Ap european History Unit 8 – Age of Realpolitik, Mass Politics, La Belle Êpoque



Download 191.51 Kb.
Page2/3
Date conversion16.05.2016
Size191.51 Kb.
1   2   3

Austria’s defeat by Germany in 1866 weakened its grip on power and forced it to make a compromise and establish the so-called dual monarchy.

  • Ausgleich (or Compromise), 1867

  • Officially created the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

  • Hungarians now had their own assembly, cabinet, and administrative system, and would support and participate with Austria in the Imperial army and in the Imperial gov’t.

  • Results

  • Austria assimilated the Hungarians (Magyars) and nullified them as a primary opposition group.

  • Also led to more efficient gov’t.

  • Managing the empire

  • Government was not integrated due to differences among ethnic groups

  • The language used in government and school was a particularly divisive issue.

  • In Bohemia, the issue of whether schools should use the Czech or German language became a sticky issue

  • Efforts by both conservatives and socialists to defuse national antagonisms by stressing economic issues proved unsuccessful.

  • Universal male suffrage not until 1907.

  • Anti-Semitism was profound in Austria.

  • Jewish populations in Austrian cities grew rapidly after Jews obtained full legal equality in 1867.

  • By 1900 Jews comprised 10% of the population

  • Many Jewish business people were successful in banking and trade while Jewish artists, intellectuals, and scientists emerged (e.g. Freud).

  • German extremists charged Jews with controlling the economy and corrupting German culture with alien ideas and ultramodern art

  • Magyar rule in Hungary

  • Magyar nobility in 1867 restored the constitution of 1848 and used it to dominate both the Magyar peasantry and the minority populations until 1914.

  • Only wealthiest 25% of adult males had right to vote.

  • Laws promoting use of Magyar language in schools and gov’t were especially resented by Croatians and Romanians.

  • After 1871, the Hapsburg leadership lost the initiative to resolve the empire’s important divisive issues.

  • Unlike most major countries, which used nationalism to strengthen the state after 1871, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was progressively weakened and destroyed by it.

  • The Age of Mass Politics

  • Ordinary people felt increasing loyalty to their governments

  • By 1914 universal male suffrage was the rule (female suffrage emerged after WWI)

  • Politicians and parties in national parliaments represented the people more responsibly as increased suffrage spread

  • The welfare state emerged, first in Germany, then in Britain, France and other countries

  • Increased literacy: governments came to believe public education was important to provide society with well-informed and responsible citizens.

  • Governments were often led by conservatives who manipulated nationalism to create a sense of unity and divert attention away from underlying class conflicts

  • Frequently channeled national sentiment in an anti-liberal and militaristic direction after 1871

  • The German Empire: 1871-1914

  • Government structure

  • Consisted of a federal union of Prussia and 24 smaller German states.

  • Kaiser Wilhelm I (r. 1871-1888) had the ultimate power in Germany

  • Otto von Bismarck (1810-1898) served as the chancellor and was the mastermind behind the government

  • A bicameral legislature was established: Reichstag

  • Bundestag was the lower body which represented the nation (the Volk).

  • Bundesrat was the conservative upper body which represented the various German states (länder)

  • German political system was multi-party

  • Conservatives represented the Junkers of Prussia

  • Center Party (Catholic Party) approved Bismarck’s policy of centralization yet promoted the political concept of Particularism which advocated regional priorities

  • The Social Democratic Party (S.P.D.) was Marxist and advocated sweeping social change

  • The German middle class was largely left out of politics during this era.

  • Fearing the growing influence of the S.P.D., the middle class for the most part gave tacit support to imperial authority and noble influence.

  • Bismarck saw the Catholic Center Party and the S.P.D. as major threats to imperial power and he set about to destroy them, albeit unsuccessfully.

  • Germany under Chancellor Bismarck

  • Between 1871 and 1890 Bismarck established an integrated political and economic structure for Germany (while dominating European diplomacy)

  • Unified Germany’s monetary system

  • Established an Imperial Bank while strengthening existing banks

  • Developed universal German civil & criminal codes

  • Established compulsory military service.

  • Kulturkampf (“struggle for civilization”)

  • Bismarck sought to limit the influence of the Catholic Center Party in light of Pope Pius IX's declaration in 1870 of papal infallibility

  • Most of the German states in the north were Protestant

  • The Catholic Party was particularly strong in the southern German states

  • The Catholic Center Party proved too popular among many Germans to be driven underground

  • Bismarck ultimately failed to suppress the Catholic Center Party

  • Social Democratic Party (S.P.D.): Marxist views

  • Advocated sweeping social legislation

  • Sought universal suffrage and genuine democracy

  • Sought demilitarization of the German gov’t.

