Ap european History (Unit 2: Reformation and Wars of Religion) Multiple Choice



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AP European History (Unit 2: Reformation and Wars of Religion)

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The philosophy most closely associated with the Renaissance was



A)

Scholasticism

D)

humanism

B)

mercantilism

E)

liberalism

C)

deism

2. In general, northern humanists differed from humanists of Italy because the northern humanists emphasized



A)

the study of Greek and Latin

D)

the acceptance of Catholicism

B)

secular and pagan topics

E)

scientific inquiry

C)

the early history of Christianity

3. Which is NOT true of Europe’s demography in the early modern period?



A)

life expectancy was approximately 40 years

B)

infant mortality was approximately 20%

C)

less than 50% of children lived to adulthood

D)

mortality was higher among the poor because they could not afford childhood immunizations

E)

diseases were often made more deadly due to poor nutrition and lack of knowledge about hygiene

4. Which of the following was a result of the Thirty Years’ War?



A)

England and Spain became dominant powers in Europe

B)

Calvinism was established as the official relgion of the Holy Roman Empire

C)

the Holy Roman Empire enjoyed widespread economic and demographic growth

D)

The Hapsburg Dynasty solidified its control over the Holy Roman Empire

E)

The political fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire was maintained

5. Which of the following beliefs was central to Martin Luther’s religious philosophy?



A)

Salvation by faith alone

B)

Saints are essential because the serve as intermediaries between the individual and God

C)

Support for 7 Sacraments including infant baptism and penance

D)

a defined priesthood that would maintain laws of chastity

E)

the social equality of men and women

6. Which of the following would be LEAST likely associated with humanism?



A)

Petrarch

D)

Mirandola

B)

Castiglione

E)

Valla

C)

Cortes

7. “They are ungrateful, changeable, simulators and dissimulators, runaways in danger, eager for gain; while you do well by them they are all yours; they offer you their blood, their property, their lives, their children when need is far off; but when it comes near you, they turn about.”


The political assessment reflected above is most consistent with which of the following?

A)

Castiglione’s The Book of the Courtier

B)

Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar

C)

More’s Utopia

D)

Machiavelli’s The Prince

E)

Mirandola’s Oration on the Dignity of Man

8. Which of the following BEST characterizes Renaissance humanists?



A)

They emphasized the encorporation of ideas based upon classical models

B)

They rejected the ideas of Christian scholars

C)

They tended to focus on the human body in art and literature

D)

They maintained the teachings of Medieval Scholasticism

E)

They often overlooked the importance of writers from the Pre-Christian period

9. The most important result of the Thirty Years’ War was the



A)

decline of Denmark as a Baltic power

B)

decline of the Ottoman Empire as a great power

C)

rise of England as a naval power

D)

rise of Russia as a great power

E)

rise of France as a great power

10. The term “civic humanists” refers to those individuals who



A)

taught civics to other humanist scholars

B)

emphasized the role of cities in classical civilization

C)

wanted to remove themselves from public life

D)

wanted to use their learning to help better serve their city-states and society

E)

feared the encroachment of politics on their learning

11. Which of the following was NOT among the factors that made Italy ideal for the start of the Renaissance?



A)

competition between rival city-states

B)

Italy’s historic ties to ancient Rome

C)

competition between the “old” and “new” rich

D)

patronage of the arts by Italy’s centralized government

E)

access to Mediterranean trade

12. Lorenzo Valla’s demonstration that the Donation of Constantine was fraudulent weakened the Papacy’s claim



A)

that Lutheranism was heresy

B)

of supremacy over the Eastern Orthodox Church

C)

that good works were necessary for salvation

D)

to extensive territories in Italy

E)

to supremacy over church councils

13. Which of the following allowed women to preach?



A)

Roman Catholics

D)

Anglicans

B)

Purtians

E)

Presbyterians

C)

Quakers

14.

Identify the artist

A)

Michelangelo

D)

da Vinci

B)

Rembrandt

E)

Durer

C)

Raphael

15. Which of the following LEAST likely applies to Baroque art?



A)

attempts to invoke emotion from the viewer

B)

dramatic poses and gestures

C)

patronage by Protestant churches

D)

depiction of biblical figures and stories

E)

use of dark colors and contrasts between light and dark

16. Which of the following was a leading city-state in the Italian Renaissance?



A)

Athens

D)

Florence

B)

Budapest

E)

England

C)

Paris

17. Which of the following BEST describes the French Edict of Nantes (1598)?



A)

it provided limited political and religious freedom to the French Huguenots

B)

It signaled the end of French territorial expansion

C)

It led to the establishment of French colonies in the Americas

D)

It granted legal equality to all social classes in France

E)

It led to fifty years of civil war

18. All of the following were common subjects of Italian Renaissance art EXCEPT



A)

nude figures

D)

religious imagery

B)

portraits

E)

peasant life

C)

figures from mythology

19. “For of men one can, in general, say this: They are ungrateful, fickle, deceptive, and deceiving, avoiders of danger, eager to gain...”

