Compare and contrast / Compare….with… / Contrast the ways: 25
Describe and analyze: 15
Evaluate this statement / Assess the accuracy of / Assess the validity of: 12
Assess the extent to which / To what extent (and in what ways): 10
How (cause/effect): 6
Defend or refute / Support or refute / Defend, refute, or modify: 4
How and to what exent / …and in what ways: 4
Assess the nature and importance of / Assess the impact of 3
Discuss and analyze: 3
Identify and analyze: 2
Identify and explain: 2
In what ways and to what extent: 2
Account for: 1
Analyze and Assess: 1
Analyze and Compare: 1
Describe and compare: 1
Describe and consider: 1
Describe and discuss: 1
Describe and explain: 1
Discuss and compare: 1
Discuss the exent to which: 1
Enumerate and explain: 1
Evaluate the relative importance: 1
Evaluate the validity of this interpretation: 1
Evaluate this assessment: 1
Evaluate this statement by comparing: 1
Explain and discuss: 1
Explain the facts that form the basis of this statement: 1
Identify…and assess the extent to which: 1
In what ways: 1
In what ways and why: 1
Trace the evolution of: 1
What was the effect of: 1
Unit I: The Late Middle Ages, The Renaissance, and the Age of Exploration (1291-1492)
To what extent, and in what ways
, may the Renaissance be regarded as a turning point in Western intellectual and cultural tradition?
European monarchs of the late 15th and early 16th centuries are often referred to as the “New Monarchs.” What was “new” about them? Do their actions warrant this label?
To what extent is the term “Renaissance” a valid concept for a distinct period in early modern European history?
Explain the ways in which Italian Renaissance humanism transformed ideas about the individual’s role in society.
Discuss how Renaissance ideas are expressed in the Italian art of the period, referring to specific works and artists.
Analyze the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. Use at least THREE specific works to support your analysis.
The Age of Discovery and the Commercial Revolution
Explain how economic, technological, political, and religious factors promoted European explorations from about 1450 to about 1525.
Focusing on the period before 1600, describe and analyze the cultural and economic interactions between Europe and the Western Hemisphere as a result of the Spanish and Portuguese exploration and settlement.
Explain how advances in learning and technology influenced fifteenth and sixteenth century European exploration and trade.
Unit II: Reformation, Religious Wars, and the Rise of Absolutism (1517-1715)
The Age of Reformation
“Luther was both a revolutionary and a conservative.”
Evaluate this statement with response to the political and social questions of the day.
What were the responses of the Catholic authorities in the 16th century to the challenges posed by the Lutheran Reformation?
“The Reformation was a rejection of the secular spirit of the Italian Renaissance.’
Defend or refute this statement using specific examples from sixteenth century Europe.
“The Protestant Reformation was primarily an economic event.”
By describing and determining the relative importance of the economic, political, and religious causes of the Protestant Reformation, defend or refute this statement.
Describe and analyze the ways in which the development of printing altered both the culture and the religion of Europe during the period 1450-1600.
In 1519 Charles of Hapsburg became Charles V, Holy Roman emperor. Discuss and analyze the political, social, and religious problems he faced over the course of his imperial reign (1519-56).
Describe and analyze the ways in which 16th century Roman Catholics defended their faith against the Protestant Reformation.
Compare and contrast the attitudes of Martin Luther and John Calvin toward political authority and social order.
Assess the extent to which the Protestant Reformation promoted new expectations about social roles in the 16th century. Refer to at least two social groups in your assessment.
Compare and contrast the Lutheran Reformation and the Catholic Reformation of the 16th century regarding the reform of both religious doctrines and religious practices.
Discuss the political and social consequences of the Protestant Reformation in the first half of the sixteenth century.
The Wars of Religion
Evaluate the relative importance of the religious rivalries and dynastic ambitions that shaped the course of the Thirty Years War.
Discuss the relationship between politics and religion by examining the wars of religion. Choose TWO specific examples from the following:
French Wars of Religion
English Civil War
Thirty Years’ War
“Leadership determines the fate of a country.”
Evaluate this quotation in reference to Spain’s experience under Philip II.
Compare and contrast the religious policies of TWO of the following:
Elizabeth I of England
Catherine de Medicis of France
Isabella I of Spain
The English Civil War
Analyze the ways in which both the theory and practice of monarchy evolved in England from the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 to the Glorious Revolution of 1688-89.
Describe and analyze the changes in the role of Parliament in English politics between the succession of James I and the Glorious Revolution.