  • Bismarck was unsuccessful in limiting its growth (despite it’s being driven underground)

  • Bismarck instituted a set of sweeping reforms in order to minimize the threat from the left (socialists)

  • 1879, a protective tariff was instituted to maintain domestic production

  • Modern social security laws established (Germany was the first state to do so)

  • National sickness and accident insurance laws passed in 1883 & 1884.

  • Old-age pensions and retirement benefits established in 1889

  • Child labor was regulated

  • Improved working conditions

  • Despite better standard of living, workers did not leave the S.P.D.

  • Yet, by gaining support from the workers, Bismarck successfully bypassed the middle class.

  • William II (r. 1888-1918)

  • Opposed Bismarck's renewed efforts to outlaw the S.P.D.

  • To gain support of workers, he forced Bismarck to resign.

  • By 1912, the S.P.D. became the largest party in the Reichstag

  • Third French Republic

  • The Paris Commune (1870-71)

  • In 1870, Napoleon III’s Second Empire collapsed when it was defeated by Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War.

  • A new National Assembly (1871-75) was created with Adolphe Thiers as chief executive

  • However, the Paris Commune, a radical communist government, lay siege to Paris.

  • After the peace treaty with Prussia the Paris Commune refused to recognize the authority of the newly created National Assembly

  • From March to May 1871, the Paris Commune fought a bloody struggle with the troops of the National Assembly

  • Thousands died in the civil war and 20,000 were subsequently executed

  • Thiers’ defeat of the Paris Commune and other firm measures led France on road to recovery.

  • Leon Gambetta led the republicans during the early years of the Republic

  • Established parliamentary supremacy (while preaching equality of opportunity)

  • Reforms

  • Trade unions fully legalized (had been suppressed at times by Napoleon III)

  • Jules Ferry established secular education and reform: expanded tax-supported public schools and compulsory education

  • During the Third Republic the French government fell dozens of times

  • Multi-party system resulted in ever-shifting political coalitions

  • Challenge to the Republic came from the right (conservatives)

  • Action Francaise led by Charles Maurras advocated an authoritarian gov’t with a strengthened military

  • Boulanger Crisis (1887-89): Georges Boulanger gained support of the military

  • Plotted a coup to overthrow the Republic

  • The Republic summoned Boulanger to trial but he fled to Belgium & committed suicide

  • Boulanger's fall resulted in increased public confidence in the Republic

  • Panama scandal (1892): Ferdinand de Lesseps failed in his attempt to build a canal in Panama while it cost French taxpayers millions of dollars.

  • Public perceived the gov't as corrupt thus reversing popular gains republicans had made after the Boulanger crisis.

  • Dreyfus Affair (1894): Most serious threat to the republic

  • Military falsely charged Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew, with supplying secrets to the Germans

  • Monarchists (with support of Catholic church) used the incident to discredit the republicans

  • Emile Zola (the realist author) took up Dreyfus' case and condemned the military

  • Famous newspaper article defending Dreyfus in 1898: “J’accuse”

  • Leftists supported the Republic and in 1906 the case was closed when Dreyfus was declared innocent and returned to his military position

  • The Dreyfus Affair led to an alliance between moderate republicans and socialists.

  • Conservatives in the military and Church were thoroughly discredited

  • 1905-Republicans launched anti-clerical campaign increasing separation of church & state

  • Socialists led by Jean Juarès gained seats in Chamber of Deputies from 1905 to 1914

  • By 1914, Third Republic enjoyed vast support of the French people.

  • Great Britain

  • The period between 1850 and 1865 saw the realignment of political parties

  • Lord Palmerston (Henry John Temple) (1784-1865): Whig prime minister and dominant political figure in England between 1850 and 1865

  • The Tory Party was transformed into the Conservative Party under Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)

  • Whig Party transformed into the Liberal Party under William Gladstone (1809-1898)

  • John Bright, a manufacturer, anti-corn law advocate, and leader of the Manchester School, contributed significantly to the development of the Liberal Party

  • After 1865 Britain saw expanded democracy under Disraeli and Gladstone (who were political opponents)

  • Benjamin Disraeli

  • Argued for aggressive foreign policy, expansion of the British Empire, and reluctantly supported democratic reforms.

