of the northern Congo basin was also recognized at the Berlin Conference

    • Somaliland (modern-day Somalia) gave France territory on the east African coast.

    • Madagascar, an island off the coast of east Africa, seized by France in 1896.

    • France controlled French West Africa (including the Ivory Coast and the Sahara)

    • Britain recognized these claims in return for French recognition of British control of Egypt and the Sudan.

    • By 1914, France controlled most of Morocco

    • Germany

    • Since Germany wasn’t unified until 1871, it was late to the imperialist game compared to Britain and France.

    • Prior to 1884, Bismarck had not been very interested in colonialism as he was more concerned about dangers posed by Russia to his east and France to his west.

    • The Berlin Conference was organized by Bismarck (and Jules Ferry) to provide for a more orderly conquest of Africa.

    • This guaranteed that Germany would now be a major player in Africa.

    • Germany thus set about establishing a number of small protectorates in Africa.

    • By WWI, Germany controlled territory in Africa five times larger than Germany itself.

    • 1884, Germany took control of Cameroon and Togoland in West Africa.

    • 1885, Germany formally claimed Tanganyika which was renamed German East Africa.

    • This was easily done since German businessmen had already dominated the region.

    • Southwest Africa also came under German control.

    • German control was particularly brutal as a local rebellion resulted in Germans killing over 50,000 men, women and children.

    • Italy

    • Italy was the last of the European powers to participate in the scramble for Africa.

    • Eritrea on the Red Sea coast became Italy’s first colony in Africa in the 1880s.

    • In 1896, Italian forces were defeated trying to take Ethiopia.

    • Italy became the first European country to suffer a defeat by Africans.

    • 6,000 Italian troops killed; thousands taken prisoner

    • Mussolini sought to rectify this humiliating defeat by conquering Ethiopia in 1935.

    • Libya was taken from the Turks in 1912.

    • Portugal controlled Angola in southwest Africa and forced the people there to accept what amounted to slavery

    • The New Imperialism in Asia

    • China

    • Opium Wars with Britain

    • First Opium War (1839-1841) Britain occupied several coastal cities and forced China to surrender.

    • Treaty of Nanking, 1842

    • Gave Hong Kong to Britain (until 1997)

    • Four “treaty ports” were opened to British

    • trade including Canton and Shanghai

    • British residents in China (and European visitors) were granted extraterritoriality and were thus immune from Chinese law.

    • Second Opium War (1856-1860)

    • China forced to open six more ports to British and French trade indefinitely

    • China forced to accept trade and investment on unfavorable terms for the foreseeable future.

    • Taiping Rebellion of 1850

    • Primarily caused by differing Chinese factions: rebels opposed the Manchus

    • As many as 20 million people perished.

    • Manchus defeated the rebellion after 14 years with the help of the British military.

    • Spheres of Influence

    • By the late-nineteenth century, much of eastern China had become subject to domination by Britain, France, Russia, Japan and Germany

    • Japan gained Taiwan as a result of the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)

    • This conflict revealed China’s weaknesses and resulted in further control by imperialist powers

    • Britain gained trade monopoly on the Yangtze River

    • France gained a lease on Canton Bay and a “sphere of influence” in trade in several southern provinces

    • Russia controlled northern Manchuria seeking to build a railroad through the region

    • Germany gained a 99-year lease on the port of Qingdao and concessions to build two railroad lines Shandong Province.

    • The U.S. demanded an “Open Door” to trade in China resulting in an agreement that the imperialist powers in China would not interfere in any treaty port or the interests of another power.

    • India was the jewel of the British Empire

    • Mogul Empire (controlled by Muslims) fell apart in the 17th century

    • After the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) the British East India Company was given control of India and was directly accountable to Parliament

    • Robert Clive captured military posts in Madras and England ousted France from India

    • BEIC took the last native state in India by 1848

    • Sepoy Mutiny, 1857-58

    • Insurrection of Hindu & Muslim soldiers in British Army spread in northern & central India before it was crushed, primarily by loyal native troops from southern India.

    • Sepoys had resented British taking direct control of Indian states.