This quote best applies to the ideas presented by which of the following

A)

Machiavelli

D)

Castiglione

B)

More

E)

Mirandola

C)

Erasmus

20. The conversion of King Henry IV to Catholicism is an example of the policies of which group?



A)

Huguenots

D)

Jesuits

B)

politiques

E)

heretics

C)

Anabaptists

21. Petrarch is most likely associated with which of the following?



A)

advocating atheism

B)

searching libraries for forgotten manuscripts

C)

denouncing the use of vernacular language

D)

doing scientific experiments

E)

calling for an improvement in the status of women

22. “Vernacular” is a term particularly characteristic of the Renaissance period that was used to describe



A)

the human skeleton

D)

early printing presses

B)

local language

E)

the flow of blood from the heart

C)

mercenary warfare

23. “He desired glory and excellence beyond that of anyone else. He showed favor to vernacular literature and all the fine arts. Under him, the city was not free, but it would have been impossible for it to have had a better or more pleasing tyrant.”

The passage above most accurately describes

A)

Lorenzo de’Medici

D)

Fransisco Petrarch

B)

Thomas More

E)

Niccolo Machiavelli

C)

Erasmus

24. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) resulted in which of the following?



A)

Undisputed control over central Europe by the Hapsburgs

B)

the creation of a strong, centralized government in the Holy Roman Empire

C)

the increased autonomy of numerous German states

D)

an end to religious persecution

E)

an end to the Hundred Years’ War

25.

The work of art seen above was commissioned (paid for) by which of the following?

A)

Cosimo de’ Medici

D)

Michelangelo

B)

Niccolo Machiavelli

E)

King Henry VIII

C)

Pope Julius II

26. The political organization of Renaissance Italy is most accurately described as



A)

republic

D)

oligarchy

B)

monarchy

E)

city-states

C)

principality

27. In his Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin sought to



A)

promote the colonization of the Americas

B)

systemize Protestant doctrine as the basis of a reformed Christianity

C)

challenge the growing political authority of the kings

D)

promote a dialogue with the Catholic Church

E)

promote education by supporting universal schooling

28. The three main social groups in European society consisted of



A)

warriors, serfs, and royalty

D)

royalty, nobles, and clergy

B)

clergy, nobles, and peasants

E)

professionals, bourgeoisie, and serfs

C)

soldiers, clergy, and nobles

29. The Protestant Reformation helped change social roles for women by



A)

making marriage a sacrament

B)

reemphasizing the adoration of the Virgin Mary

C)

reducing access to religious orders

D)

emphasizing the social equality of men and women

E)

denying the right to divorce

30. Refer back to the quote in question number 29, the subject that the author is addressing is



A)

relationships within a family

B)

political leadership

C)

sea-based power vs. land-based power

D)

poltical power vs. religious power

E)

mercantilism

31.

Identify the artist

A)

Donatello

D)

Michelangelo

B)

Raphael

E)

Botticelli

C)

da Vinci

32.

Which of the following themes or techniques is NOT seen in this work of art?

A)

single point perspective

B)

the use of geometric shaps and patterns

C)

the influence of Christianity in Renaissance society

D)

humanism

E)

frescoe painting

33. Italian society differed from the rest of Europe during the Renaissance in which of the following ways?



A)

strong traditions of kingship

D)

rapid pace of agricultural innovation

B)

political unity under the Papacy

E)

matriarchal poltical leadership

C)

number of urban, commercial centers

34. Painting and sculpture during the Renaissance were characterized by which of the following?



A)

Reliance on Gothic themes and styles

B)

cold and one-dimensional depictions of myths

C)

human body presented in naturalistic terms

D)

inaccurate and unrealistic representations

E)

exclusively secular themes

35. A technological innovation that was an important factor in the spread of both the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation was



A)

the printing press

D)

oil paints

B)

paper

E)

the use of perspective

C)

the sextant

36. Which of the following groups was instrumental in ending the Wars of Religion in France?



A)

politiques

D)

the French Catholic League

B)

Huguenots

E)

the Inquisition

C)

Jesuits

37. In the late 1400’s, a major campaign to expel Muslims and Jews was conducted by the rulers of



A)

Spain

D)

England

B)

France

E)

the Holy Roman Empire

C)

Italy

38. Which of the following is NOT true regarding the effects of the Black Death?



A)

the Black Death began in Europe and spread to Asia along the Silk Roads

B)

between 1/3 and 1/2 of Europe’s population was wiped out due to this disease

C)

feudalism began to decay in the aftermath of the Black Death

D)

this disease was spread along trade routes

E)

serfdom began to decline in the years following the Black Death

39. The most important goal of the Council of Trent was the



A)

strengthening of internal Church discipline

B)

organization of military opposition to stop the Reformation

C)

establishment of new monasteries

D)

reduction of papal authority

E)

official support for Protestant Churches

40.