  • Sybil (1845): Disraeli's novel surprised many by expressing sympathy for working class

  • Disraeli was influenced by John Stuart Mill’s: On Liberty (1859): influential work on the necessity to increase democracy

  • Reform Bill of 1867: Disraeli's "leap in the dark" in order to appeal to working people

  • Expanded Reform Bill of 1832

  • Redistributed seats to provide more equitable representation in the House of Commons

  • Industrial cities & boroughs gained seats at expense of some depopulated areas in the north and west ("rotten boroughs")

  • Almost all men over 21 who resided in urban centers were granted the right to vote

  • Essentially doubled the number of men who could vote but still fell short of universal suffrage.

  • Reduced gov’t regulation of trade unions in 1875

  • Created gov't regulations for improved sanitation

  • William Gladstone

  • Most important liberal figure in 19th century England

  • Supported Irish Home Rule, fiscal policy, free trade, and extension of democratic principles while opposing imperialism

  • Abolished compulsory taxes to support the Church of England

  • Australian Ballot Act (1872) provided for the secret ballot (earlier Chartist demand)

  • Civil service reform introduced in 1870: created a competitive examination for gov't positions

  • Reform Act of 1884 (Representation of the People Act of 1884)

  • Granted suffrage to adult males in the counties on the same basis as in the boroughs

  • Two million agricultural voters were added to the franchise

  • Brought Britain close to universal male suffrage

  • During the 1880s and 1890s, new groups emerged seeking to further extend democracy

  • Included women’s suffrage advocates, anti-imperialists, socialists, and anti-nationalists

  • Fabian Society (1883) among the most significant: advanced a form of revisionist Marxism

  • Sought political democracy and economic socialism

  • 1893, Keir Hardie led the Independent Labor Party that rapidly became a vocal third party.

  • Attracted trade unionists, socialists, and those who thought that Conservative and Liberal Parties had no genuine interests in the needs of the general public

  • Between 1905 & early 1920s, the Liberal party advanced aggressive social & economic programs

  • Parliament Act of 1911: most significant political reform during Liberal party rule.

  • Eliminated powers of House of Lords; House of Commons now the center of national power.

  • Life-span of Parliament reduced from 7 to 5 years.

  • Foundations for social welfare state created in decade before WWI (meant to guarantee each citizen with a decent standard of living)

  • Right of unions to strike.

  • Gov’t insurance for those injured on the job

  • Unemployment insurance & old-age pensions

  • Compulsory school attendance

  • Taxes increased on the wealthy (to help fund the welfare state)

  • Representation of the People Act (1918)

  • Women over 30 gained suffrage

  • All men gained suffrage (property qualifications completely eliminated)

  • Women’s rights and suffrage movement in England

  • Initially, women sought to amend marriage and property laws that discriminated against females.

  • Existing laws allowed men to divorce if the wife committed adultery but the woman could not secure a divorce for male infidelity unless physical abuse, cruelty, or desertion had also occurred.

  • Existing laws prohibited women from inheriting property from their parents unless there was no male heir.

  • By the 1890s, women’s rights activists realized that suffrage was the key to remedying other problems.

  • Argued that men had not done enough to protect women from exploitation and abuse

  • Many believed that the female influence in public affairs would serve as a balance to masculine qualities that presently dominated politics

  • Suffragettes came largely from the middle class

  • Benefited from education, and were exposed to earlier feminist works

  • Many middle class families had servants, thus freeing women to become activists

  • Working-class women and socialists distrusted the middle class and worked toward their goals independently

  • Millicent Garrett Fawcett (1847-1929)

  • Leader of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS)

  • Demanded that Parliament grant female suffrage

  • Helped grow the suffrage movement and played a role in national and international suffrage conferences.

  • She was knighted in 1924

  • Militant suffragettes were led by Emmeline Pankhurst

  • Infuriated that Parliament would not give females the vote, even though women in Finland gained this right in 1906 and in Norway (1913).

  • Along with her daughter, Pankhurst founded the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) based on militant principles

  • Beginning in 1907, the WSPU undertook violent activities such as destroying railroad stations, works of art and store windows; and chaining themselves to gates in front of Parliament

  • Organized parades and demonstrations

  • Some men who disapproved attacked female marchers

  • A number of female militants were arrested for their activities

  • Some went on hunger strikes in prison and were force-fed by authorities.

  • When the public was outraged at these force-feedings, Parliament passed the “Cat and Mouse” Act that freed starved female prisoners from jail until they had regained their health and were then returned to jail.

  • Perhaps the most notorious militant action occurred when Emily Davison committed suicide by throwing herself in front of the king’s horse in the 1913 Epsom Derby

  • Representation of the People Act, 1918: As a result of women’s critical contributions to the war effort during World War I, Parliament gave females over 30 the right to vote.

