Ap european History Exam: Chapters 30 and 31 Cold War, Social Transformations, and New Challenges directions: Create an answer sheet on a sheet of paper (Neatly number 1 to 80) or print out answer sheet

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AP European History Exam: Chapters 30 and 31

Cold War, Social Transformations, and New Challenges

DIRECTIONS: Create an answer sheet on a sheet of paper (Neatly number 1 to 80) or print out answer sheet.

  1. In 1945, the Second World War left only these nations with the economic and military strength to significantly influence world affairs

    1. United States, U.S.S.R., Great Britain, France, China

    2. United States, U.S.S.R., Great Britain, China

    3. United States, U.S.S.R., Great Britain, France

    4. United States, U.S.S.R., Great Britain

    5. United States, U.S.S.R.

  1. Soviet and Western wartime cooperation (the Grand Alliance) had already degenerated into serious tensions at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945 because

    1. Harry S. Truman, who had succeeded to the presidency after the death of Roosevelt in April, plainly expressed his dislike of Stalin

    2. Winston Churchill had strained relations with is claims of Soviet empire building in Eastern Europe

    3. the Soviets had reneged on their promise to enter the war against Japan

    4. Stalin had reneged on his promise to allow free elections in Soviet-occupied Eastern Europe

    5. the U.S. A-bomb attacks on Japan had intimidated the Soviets

  1. Americans make no attempt to roll back the Soviets in Eastern Europe because

    1. mostly wanted to “get the boys home”

    2. had the atomic bomb

    3. keeping with peacetime plans and goals

    4. the Red Army controlled Eastern Europe

    5. All of the above

  1. U.S. President Harry Truman first asked Congress for $400 million to aid

    1. Czechoslovakia and Poland

    2. Greece and Turkey

    3. Poland and Hungary

    4. Korea and Vietnam

    5. Cuba and Guatemala

  1. The creation of the United Nations stemmed from

    1. a campaign for “world morality”

    2. a desire to reconcile Germans and Jews

    3. the desire to resolve international problems

    4. a need to establish definitive spheres of influence between the superpowers

    5. the desire to stop the spread of Nazism

  1. The leader of the Hungarian Communist Party which resisted the Russians in 1956 was

    1. Wladyslaw Gomulka

    2. Imre Nagy

    3. Lech Walesa

    4. Wojciech Jaruzelski

    5. Alexander Dubcek

  2. The Christian Democrats in Western Europe in the 1950s

    1. resisted adopting social welfare programs.

    2. uniformly rejected the idea of mixed economy.

    3. worked to improve Communist relations with the Catholic Church

    4. initiated the Common Market.

    5. reduced the size of the government.

  1. Stalin agrees to “free elections” in Eastern Europe

    1. at Yalta

    2. at Tehran

    3. at Potsdam

    4. as part of the Atlantic Charter

    5. as part of the UN Charter

  1. Why do the Soviets say no to Marshall Plan aid?

    1. U.S.S.R. was already industrialized

    2. Receives all it needs from Eastern Europe

    3. Marshall Plan funds were not offered to Communist countries

    4. Fear of American interference in Eastern Europe

    5. COMECON was providing enough natural resources for industrialization

  1. What is the best title for the political cartoon above from the Cold War?

    1. The “Spirit of Geneva”

    2. “Containment”

    3. Lebensraum

    4. “God bless America”

    5. Truman Doctrine

  1. Soviet actions in Eastern Europe lead to increased determination by the United States. Which nation becomes an important check to a growing Soviet threat?

    1. Poland

    2. France

    3. Great Britain

    4. Czechoslovakia

    5. Germany

  1. Which of the following integrates Eastern Europe economies into Communist command economy dominated by the Soviet Union?

    1. NATO

    2. Warsaw Pact

    3. Marshall Plan

    4. COMECON

    5. OEEC

  1. A definitive break from the United States’ traditional policy of isolationism was marked by its

    1. criticism of Stalin’s establishment of repressive governments in Eastern Europe

    2. participation in the Nuremberg War Crime trials

    3. growing anti-Communism at home

    4. commitment to the reconstruction and defense of Western Europe

    5. generosity to its former enemies

  1. What event began to reduce US economic aid (Marshall Plan) to Europe?

    1. Korean War

    2. Dien Bien Phu

    3. Italians occupation of the Rhineland

    4. Vietnam War

    5. Sputnik

  1. Which of the following is NOT true about the Yalta Conference?

    1. The “Big Three” agreed about opening the “second front”

    2. The “Big Three” agree to disarm, de-Nazify and divide Germany into four zones

    3. Stalin agrees to free elections in Eastern Europe

    4. The “Wilsonian” United Nations is discussed.

  1. The Truman Doctrine of 1947

    1. rebuilt Europe economically

    2. supplied Berlin with goods during the Soviet blockade

    3. supported free people who were resisting subjugation from the Soviets or their allies