Identify the artist and work

A)

Raphael, The Madonna

D)

Picasso, Guernica

B)

Michelangelo, Pieta

E)

da Vinci, Mona Lisa

C)

Botticelli, Primavera

41. The goal of Protestant princes in Germany BEFORE 1555 included the



A)

abolition of the Holy Roman Empire

B)

achievement of religious toleration

C)

recognition of Lutheranism as a legitimite religion

D)

extension of Protestantism throughout all of Europe

E)

the unity of all German states under one centralized government

42. Which of the following is accurately matched?



A)

Erasmus, Canterbury Tales

D)

Boccaccio, Divine Comedy

B)

More, Utopia

E)

Dante, Decameron

C)

Castiglione, The Prince

43. “Our sins have their source in Adam, and because Adam at the apple, we have inherited sin from him. But Christ has shattered death in order that we might be saved by His works and not by our works. I am your justification.” -Martin Luther

Which of the following BEST describes Luther’s meaning in the excerpt above?

A)

Justification is different from salvation

B)

Faith means nothing without good works to demonstrate belief

C)

Good works are necessary for salvation

D)

Neither faith nor good works will bring salvation

E)

Only faith in Christ will bring salvation, not good works

44. The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre was directed against



A)

Catherine de Medici and her followers

B)

Anabaptists in the Netherlands

C)

Roman Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire

D)

peasant rebels in the southern German states

E)

Huguenots in France

45. “O highest and most marvelous felicity of man! To hm it is granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he wills.”

The excerpt above is representative of the ideas of

A)

Machiavelli, The Prince

D)

Chaucer, Canterbury Tales

B)

Mirandola, On the Dignity of Man

E)

Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier

C)

More, Utopia

46. All of the following are characteristics of Renaissance art EXCEPT



A)

the use of oil paint

B)

the emphasis on making figures look more natural

C)

a desire to create three-dimensional images

D)

secular portraiture

E)

heirarchical scaling in which important figures are painted larger

47. in 1500, what portion of Europe’s population lived in towns with over 10,000 inhabitants?



A)

6%

B)

30%

C)

50%

D)

60%

E)

90%

48. “I say that, in my opinion, in a Lady who lives at court a certain pleasing affability is becoming above all else, whereby she will be able to entertain graciously every kind of man with agreeable and comely conversation suited to the time and place and to the station of the person with whom she speaks...”

The author of this passage is most likely

A)

Galileo

D)

Botticelli

B)

Machiavelli

E)

More

C)

Castiglione

49. Which of the following directly resulted from the English Reformation?



A)

Puritan influences declined in England

B)

England’s monasteries were dissolved and the lands sold

C)

the Pope named Henry VIII as “Defender of the Faith”

D)

the Anglican Church came under direct authority of the Pope

E)

Scotland became a kingdom separate from England

50. One of the most influential religious orders assocaited with the Catholic Reformation was the



A)

Brothers and Sisters of Common Life

D)

Franciscan

B)

Dominican

E)

Oratory of Divine Love

C)

Jesuit

51. Feudalism decayed in Western Europe during the later Middle Ages for all of the following reasons EXCEPT



A)

the spread of merchant activity

D)

the Black Death

B)

urbanization

E)

the invention of steam power

C)

new military technologies

52. All of the following supported the Protestants in the Thirty Years’ War EXCEPT



A)

Cardinal Richelieu

D)

the Hapsburgs

B)

Christian IV of Denmark

E)

various German princes

C)

Gustavus Adolphus

53. The doctrine of predestination was a central religious belief of



A)

Roman Catholics

D)

Calvinists

B)

Lutherans

E)

Anabaptists

C)

Puritans

54. The Renaissance began to decline in Northern Italy because of



A)

a French invasion in 1494 which led to widespread warfare

B)

the invention of the printing press

C)

the discovery of fewer Classical texts

D)

the re-conquest of the city states by the Pope

E)

the end to trade in the Mediterranean

55. Medieval universities focused their curriculum on which of the following sets of offerings?



A)

law, theology, and medicine

B)

physics, mathematics, and chemistry

C)

literature, sociology, and architecture

D)

art history, political science, and history

E)

poetry, creative writing, and government

56. Which of the following best describes the results of the Peace of Augsburg (1555)?



A)

It empowerd German rulers to impose Lutheran, Calvinist, or Catholic ideas on their people

B)

It was rejected by the Holy Roman Emperor

C)