  • Reform Act of 1928: Suffrage for women over 21

  • The Irish Question

  • Young Ireland movement (1848) echoed nationalistic movements on the Continent

  • Irish Question was the most recurring & serious problem Britain faced from 1890 to 1914.

  • Gladstone had pushed unsuccessfully for Irish Home Rule.

  • Ulster (Protestant counties in northern Ireland) opposed Irish Home Rule as they started to enjoy remarkable economic growth from the mid-1890s.

  • Ulsterites raised 100,000 armed volunteers by 1913

  • Ulsterites were supported by British public opinion

  • 1914, Irish Home Rule Act passed by Commons and Lords but Protestants did not accept it.

  • Implementation deferred until after WWI

  • Easter Rebellion (1916) for independence was crushed by British troops

  • 1922, Ireland gained independence; Northern Ireland remained part of British Empire

  • The “Eastern Question”: 1870s

  • As the Ottoman Empire—the “Sick Man of Europe”—receded in southeastern Europe a constant state of crisis existed in the Balkans: who would control region?

  • Russia's dream since reign of Catherine the Great was to retake the Balkans and ultimately Constantinople (the old capital of Byzantine Empire and the cradle of Orthodox Christianity)

  • The Austro-Hungarian Empire had designs on the region as well

  • Pan-Slavism: Idea of uniting all Slavs in Europe under one gov't (Russia)

  • Russia’s military victory over the Ottoman Empire by 1878 put it in a position to dominate the Balkans

  • Britain refused to accept Russian control of the Balkans and sent the Royal Navy to help Turks

  • Nationalistic spirit in Britain came to be known as "jingoism" (after a popular poem)

  • Bismarck offered to mediate the crisis (came to be the Congress of Berlin)

  • Congress of Berlin (1878)

  • Russia gained little from the conference despite defeating the Turks in the war

  • Provisions

  • Recognition of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro as independent states.

  • Establishment of the autonomous principality of Bulgaria (still within Ottoman Empire)

  • Austrian acquisition of Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Transfer of Cyprus to Great Britain, not far from the Suez Canal.

  • Though Disraeli was most responsible for the agreements, Russia blamed Bismarck

  • Russian hostility toward Germany led Bismarck (1879) to embark upon a new system of alliances which transformed European diplomacy and effectively killed remnants of Concert of Europe

  • Note: Do not confuse the Congress of Berlin with the Berlin Conference which in 1886 established the imperialistic guidelines with which to carve up Africa.

  • Socialist movements in the Age of Mass Politics

  • Largely a negative response to industrialism and nationalism

  • Main goal: advance the cause of the proletariat (working class) throughout Europe.

  • Saw nationalism as a tool used by the ruling classes to divert public attention away from social issues.

  • Generally opposed to war prior to 1914 since the working class disproportionately suffered casualties on the front lines.

  • Marxism led the negative response to industrialization

  • Socialists united in 1864 to form the First International (Marx was one of the principal organizers)

  • Growth of socialist parties after 1871 was phenomenal (especially in Germany—S.P.D.; also France, Belgium, Austria-Hungary)

  • 1883, Socialists exiled from Russia formed Russian Social Democratic party in Switzerland and it grew rapidly after 1890.

  • Revisionism

  • As workers gained the right to vote and to participate politically in the nation-state, their attention focused more on elections than on revolutions

  • Workers’ standard of living rose gradually but substantially after 1850 (thus, no need to revolt)

  • Growth of labor unions reinforced trend toward modernization since governments accepted them

  • Increasingly, unions focused on bread-and butter issues—wages, hours, working conditions—rather than pure socialist doctrine.

  • Genuine collective bargaining, long opposed by socialist intellectuals as a “sell-out” was officially recognized as desirable by the German Trade Union Congress in 1899.

  • A series of strikes proved effective in gaining concessions from employers.

  • France: Jean Jaurés formally repudiated revisionist doctrines in order to establish a unified socialist party, though he remained at heart a revisionist in practice.

  • Eduard Bernstein: Evolutionary Socialism (1899)

  • Most prominent of the socialist revisionists

  • Argued Marx’s predictions of ever-greater poverty for workers & ever-greater concentration of wealth in fewer hands had been proved false.

  • Impact of socialism on European politics became profound by late 19th century

  • Germany: Social Democratic Party (S.P.D.):

  • Marxist in philosophy

  • Advocated sweeping social legislation, the realization of genuine democracy, and the demilitarization of the German gov’t.