The Age of Absolutism
In the seventeenth century, what political conditions accounted for the increased power of both the Parliament in England and the monarchy in France?
In what ways and to what extent did absolutism affect the power and status of the European nobility in the period 1650 to 1750? Use examples from at least TWO countries.
Louis XIV declared his goal was "one king, one law, one faith." Analyze the methods the king used to achieve this objective and discuss the extent to which he was successful.
Unit III: Europe in Flux: Science, Culture, Thought, and Society (1500-1800)
The Scientific Revolution
“Nature and nature’s laws lay hid in night. God said, ‘Let Newton be,’ and all was light.”
The couplet above was Alexander Pope’s way of expressing the relationship between the Scientific Revolution and Christianity. What was the effect of 17th century science on Christianity, and how did each react to the other?
How did the developments in scientific thought from Copernicus to Newton create a new conception of the universe and of humanity’s place within it?
Describe the new astronomy of the 16th and 17th centuries and analyze the ways in which it changed scientific thought and methods.
Explain the development of the scientific method in the seventeenth century and the impact of scientific thinking on traditional sources of authority.
Assess the impact of the Scientific Revolution on religion and philosophy in the period 1550 to 1750.
Culture, Thought and Society of the 16th/17th/18th Centuries
“By 1700 it had become evident that Western Europe and Eastern Europe were moving in opposite directions in terms of their basic social structures.” Discuss.
“In 17th century England the aristocracy lost its privileges but retained its power; in 17th century France the aristocracy retained its power but lost its privileges.”
Assess the accuracy of this statement with respect to political events and social developments in the two countries in the 17th century.
Analyze the ways in which the contrasting syles of these two paintings reflect the different economic values and social structures of France and the Netherlands in the 17th century.
Analyze at least TWO factors that account for the rise and TWO factors that explain the decline of witchcraft persecution and trials in Europe in the period from 1580 to 1750.
Unit IV: Power, Empire, War, and Rebellion in Eastern and Western Europe (1686-1763)
In the 17th century, England and the Netherlands developed effective capitalist economies, while Spain did not. Why did the economies develop so differently in England and the Netherlands, on the one hand, and in Spain, on the other?
“In the fifteenth century, European society was still centered on the Mediterranean region, but by the end of the seventeenth century, the focus of Europe had shifted north.”
Identify and analyze the economic, (religious and cultural) developments between 1450 and 1700 that helped bring about this shift.
Analyze the changes in the European economy from about 1450 to 1700 brought about by the voyages of exploration and by colonization. Give specific examples.
Analyze the influence of the theory of mercantilism on the domestic and foreign policies of France (England, Spain, and the Dutch Republic), 1600-1715.
Describe and analyze how overseas expansion by European states affected global trade and international relations from 1600 to 1715.
Power, Empire, War, & Rebellion
Why were Europeans able to achieve economic and political control over many non-European peoples between 1450 and 1750?
How did the disintegration of the medieval church and the coming of the Reformation contribute to the development of nation-states in Western Europe between 1450 and 1648?
In the 17th century, how did England and the Dutch Republic compete successfully with France and Spain for control of overseas territory and trade?
Analyze the major ways through which Czar Peter the Great (1689-1725) sought to reform his society and its institutions in order to strengthen Russia and its position in Europe.
Analyze the military, political, and social factors that account for the rise of Prussia between 1640 and 1786.
In 1490 there was no such country as Spain, yet within a century it had become the most powerful nation in Europe and within another had sunk to the status of a third-rate power. Describe and analyze the majore social, economic, and political reasons for Spain’s rise and fall.
Unit V: The Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and Napoleon (1648-1815)
Discuss how the Enlightenment was an attempt to apply the principles of the Scientific Revolution to the problems of human society.
Compare the rise of absolute monarchy and enlightened despotism in Prussia (Austria and Russia) from the late 17th century to the eve of the French Revolution.
Trace the evolution of religious toleration as a political practice and assess the factors behind its developments from the Reformation through the Enlightenment.
How did social and political conditions in eighteenth century Western Europe, prior to 1788, influence the ideas of the Enlightenment?
Compare and contrast the cultural values of the Enlightenment with those of the sixteenth century Northern Renaissance.
In what ways did Enlightenment thinkers build on or make use of the ideas of Newton and Locke?
Compare and contrast the views of Machiavelli, (Hobbes, Locke) and Rousseau on human nature and the relationship between government and the governed.