    4. allowed the creation of Israel

    5. blocked the spread of communism in Latin America

  1. What led the Soviets to blockade West Berlin?

    1. The formation of NATO.

    2. Marshall Plan aid to West Germany.

    3. The crash of a U-2 spy flight over Soviet territory.

    4. The reunification of the three Western zones of Germany.

    5. Cuban missile crisis.

  1. All of the following are true of the Soviet satellites in Eastern Europe from 1945 to 1953 EXCEPT

    1. land distribution programs were carried out

    2. agriculture was forcibly collectivized

    3. industrialization was discouraged

    4. Soviet police state methods silenced opposition to the regimes

    5. the influence of the Roman Catholic Church was removed

  1. Despite his record as one of history’s most brutal dictators, responsible for the death of tens of millions of his own countrymen and for the establishment of communist totalitarianism in Russia, Stalin achieved which of the following?

    1. The industrialization and modernization of a backward agrarian nation

    2. Postwar reconstruction of the U.S.S.R.’s massive devastation within a decade

    3. The expansion of Soviet hegemony

    4. Victory in the “Great Patriotic War”

    5. All of the above

  1. Place the following events in the correct chronological order:

      1. “Prague Spring”

      2. Cuban Missile Crisis

      3. Communist victory in the Chinese civil war

      4. Détente

        1. IV, I, II, III

        2. III, II, I, IV

        3. II, III, IV, I

        4. I, IV, II, III

  1. After the death of Stalin in 1953, the new party leadership, headed by Nikita Khruschev, did all of the following EXCEPT

    1. leave intact the basic structure of Stalinist totalitarianism

    2. grant the satellites of Eastern Europe greater autonomy/freedom

    3. denounce the “crimes of Stalin” in victimizing the people and the party

    4. accuse Stalin of failing to respond effectively against the initial advances of the Nazi invaders

    5. accuse Stalin of creating a “cult of personality”

  1. Despite the spectacular Soviet reconstruction successes of the postwar Five-Year Plans developed by centralized economic planning (Gosplan), production of which of the following lagged far behind the rest of the economy by the 1960s?

    1. Military weaponry

    2. Heavy machinery

    3. Automobiles

    4. Food

    5. Spacecraft

  1. Alexander Dubcek’s establishment of “socialism with a human face” in Czechoslovakia

    1. was militarily and economically supported by the United States as part of the Truman Doctrine.

    2. received the same treatment as the Hungarian Revolution by the Soviet Union.

    3. proved to be a sham in that little change was really made.

    4. sparked a similar movement in Poland.

    5. led to the building of the Berlin Wall.

  1. All of the following nations are part of the Soviet Bloc except

    1. Bulgaria

    2. East Germany

    3. Hungary

    4. Romania

    5. Yugoslavia

  1. Prague Spring ends

    1. when missiles are removed from Czechoslovakia.

    2. the United States sends Marshall Plan aid.

    3. when a massive Soviet and Warsaw Pact force invades.

    4. when the UN Security Council speaks out.

    5. because Czechs protest in massive numbers, wanting to move towards a more Stalinist communism.

  1. The Truman Doctrine and Brezhnev Doctrine both

    1. claimed that the Superpowers have the right to intervene in the domestic affairs of smaller countries.

    2. promised that the Superpowers would act only in cooperation with their allies.

    3. promised that the Superpowers would support the civil rights of all Europeans.

    4. focused on the rights of the Superpowers in occupied Germany and Austria.

    5. were enunciated initially in relationship to civil war in Turkey and Greece.

  1. European unity in the 1950s and 1960s

    1. was successfully first politically, then economically.

    2. developed without the participation of Britain.

    3. was enthusiastically endorsed by Charles de Gaulle

    4. began with Belgium and Holland over objections of Germany.

    5. involved creating an independent nuclear force under European control.