  • Bismarck forced to institute sweeping reforms in order to minimize the threat from the left

  • 1879, instituted a protective tariff to benefit domestic production

  • Modern social security laws established

  • National sickness and accident insurance laws passed in 1883 & 1884.

  • Old-age pensions and retirement benefits established in 1889

  • Regulated child labor

  • Improved working conditions

  • By 1912, the S.P.D. was the largest party in the Reichstag

  • France: Socialists led by Jean Jaurès gained seats in Chamber of Deputies from 1905 to 1914

  • England:

  • Fabian Society (1883) advanced a form of revisionist Marxism

  • Sought political democracy and economic socialism

  • 1893, Keir Hardie led the Independent Labor Party that rapidly became a vocal third party.

  • Attracted trade unionists, socialists, and those who thought that Conservative and Liberal Parties had no genuine interests in the needs of the general public

  • Foundations for social welfare state created in decade before WWI (meant to guarantee each citizen with a decent standard of living)

  • Right of unions to strike was put into law.

  • Gov’t insurance was provided for those injured on the job

  • Unemployment insurance & old-age pensions enacted.

  • Compulsory school attendance law went into effect.

  • Taxes increased on the wealthy (to help fund the welfare state)

  • Anarchy

  • Anarchists spun off from the mainstream socialist movement.

  • Sought to destroy the centralized state

  • Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876), a Russian nobleman, became the most influential of the anarchists.

  • Anarchy was strongest in Spain and Italy

  • Political assassinations by anarchists shook the political world with the deaths of six national leaders between 1881 and 1901.

  • Alexander II of Russia assassinated in 1881

  • King Umberto I of Italy in 1900

  • President William McKinley of the U.S. in 1901

  • Russia

  • Defeat in Crimean War marked a turning point in Russian history by fostering modernization

  • Russia lacked a sizeable middle class that promoted liberalism economically, politically and socially.

  • This was a key difference for why Russia lagged behind western and central Europe

  • The nobility (who controlled the serfs) did not constitute a force for modernization and reform

  • Russia realized it had to modernize or it would remain vulnerable militarily and economically

  • Alexander II (1855-1881)

  • Perhaps the greatest Czar since Catherine the Great

  • Perhaps the most liberal ruler in Russian history prior to 20th century.

  • Believed serfdom had retarded Russia’s modernization: agriculture had been poor for centuries

  • 90% of Russian people worked in agriculture

  • Serfdom had led to peasant uprisings, poor agricultural output, and exploitation of serfs by lords

  • Serfs could be bought or sold with or without land in early 19th century

  • Serfs could be conscripted into the army for 25 years.

  • Emancipation Act (or Emancipation Edict), 1861

  • Alexander believed ending serfdom was a key to Russia’s modernization

  • Abolished serfdom: peasants no longer dependent on the lord; free to move and change occupations; could enter contracts and own property

  • In fact, most Russians were not impacted by the Emancipation Edict (as they instead lived in mirs)

  • Mirs: most Russians lived in communes which were highly regulated

  • Collective ownership and responsibility made it difficult for individual peasants to improve agricultural methods or leave their villages

  • Zemstvos established in 1864: assemblies that administered local areas

  • Significant step towards popular participation

  • Yet, lords controlled the Zemstvos and had more power than the towns and peasant villages

  • Other reforms

  • Judiciary improved

  • Censorship relaxed (but not removed)

  • Education liberalized

  • Industrialization in Russia was stimulated by railroad construction

  • Russia had fallen behind major industrialized nations in Western & Central Europe

  • Russia needed better railroads, better armaments and reorganization of the army

  • Between 1860 and 1880 railroad mileage grew from 1,250 to 15,500

  • Railroads enabled Russia to export grain and earn profits for further industrialization

  • Stimulated domestic manufacturing: industrial suburbs grew up around Moscow and St. Petersburg, and a class of modern factory workers began to emerge

  • Strengthened Russia’s military giving rise to territorial expansion to the south and east

  • Critics of Alexander II late in his reign

  • Alexander increasingly turned to more traditional (conservative) values (realism in Russia replaced romanticism)

  • Radical populist movement emerged that sought a utopian agrarian order

  • Intelligensia: hostile group of intellectuals who believed they should eventually take over society

  • nihilism: intellectuals who believed in nothing but science and that the social order should be completely wiped out and built up from scratch.