“In the eighteenth century, people turned to the new science for a better understanding of the social and economic problems of the day.”
Assess the validity of this statement by using specific examples from the Enlightenment era.
Analyze the ways in which specific intellectual and scientific developments of the 17th and 18th centuries contributed to the emergence of the religious outlook known as “Deism.”
Analyze the ways in which Enlightenment thought addressed religious beliefs and social issues in the 18th century.
To what extent did the Enlightenment express optimistic ideas in 18th century Europe? Illustrate your answer with references to specific individuals and their works.
Machiavelli suggested that a ruler should behave both “like a lion” and “like a fox.” Analyze the policies of TWO of the following European rulers, indicating the degree to which they successfully followed Machiavelli’s suggestion.
Elizabeth I of England
Catherine the Great of Russia
Henry IV of France
Frederick II of Prussia
The French Revolution & Napoleon
“The essential cause of the French Revolution was the collision between a powerful, rising bourgeoisie and an entrenched aristocracy defending its privileges.”
Assess the validity of this statement as an explaination of the events leading up to the French Revolution of 1789.
To what extent and in what ways was the French Revolution during the period 1789 through the Reign of Terror (1794) an attempt to create a government based on Enlightenment ideals?
“Political leaders committed to radical or extremists goals often exert authoritarian control in the name of higher values.”
Support or refute this statement with reference to the political and cultural policies of Robespierre during the French Revolution.
Identify the major social groups in France on the eve of the 1789 Revolution. Assess the extent to which their aspirations were achieved in the period from the meeting of the Estates General in May of 1789 to the declaration of the republic in September of 1792.
How and to what extent did Enlightenment ideas about religion and society shape the policies of the French Revolution in the period 1789 to 1799?
Napoleon & the Congress of Vienna
Napoleon I is sometimes called the greatest enlightened despot. Evaluate this assessment in terms of Napoleon I’s policies and accomplishments. Be sure to include a definition of enlightened despotism in your answer.
“Napoleon was a child of the Enlightenment”
Assess the validity of the statement above. Use examples referring both to specific aspects of the Enlightenment and to Napoleon’s policies and attitudes.
The Concert of Europe
Analyze the development of the ideas and diplomatic practices in the 18th century that culminated in the establishment of the Concert of Europe, 1815-1825.
Unit VI: The Age of ‘...isms’ and Revolution (1815-1848)
Discuss the extent to which 19th century romanticism was or was NOT a conservative cultural and intellectual movement.
Discuss some of the ways in which Romantic artists, musicians, and writers responded to political and socioeconomic conditions in the period 1800 to 1850. Document your response with specific examples from discussions of at least two of the three disciplines: visual arts, music, and literature.
Analyze three examples of the relationship between Romanticism and nationalism before 1850.
A favorite device of social critics has been to construct model societies to illuminate the problems and the shortcomings of their times and to project a possible blueprint for the future. Describe and compare the utopias of Jean Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx. What were the chief faults they found with their own societies and how were their utopias designed to correct them?
Discuss the origins and evolution of European liberalism as a political movement during the 19th century.
Identify and explain the similarities and differences between socialism and liberalism in 19th century Europe.
Describe and analyze the issues and ideas in the debate (between conservatives, liberals
, and socialists) in Europe between 1750 and 1846 over the proper rule of government in the economy. Give specific examples.
The Agricultural Revolution
Identify features of the eighteenth-century Agricultural Revolution and analyze its social and economic consequences.
The Industrial Revolution
Compare the economic, political, and social conditions in Great Britain and in France during the eighteenth century, showing why they favored the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain more so than in France.
There were a number of factors that delayed the industrialization of Eastern Europe. Discuss them and then compare them with the factors that encouraged the earlier industrialization of Western Europe.
Discuss the combination of social, cultural, political, and economic factors that allowed Great Britain to be the first nation to industrialize.
Contrast the ways in which European skilled craftsmen of the mid-18th century and European factory workers of the late-19th century differed in their work behavior and in their attitudes toward work.
Identify the social and economic factors in preindustrial England that explains why England was the first country to industrialize.
Evaluate the effectiveness of collective responses by workers to industrialization in Western Europe during the course of the 19th century.
Between 1750 and 1850, more and more Western Europeans were employed in cottage industry and in factory production. Analyze how these two types of employment affected employer-employee relations
, working conditions, family relations, and the standard of living during this period.