It released all German-speaking states from Papal authority

D)

It provided a legal basis for the existence of Lutheranism

E)

It established toleration for Anabaptists in France

57. Before the Europeans invaded these territories, the Americas



A)

contained powerful empires in both Mexico and Peru

B)

remained divided into tiny tribal units

C)

were on the verge of oceanic discoveries of their own

D)

remained completely unable to wage war

E)

were covered by migratory people who left no trace of urban life

58. Roman Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvinists all condemned Anabaptists for their



A)

support of the Pope as the supreme head of the Christian Church

B)

use of magic and belief in superstition

C)

support of infant baptism

D)

secular outlook on the world

E)

creation of separate, isolated communities

59. Before the late-1400’s, Christians, Muslims, and Jews coexisted with some degree of toleration in which of the following



A)

England

D)

Spain

B)

France

E)

Italy

C)

the Holy Roman Empire

60. The term “humanism” when applied to the Italian Renaissance, refers primarily to



A)

renewed interest in the scientific method perfected by Roman scholars

B)

capitalist values that were advanced by leading Italian merchants

C)

antireligious movements that occurred among leading intellectuals

D)

scholarly interest in the study of the classical cultures of Greece and Rome

E)

non-Christian themes that became prominent in Italian art and literature

61. A central feature of the Catholic Reformation was the



A)

Roman Catholic Church’s inability to correct clerical abuses

B)

establishment of religious orders such as the Jesuits

C)

transfer of authority from Rome to the bishops

D)

rejection of Baroque art

E)

toleration of Protestants in Catholic countries

62. Which of the following would NOT be considered a work of vernacular literature?



A)

The Divine Comedy

D)

The Prince

B)

The Holy Bible

E)

Utopia

C)

Canterbury Tales

63. By the 1530’s, Italy had lost its place as the center of the Renaissance for all of the following reasons EXCEPT



A)

outside invasion weakened the city-states

B)

trade increased in the Atlantic, which hurt Italian trade in the Mediterranean

C)

merchants saw the ideals of the Renaissance as a threat to their growing power

D)

the Spanish, Dutch, and English were growing in economic power

E)

the Ottoman Empire had cut off trade with Italian merchants

64. Which of the following would be most acceptable for a Renaissance woman?



A)

Artist

D)

Theology professor

B)

Patron of the arts

E)

Banker

C)

Diplomat

65. During the Thirty Years’ War, France pursued a policy of



A)

supporting the Hapsburgs against the Protestant princes

B)

allowing French Protestants to fight with the German Protestants even though the monarchy supported the Catholic army

C)

supporting the Protestant princes against the Hapsburgs

D)

remaining neutral

E)

opposing England in order to recapture Normandy


AP European History (Unit 2: Reformation and Wars of Religion)

Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. ANS: D PTS: 1

2. ANS: C PTS: 1

3. ANS: D PTS: 1

4. ANS: E PTS: 1

5. ANS: A PTS: 1

6. ANS: C PTS: 1

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8. ANS: A PTS: 1

9. ANS: E PTS: 1

10. ANS: D PTS: 1

11. ANS: D PTS: 1

12. ANS: D PTS: 1

13. ANS: C PTS: 1

14. ANS: A PTS: 1

15. ANS: C PTS: 1

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18. ANS: E PTS: 1

19. ANS: A PTS: 1

20. ANS: B PTS: 1

21. ANS: B PTS: 1

22. ANS: B PTS: 1

23. ANS: A PTS: 1

24. ANS: C PTS: 1

25. ANS: C PTS: 1

26. ANS: E PTS: 1

27. ANS: B PTS: 1

28. ANS: B PTS: 1

29. ANS: C PTS: 1

30. ANS: B PTS: 1

31. ANS: D PTS: 1

32. ANS: C PTS: 1

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35. ANS: A PTS: 1

36. ANS: A PTS: 1

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38. ANS: A PTS: 1

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40. ANS: E PTS: 1

41. ANS: C PTS: 1

42. ANS: B PTS: 1

43. ANS: E PTS: 1

44. ANS: E PTS: 1

45. ANS: B PTS: 1

46. ANS: E PTS: 1

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48. ANS: C PTS: 1

49. ANS: B PTS: 1

50. ANS: C PTS: 1

51. ANS: E PTS: 1

52. ANS: D PTS: 1

53. ANS: D PTS: 1

54. ANS: A PTS: 1

55. ANS: A PTS: 1

56. ANS: D PTS: 1

57. ANS: A PTS: 1

58. ANS: E PTS: 1

59. ANS: D PTS: 1

60. ANS: D PTS: 1

61. ANS: B PTS: 1

62. ANS: B PTS: 1

63. ANS: C PTS: 1



64. ANS: B PTS: 1

65. ANS: C PTS: 1


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