  • Alexander II assassinated in 1881 by radicals who bombed his carriage in St. Petersburg

  • Count S. Y. Witte oversaw Russian industrialization in the 1890s

  • Aggressively courted western capital & advanced technology to build great factories

  • Resulted in rise of a small Russian middle-class

  • Gov’t built state-owned railroads doubled to 35,000 miles by 1900

  • Construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway helped to modernize Russia; connected Moscow with Vladivostok—5,000 miles

  • Russia put on the gold standard to strengthen the government’s finances

  • By 1900, Russia 4th in steel production (behind U.S., Germany & Britain)

  • By 1900, Russia exported half the world's refined petroleum

  • As in western Europe, industrialization in Russia contributed to the spread of Marxist thought and the transformation of the Russian revolutionary movement after 1890 (as industrial workers felt exploited)

  • Despite economic and social reforms, Russia's economic problems were still staggering by 1900

  • 1/3 of Russian farmland not used; food could not keep pace with increasing population

  • Russia had become the most populous nation in Europe by the late-nineteenth century

  • Depression of 1899 wiped out gains since 1890 resulting in tremendous unemployment

  • Russia’s plight was aggravated by Russo-Japanese War of 1905

  • Alexander III (1881-1894)

  • Became most reactionary czar of the 19th century:

  • Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Russification (nationalism)”

  • Encouraged anti-semitism: pogroms of the 1880s resulted in severe persecution of Jews (many emigrated to the U.S.)

  • Jews blamed for the assassination of Alexander II

  • Thousands of Jewish homes were destroyed; businesses were disrupted or destroyed

  • Many more Jews were killed in the pogroms of 1903-06 under Nicholas II than under Alex III.

  • Theodore Herzl: Zionism -- advocated a Jewish homeland in the Holy Land as a remedy to continued persecution of Jews in eastern and central Europe

  • Nicholas II (r. 1894-1917)

  • Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)

  • Russians had established a sphere of influence in Manchuria and now sought Korea

  • Humiliating defeat of Russian fleet by Japan and bloody war on land resulted in Russia turning away from east Asia and focusing instead on the Balkans

  • Revolution of 1905

  • Poor economy and strains of war led peasants and middle class to demand reforms.

  • Bloody Sunday”, Jan.1905: 200,000 worker/peasants marched peacefully to the "Winter Palace" asking for reforms.

  • Czar not in town.

  • Army fired on marchers in cold blood.

  • A general strike, peasant revolt and troop mutinies paralyzed the Russia by October and czar was forced to make concessions.

  • Duma: Assembly created that would serve as an advisory body to the Czar

  • Granted freedom of speech, assembly and press

  • Tsar retained absolute veto

  • Revolutionaries were divided resulting in Duma having no real influence

  • Propertied classes benefited at expense of workers peasants and national minorities

  • Russia experienced mild economic recovery between 1907 and 1914

  • Peter Stolypin: pushed through important agrarian reforms to break down collective village ownership of land and encourage the more enterprising peasants

  • After 1911, czar's court increasingly dominated by mystic monk Gregorii Rasputin resulting in widespread doubts about the czar's ability to lead.

  • Russia’s poor showing in World War I directly led to the Russian Revolution

  • The “Belle Epoque”

  • Life in the fin de siècle (end of the century)

  • The “Belle Époque” (c. 1895-1914)

  • Increased standard of living in all industrialized countries

  • This period would later be remembered after World War I as the “Belle Époque” (the “good old days”)

  • However, better living occurred much more in northern Europe (Britain, France and Germany) than in southern or eastern Europe.

  • People gradually enjoyed higher wages while the price of food declined.

  • In Britain, wages almost doubled between 1850 and 1900.

  • More money came to be spent on clothing

  • Meat consumption increased significantly

  • Increased leisure time resulted along with increased money to spend

  • Increased consumption

  • Sports attracted increased spectators and participants

  • Sports clubs grew significantly

  • Soccer (football), rugby, bicycle and automobile races, track and field

  • huge bicycle craze swept western Europe in the 1890s

  • Increased numbers of women took part in bicycling and sports clubs

  • Women gradually abandoned the more restrictive clothing (e.g. corsets, whale-boned skirts) for dresses that allowed more movement

  • The emerging sports culture mirrored the growth of aggressive nationalism in the late-19th century

  • Some Social Darwinists believed that sports competition confirmed the superiority of certain racial groups

  • Cafés and taverns enjoyed increased patronage in cities and towns

  • Department stores grew significantly

  • Frequented by the middle-class

  • In Paris, dance halls, concerts and plays drew thousands of people each week.