Describe and analyze the economic, cultural, and social changes that led to and sustained Europe’s rapid population growth in the period from approximately 1650 to 1800.
Discuss three developments that enabled Great Britain to achieve a dominant economic position between 1700 and 1830.
1848 and Marxism
How, and in what ways
, did the writings of Karl Marx draw on the Enlightenment concepts of progress, natural law, and reason?
, 1848, the middle classes and workers in France joined to overthrow the government of Louis Philippe. By June, the two groups were at odds in their political, economic, and social thinking. Analyze what transpired to divide the groups and describe the consequences for French politics.
Between 1815 and 1848 the condition of the laboring classes and the problem of political stability were critical issues in England. Describe and analyze the reforms that social critics and politicians of this period proposed to resolve these problems.
Describe the ways in which conservative political and social views shaped the peace settlement of the Congress of Vienna. Explain the consequences of the peace settlement for the period 1815 to 1848.
Unit VII: The Age of Nation-States (1853-1880)
The Age of Nationalism and Nation-States
The dynastic state of the 17th and 18th centuries was succeeded by the nation-state in the 19th century. Describe this evolution and consider the forces responsible for this shift in function and structure.
Write an essay that relates the development of the large conscripted citizen army from its origins in the “levee en masse” to the emergence of the modern nation-state.
Assess the extent to which the unification of Germany under Bismarck led to authoritarian government there between 1871 and 1914.
Analyze and compare the effects of nationalism on Italian and Austro-Hungarian politics between 1815 and 1914.
Contrast the impact of nationalism in Germany and the Austrian Empire from 1848 to 1914.
Unit VIII: 19th-Century European Society & the Birth of Modern European Thought(1850-1914
Late 19th Century European Society and Economy
How did the extension of the franchise after 1850 affect the programs and attitudes of the radical, liberal, and conservative parties in the major Western European nations?
“By 1900 the artist had either to be a critic of the times or to develop art for its own sake.” Discuss.
What political and social changes in Western and Central Europe account for the virtual disappearance of revolutionary outbreaks in the half-century following 1848?
Describe the steps taken between 1832 and 1918 to extend suffrage in England. What groups and movements contributed to the extension of the vote?
To what extent did Marx and Freud each challenge the 19th century liberal belief in rationality and progress?
Describe and compare the differences among Utopian socialists, Karl Marx, and Revisionist socialists in their critiques of 19th century European economy and society.
Discuss the effects of the industrial economy on Western European peasant women and workingclass women from 1830 to 1914.
Between 1450 and 1800, many women gained power as rulers, some as reigning queens
, others as regents. Identify two such powerful women and discuss how issues of gender, such as marriage and reproduction, influenced their ability to obtain and exercise power.
Analyze the key developments that characterized the European economy in the second half of the 19th century.
Discuss the ways in which European Jews were affected by and responded to liberalism, nationalism, and anti-Semitism in the ninteenth century.
Describe the physical transformation of European cities in the second half of the 19th century and analyze the social consequences of this transformation.
Compare and contrast the roles of British working women in the preindustrial economy (before 1750) with their roles in the era 1850 to 1920.
Analyze how and why western European attitudes toward children and child-rearing changed in the period from 1750-1900.
The Birth of Modern European Thought
“The world of Newton and Locke viewed men and the universe in a very different manner than that of Einstein and Freud.”
Describe the differences in their outlook, illustrate the change in view that occurred, and discuss the consequences for modern society.
Discuss the decline of the aristocracy in Western Europe. When did the decline occur, what forms did it take, and what factors caused it?
To what extent and in what ways did intellectual developments in Europe in the period 1880- 1920 undermine confidence in human rationality and in a well-ordered, dependable universe?
Describe and analyze the ways in which Marxism, Freudianism, and the women’s movement challenged the traditional European beliefs before the First World War.
How did new theories in physics and psychology in the period from 1900 to 1939 challenge existing ideas about the individual and society?
Unit IX: Imperialism, Alliances, and the First World War (1870-1919)
Assess the nature and importance of economic factors that helped determine the race for empire among the major European powers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Compare and contrast the motives for European overseas expansion during the Age of Discovery (15th and 16th centuries) and during the Age of New Imperialism (19th and early 20th centuries).
How and in what ways were economic and political factors responsible for intensifying European imperialist activity in Africa from the mid-19th century to the beginning of the First World War.
Analyze the policies of three European colonial powers regarding Africa between 1871 and 1914.