    • Short term cause was British use of animal fat to grease rifle cartridges which was sacrilege to both Muslim and Hindu faiths.

    • Result: After 1858, India was ruled by British Parliament in London and administered by a tiny, all-white civil service in India.

    • British reforms in India

    • Modern system of progressive secondary education (to train Indian civil servants)

    • Economic development

    • Irrigation projects

    • Railroads: 25,000 miles built by 1900

    • Cotton industry became 4th largest in the world

    • Tea trade

    • Development of jute plantations

    • Creation of a unified and powerful state.

    • Indian National Congress formed in 1885

    • Purpose: Britain trained Indians to run India along British lines

    • Educated Indians, predominantly Hindu, increasingly demanded more equality & self-gov't

    • India became independent in 1946 (just after WWII)

    • Other British colonies in Asia

    • Burma (1820s)

    • Malay Peninsula (Malaysia)

    • North Borneo (Indonesia)

    • France:

    • Indochina (modern-day Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos)

    • Became a protectorate in 1880s and 1890s

    • In the South Seas, France took Tahiti and New Caledonia

    • Germany: controlled the Marshall Islands and Samoa in the South Pacific

    • Spanish-American War, 1898: U.S. defeated Spain, took Philippines, Guam, Hawaii & Cuba

    • Responses to Western Imperialism in Asia

    • China

    • Boxer Rebellion, 1900: Patriotic uprising by Chinese nationalists against Western domination

    • Defeated by a multi-national force of imperial powers in 1900

    • Manchu dynasty would soon fall

    • Dr. Sun Yat-sen a revolutionary, sought to overthrow the Manchu dynasty and establish a republic; sparked the beginning of a Chinese nationalist movement

    • Japan

    • Commodore Matthew Perry (U.S.): forced Japan to open trade in 1853

    • Unlike China, Japan quickly modernized and became an imperial power by late 19th century

    • Only major Asian power to resist being swallowed up by the imperialists.

    • Meiji Restoration, 1867: resulted in series of reforms to compete with the West

    • Russo-Japanese War (1904): Russia and Japan both had designs on Manchuria and Korea

    • Japanese concerned about Russian Trans-Siberian Railway across Manchuria

    • Japan destroyed Russian fleet off coast of Korea and won major battles on land although Russians turned the tide on land subsequently.

    • Westerners horrified that Japan had defeated a major Western power.

    • Treaty of Portsmouth (mediated by U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt) ended war with Japan winning major concessions (a preferred position in Manchuria, protectorate in Korea, half of Sakhalin Island

    • Long-term impact of war:

    • Russia turned to the Balkans

    • Russian Revolution

    • Japan eventually annexed Korea

    • Revolt of Asia in 20th century (Asians hoped to emulate Japan power and win their independence)

    • Opponents of imperialism

    • Karl Marx, Das Kapital, (1867)

    • Claimed that the bourgeoisie needed constantly expanding markets to increase profits; this would lead to conquest

    • J. A. Hobson: most prominent of the anti-imperialism theorists

    • Stated that imperialist powers needed colonies in order to provide new markets for domestic European goods

    • Claimed that businessmen and bankers unduly influenced government’s imperialist policies

    • Thus, imperialism benefited only the wealthy

    • Believed that if European governments forced businesses to raise wages for workers, this would result in increased consumption of goods and less of a need for new markets abroad

    • Anti-imperialism increased in Europe as a result of Hobson’s work and others.

    • Socialists accepted Hobson’s link of capitalism with imperialism

    • V. I. Lenin of Russia saw imperialism as leading to colonial rivalries and war (as was the case in World War I).


    Essay Questions - Choose ONE of the following:


    1. How did scientific advances in the late-19th century challenge the ways Europeans viewed the world?




    1. Analyze the ways in which female suffrage movements sought to gain the franchise in England between 1890 and 1918.




    1. Analyze the causes of the “New Imperialism” between 1880 and 1914. What justifications did Europeans use for their acquisition of colonies?




    1. Analyze the methods that the European imperial powers used to acquire colonies in Africa and Asia between 1880 and 1914. Be able to discuss the following countries:

    • Belgium

    • Great Britain

    • France

    • Germany

    • Italy
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