  • New inventions marked the era

  • Telephone

  • Automobile

  • Gramophone (record player)

  • Radio (invented by Marconi)

  • Motion pictures

  • Education

  • State’s role in education increased, leading to further secularization of society

  • Emphasized loyalty and service to the state while decreasing the influence of organized religion

  • By 1900 in England, all children five to twelve years old were required to attend primary school

  • Education was free

  • In France, the Ferry Laws required children ages 3-13 to attend primary schools; schools were free.

  • Significant increase in literacy

  • Men had higher rates of literacy than women

  • Urbanites were more literate than rural folk

  • Higher literacy rate in northern and western Europe than in southern or eastern Europe

  • 1900: 99% literacy in Germany compared to 25% in Russia

  • Girls had less access to secondary education than boys, though schools for girls grew somewhat

  • Families had to pay the cost

  • Education was seen as a means of improving economic and marriage prospects for girls

  • Scientific Advances

  • Scientific ideas and methods enjoyed huge popularity and prestige in the public mind after 1850.

  • To many, science became almost a religion

  • People could see how the link between science and technology improved their quality of life (e.g. electricity and better medical care)

  • Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907): organized the rules of chemistry by devising the periodic table in 1869.

  • Electromagnetism: Michael Faraday (1791-1867)

  • Basic discoveries on electromagnetism in the 1830s and 1840s resulted in the first dynamo (generator)

  • Applied to development of electric motors, electric lights, and electric streetcars.

  • August Comte (1798-1857): father of “sociology”

  • Positivism: All intellectual activity progresses through predictable stages; thus humans would soon discover the eternal laws of human relations through the study of sociology.

  • Believed social scientists could help regulate society for the benefit of most everyone

  • Comte became the leader in the religion of science and desire for rule by experts

  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

  • Considered one of the three giants of 19th-century thought (along with Darwin and Marx)

  • In contrast to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, Freud believed that humans were largely irrational creatures

  • The human subconscious (the “ID”) was not subject to reason

  • Thus, people were not as in control of themselves as many liked to believe

  • Freud also emphasized that sexuality was a key driving force in one’s psychological make-up

  • Repressed sexual desires would lead to psychological problems

  • Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis

  • Believed hysteria of his patients originated in unhappy early childhood experiences where they had repressed strong feelings.

  • Under hypnosis or through the patient’s free association of ideas, the patient could be brought to understand his/her unhappiness to deal with it.

  • Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)

  • Split the atom in 1919: postulated the structure of the atom with a positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons

  • Max Planck (1858-1947)

  • Quantum theory: subatomic energy is emitted in uneven little spurts called “quanta,” not in a steady stream, as previously thought.

  • Laws governing the universe now seemed unpredictable

  • Thus, matter and energy might be different forms of the same thing.

  • Shook the foundations of 19th century physics that viewed atoms as the stable, indestructible building blocks of matter.

  • Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

  • 1905, Theory of relativity of time and space challenged traditional ideas of Newtonian physics.

  • Theorized that time and space are relative to the viewpoint of the observer and only the speed of light is constant for all frames of reference in the universe.

  • United an apparently infinite universe with the incredibly small, fast-moving subatomic world.

  • E = mc2: Matter and energy are interchangeable and that even a particle of matter contains enormous levels of potential energy.

  • Impact of new scientific theories on the European mind

  • Darwinism further challenged the Bible’s account of the creation of humans

  • Freudian psychology undermined the belief that humans were rational beings in control of their emotions

  • Impact of the New Physics

  • Shattered the popular belief that the universe could be easily explained via Newtonian physics

  • Challenged long-held ideas since Newton that all particles interacted based on gravitational force

  • Einstein’s theory of relativity now theorized that universal laws were “relative”—based on the position of the observer

  • Scientists realized that they knew less about the universe than previously thought

  • Uncertainty later fed the pessimism of European society in the wake of World War I

  • Catholic challenges in a modern world

  • Nationalism in some countries decreased the influence of the Catholic church.

  • Bismarck in Germany attacked the Catholic church in his kulturkampf crusade.

  • Nation building in Germany and Italy may have competed for people’s loyalties to the church.

  • The rise of liberalism in the 19th century seemed to further distance the papacy from society.

  • Syllabus of Errors, issued by Pope Pius IX in 1864, condemned liberalism and Italian unification

  • The First Vatican Council in 1870 proclaimed the doctrine of papal infallibility stating that the pope, in certain cases, was speaking divinely revealed truth on religious matter.

  • The increased popularity of rationalism and science caused alarm within the church.