19th Century Foreign Policy
Compare and contrast the foreign policy goals and achievements of Metternich (1815-1848) and Bismarck (1862-1890)
The First World War
Discuss the ways in which the First World War contributed to the death of the aristocratic tradition in politics, social structure
, and culture.
“The Treaty of Vienna (1815) was a more realistic accommodation to the post-Napoleonic period than was the Versailles settlement (1919) to the post-First World War period.”
Decide the merits of the statement above and in a well-developed argument support your decision with a carefully reasoned analysis of the events mentioned.
Assess the major social, political, and technological changes that took place in European warfare between 1789 and 1918.
“1914-1918 marks a turning point in the intellectual and cultural history of Europe.”
Defend, refute, or modify this statement with reference to the generation before and the generation after the First World War.
Analyze and assess the extent to which the First World War accelerated European social change in such areas as work, sex roles, and government involvement in everyday life.”
To what extent and in what ways did nationalistic tensions in the Balkans between 1870 and 1914 contribute to the outbreak of the First World War?
Unit X: Russia and the Soviet Union (1855-1940)
Russia and the Soviet Union
“In the last century and a half, Russia’s principal economic problem has been the peasantry.”
Evaluate this statement, indicating your degree of agreement or disagreement, and the reasons for your position.
“Every successful revolution puts on in time the robes of the tyrant it has deposed.”
Evaluate this statement with regard to the English Revolution (1640-1660), the French Revolution (1789-1815), and the Russian Revolution (1917-1930).
What aspects of Russian society and institutions were most changed and what aspects least changed by the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917? Limit your discussion to the first ten years (1917-1927) of the new regime and account for the changes you note.
Compare the economic roles of the state under 17th century mercantilism and 20th century communism. Illustrate your answer with reference to the economic system of France during Louis XIV’s reign under Colbert and of the Soviet Union under Stalin.
What policies of the Stalinist government perpetuated the essential features of the czarist regime under Nicholas II (1894-1917)?
In what ways, and why, did Lenin alter Marxism? (Palmer)
To what extent did the emancipation of Russian serfs and other reforms in the 19th century contribute to the modernization of Russia before the First World War?
Compare and contrast the roles of the peasants and urban workers from the French Revolution of 1789 to that of the peasants and urban workers during the Russian Revolutions of 1917.
“The czarist regime fell in 1917 because it had permitted tremendous change and progress in some areas while trying to maintain a political order that had outlived its time.”
Assess the validity of this statement as an explanation of the abdication of Nicholas II in 1917.
Describe and analyze the long-term social and economic trends in the period 1860 to 1917 that prepared the ground for revolution in Russia.
Compare and contrast the extent to which Catherine the Great and Joseph Stalin were “Westernizers.”
Compare and contrast the extent to which the French Revolution (1789-1799) and the Russian Revolution (1917-1924) changed the status of women.
Unit XI: Depression, Totalitarianism, and the Second World War (1920-1945)
How, and in what ways, did European painting and literature reflect the disillusionment in society between 1919 and 1939? Support your answer with specific artistic or literary examples.
Culture Between the Wars
The culture of the years between the two world wars (1918-1939) was marked by experimentation and an interest in the irrational. Select any two European works of art or literature from this period and describe their significance in terms of these characteristics.
Analyze the impact of the First World War on European culture and society in the interwar period (1919-1939).
Discuss the economic and social factors that gave rise to the totalitarian systems of communism and fascism in the 20th century.
“The centralized governments of continental Europe dominated the rate and direction of industrial development in their respective countries in the period 1850-1940.”
Explain the facts and events that form the basis of this statement and describe the specific ways in which the statement is a valid generalization about the period 1850-1940.
From 1830 to 1933 the lower classes have used direct action protest ranging from strikes and riots to revolution as a means of effecting social and political change. Using specific examples from France and Germany, write an essay in which you explain the effectiveness of such means in bringing about social and political change.
Why did Germany’s experiment with parliamentary democracy between 1919 and 1933 fail?
Compare the rise to power of fascism in Italy and in Germany.
“Dictators in 20th century Europe had much greater control over culture and society than had divine right monarchs of earlier centureis.”
Assess the validity of this statement, using specific examples from each era to support your position.
Discuss and analyze the political and economic reasons for the failure of parliamentary democracy in Germany after the First World War.
Compare and contrast the patronage of the arts by Italian Renaissance rulers with that by dictators of the 1930s.
Compare and contrast the French Jacobins' use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals during the Terror (1793-1794) with Stalin's use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals in the Soviet Union during the period 1928 to 1939.
Analyze the ways in which technology and mass culture contributed to the success of dictators in the 1920's and 1930's.
Woodrow Wilson’s belief that the major causes of the First World War were the armaments race, rival imperialisms
, secret diplomacy, and nationalist price was widely accepted in the period 1919-1934. How did the acceptance of Wilson’s view shape the diplomacy of the great powers during this period?
Compare and contrast the efforts to ensure European collective security that were made by the victorious powers between 1815 and 1830 (after the Napoleonic Wars) with those made by the victorious powers between 1918 and 1933 (after the First World War).
Contrast European diplomacy in the periods 1890 to 1914 and 1918 to 1939, respectively. Include in your analysis goals, practices, and results.
Compare and contrast the degree of success of treaties negotiated in Vienna (1814-1815) and Versailles (1919) in achieving European stability.
The Second World War
“Every war creates illusions and is conducted in the name of unrealizable ideals.”
Evaluate this statement by comparing the goals for which the First World War was fought to those for which the Second World War was fought.
Compare and contrast the relationships between the great powers and Poland in the periods 1772-1815 and 1918-1939.
Account for the responses of the European democracies to the military aggression by Italy and Germany during the 1930s.
Unpopular minority groups have been a persistant historical dilemma. Explain and discuss the reasons why the Huguenots in seventeenth century France, the Irish in nineteenth century Great Britain, and the Jews in twentieth century Central and Eastern Europe were unpopular with the majority and treated harshly.
Unit XII: Cold War, Union, Democracy, and Nationalism
The Cold War
“Repeatedly in the course of modern European history a single state has threatened the balance of power; these threats have been met by coalitions of powers which have dissolved when the threats were contained.”
Discuss this statement with regard to France under Louis XIV and the Soviet Union under Stalin, and show how it would apply in each case.
Analyze the ways in which the Cold War affected the political development of European nations from the end of the Second World War in 1945 to the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961.
Describe and analyze the changing relationships between the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries from 1945 to 1970.
Describe and analyze the resistance to Soviet authority in the Eastern bloc from the end of the Second World War through 1989. Be sure to include examples from at least two Soviet satellite countries.
Compare and contrast the political and economic effects of the Cold War (1945-1991) on Western Europe with the effects on Eastern Europe.
Analyze three reasons for the end of Soviet domination over Eastern Europe.
Post-war European Government, Economy and Union
Discuss the role of economic and technological change as a factor in the consolidation of the nation-state in the 19th century and as a factor in the emergence of regional blocs of industrial states in the 20th century.
Analyze the transition in England and Germany from the economic individualism of the 19th century to the welfare state of the 20th century.
Enumerate and explain some of the major causes that contributed to the oscillation from strong to weak governments in France during the period from 1789 to the founding of the Fifth Republic in 1958.
Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the economic revival of Western Europe between 1945 and the 1970s.
Analyze the common political and economic problems facing Western European nations in the period 1945-1960 and discuss their responses to these problems.
Using specific examples from Eastern and Western Europe, discuss economic development during the period 1945 to the present, focusing on ONE of the following:
a) Economic recovery and integration.
b) Development of the welfare state and its subsequent decline.
Analyze the factors working for and against European unity from 1945 to 2001.
Post-war European Society, Art and Science
“Every age projects its own image of man into its art.”
Assess the validity of this statement with reference to two representative 20th century European works in either the visual or literary arts.
To what extent and in what ways has 20th century physics challenged the Newtonian view of the universe and society?
Analyze the ways in which technology was an issue in European social activism between 1945 and 1970. Be sure to include three of the following: environmentalism, peace movements, student protests, women’s movements, worker’s movements.
Analyze criticisms of European society presented by European authors in the period 1940 to 1970. Be sure to discuss at least two works.
Compare and contrast the attitudes toward science and technology held by Enlightenment thinkers with the various attitudes help by European artists and intellectuals in the 20th century.
Identify four specific changes in science and technology, and explain their effects on Western European family and private life between 1918 and 1970.
Compare and contrast the woman’s suffrage movements of the late nineteenth century and early twentieth centuries with the European feminist movements of the 1960s and 1970s.
Modern European Nationalism
Many historians have suggested that since 1945, nationalism has been on the decline in Europe. Using both political and economic examples from the period 1945 to 2000, evaluate the validity of this interpretation.