  • The rise of Darwinism further challenged traditional Christianity as science increasingly seemed to answer many of life’s mysteries

  • Rerum Novarum (1891)

  • Pope Leo XIII sought to permit Catholics to participate in the politics of liberal states

  • He condemned socialism and Marxism while he defended private property (capitalism)

  • Yet, he stated that workers should have a living wage and that capitalists should do more to provide for the welfare of their employees.

  • He supported laws that protected workers from exploitation

  • His pronouncement led to the creation of Catholic parties and trade unions at the turn of the century

  • Decline in church attendance

  • Most pronounced in the working classes and skilled workers.

  • Upper and middle classes and the peasantry remained maintained church attendance

  • Increasingly, men were less likely to attend church than women.

  • Realism in Art

  • Characteristics

  • The most important artists of the 19th century and 20th centuries created art for “art’s sake.”

  • This includes the Romantic period

  • Rather than depending on patrons to fund their works (e.g. the Church, nobles) they exercised virtual artistic freedom and hoped to make their money by selling their paintings to the public

  • This is in stark contrast to the Renaissance or the Baroque periods where artists were commissioned by elites who specified what they wanted the art to look like

  • France was the center of the art world.

  • Artists sent their greatest works to the Paris Salon to be judged by a panel of distinguished figures from the art world.

  • France dominated realist art movement

  • Realists sought to portray life as it really was; not idealized

  • Ironically, many of the great realist works were rejected by the Salon for what was perceived to be mundane subject matter and crude artistic technique

  • Ordinary people became the subject of numerous paintings

  • Gustave Courbet (1819-1877)

  • Coined the term, “realism”

  • The Stone Breakers, 1849

  • Francois Millet (1814-1875)

  • The Gleaners, 1857: Depicts farm women gleaning the fields after the harvest

  • Honore Daumier (1808-1879)

  • Third-Class Carriage, 1862: Depicts a grandmother, a daughter and her infant traveling on a railroad.

  • This is a good example of how the railroad impacted the lives of peasants, making it possible for them to move or travel to cities

  • Edgar Degas (1834-1917)

  • Laundry Girls Ironing, c. 1884: Depicts ordinary women performing unskilled labor

  • Édouard Manet (1832-1883)

  • French realist and impressionist painter who bridged both movements

  • Considered the first “modernist” painter

  • Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (Luncheon on the Grass), 1863

  • Shocked audiences by portraying a female nude and two male clothed companions in an everyday park setting

  • Olympia, (1863) seemed equally revolting to the Salon for its casual nude portrayal of a prostitute

  • Impressionism in painting

  • Characteristics

  • Began in France

  • Impact of photography: now that cameras could accurately capture a subject, artists now moved away from trying to perfectly capture an image

  • Painters sought to capture the momentary overall feeling, or impression, of light falling on a real-life scene before their eyes.

  • Focused especially on landscapes

  • Paintings were completed very quickly

  • Brushstrokes were highly visible

  • Advent of oil paints in tubes made outdoor painting possible (plein-air painting)

  • In the past, the vast majority of paintings were done in the studio

  • Claude Monet (1840-1926)

  • Foremost impressionist painter

  • Impression Sunrise, 1873: considered first impressionist painting

  • Perhaps most well known for his “series paintings” of the countryside at Giverny (e.g. water lilies)

  • Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)

  • Le Bal au Moulin de la Galette, 1876

  • In addition to landscapes, he painted subjects in candid poses and nude figures

  • Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)

  • Considered by some to be the true father of impressionism

  • Impressionism gave way to Post-Impressionism later in the 19th century

  • Post-Impressionism and early-20th century Art

  • Characteristics of Post-Impressionism

  • Desire to know and depict worlds other than the visible world of fact.

  • Sought to portray unseen, inner worlds of emotion and imagination (like early-19th century romantics).

  • Sought to express a complicated psychological view of reality as well as an overwhelming emotional intensity (like modern novelists).

  • Cubism concentrated on zigzagging lines and overlapping planes.

  • Nonrepresentational art focused on mood, not objects.

  • Fascination with form, as opposed to light.

  • Major Post-Impressionist artists

  • Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) – Dutch expressionist

  • In The Starry Night (1889), he painted the vision of night as he imagined it, not as it really was.

  • One of his most famous portraits shows him with a bandage on his ear after he allegedly cut it off: Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear, 1889

  • Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) – French

  • Pioneered expressionist techniques.

  • Saw form and design of a painting as important in themselves

  • Became famous for his paintings of the South Pacific where he spent some time

  • Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)

1   2   3


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page