  1. Conservative party figures ousted Khruschev from the Soviet leadership because of all of the following EXCEPT

    1. Stalin’s former henchmen feared that Khrushchev’s de-Stalinization campaign would ultimately reach them

    2. Khrushchev’s 1958 failure to force the NATO allies out of West Berlin

    3. Khrushchev’s humiliation in the Cuban missile crisis of 1962

    4. De-Stalinization ultimately threatened the party’s monopoly on political power

    5. Khrushchev’s readiness to let Soviet satellites leave the Warsaw Pact

  1. The Brezhnev era in the Soviet Union appeared stable for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

    1. the coercive apparatus of the state and party

    2. the high rate of growth in the consumer goods sector of the economy

    3. the nationalism of ordinary Great Russians

    4. a gradually rising standard of living

    5. access to special stores, travel aboard, and other privileges for elites

  1. The Cold War “thawed” because of all of the following EXCEPT

    1. the U-2 incident

    2. summit (meetings or conferences) diplomacy

    3. the SALT negotiations

    4. the Soviet-Chinese rift

    5. Nixon’s policies toward the U.S.S.R. and China

  1. The Helsinki Agreement of 1975 called for

    1. the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons

    2. the reunification of eastern and western Europe

    3. respect for human rights and the recognition of existing political boundaries

    4. American de-escalation in Vietnam and Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan

    5. Finnish neutrality in the Cold War

  1. The word Zionist movement was founded by

    1. Shimon Peres

    2. Ariel Sharon

    3. Theodor Herzl

    4. Menachem Begin

    5. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

  1. The Balfour Declaration of 1917

    1. condemned the Russian Revolution

    2. supported the Russian Revolution

    3. favored the establishment of a national home for Jews in Palestine

    4. condemned the world Zionist movement

    5. brought an end to fighting on the Eastern Front during World War I

  1. In the 1920s and 1930s, ____________ built a mass movement in India preaching nonviolent “non-cooperation”

    1. Nehru

    2. Gandhi

    3. Ashoka

    4. Jinna

    5. Das Gupta

  1. In 1931, with Guomindang or Nationalists armies closing in on him, ___________ led his followers on a 5,000 mile march

    1. Mao Zedong

    2. Chiang Kai-shek

    3. Ho Chi Minh

    4. Gandhi

    5. Sun Yatsen

  1. In 1954, the _________ were defeated by the forces of Ho Chi Minh

    1. Portuguese

    2. Dutch

    3. Italians

    4. British

    5. French

  1. In 1956, Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the ________, provoking a military conflict with France and Britain

    1. Egyptian oil industry

    2. Egyptian steel industry

    3. Suez Canal Company

    4. Egyptian energy industry

    5. Egyptian agricultural sector

  1. The most compelling cause of European decolonization after World War II was that

    1. Europeans were losing money from their colonies.

    2. European states were too weak to resist Asian and African peoples’ demands for national self-determination.

    3. Europeans had already taken all the natural resources from the colonies, so they no longer had need for them.

    4. the Treaty of Versailles called for self-determination.

    5. the colonies were turning to communism.

  1. The Cuban Revolution brought _________ to power?

    1. Fulgencio Batista

    2. Fidel Castro

    3. Augusto Sandino

    4. Juan Peron

    5. Miguel Hidalgo

  1. The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962

    1. undermined Khrushchev’s credibility in the ruling circles of the Soviet Union

    2. caused non-European Communist regimes to question the Soviet Union’s commitment to their security and survival

    3. increased the influence of the People’s Republic of China in Communist circles

    4. All of the above

  1. French decolonization in sub-Saharan Africa

    1. broke all ties with the former colonies

    2. effectively removed Western influence in Africa

    3. resulted from long wars for colonial independence

    4. effectively cut France off from African markets

    5. enhanced economic and cultural ties with former colonies

  1. Jews in Palestine proclaimed the state of Israel when

    1. the French gave up their League of Nations mandate over Palestine

    2. Germany surrendered in May 1945

    3. the British withdrew from Palestine in 1948

    4. the United States proclaimed the Truman Doctrine in 1947

    5. the U.S. Congress promised economic assistance in 1949

  1. Under the Schumann and Monnet Plan, the first move toward economic union in Europe was made in 1952 when six industrial countries in the west pooled what resources?

    1. Coal and steel

    2. Hydroelectric power

    3. Military equipment

    4. Uranium and plutonium

    5. Skilled labor

  1. The European Economic Community or “Common Market” was created in 1957 by the same six nations that had pooled resources under the Schumann and Monnet Plan. It was made up of Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, and

    1. Britain, France, Italy

    2. Britain, France, West Germany

    3. Spain, Italy, West Germany

    4. France, Italy, Spain

    5. France, Italy, West Germany

  1. The ultimate goal of Robert Schuman’s plan for an international organization to coordinate coal and steel productions in Europe was to

    1. rebuild the European economy

    2. create a single competitive market in Europe

    3. reduce the influence of the United States

    4. bind the members of the Common Market so closely that war would be impossible

    5. facilitate an arms buildup to defend western Europe from the Warsaw Pact

  1. What country went through an “economic miracle” during the post-World War II era?

    1. Great Britain

    2. France

    3. West Germany

    4. Spain

    5. Austria

  1. The European Common Market was created by the Treaty of

    1. Paris

    2. Potsdam

    3. Rome

    4. Yalta

    5. Versailles

  1. The Maastricht Treaty of 1991

    1. ended the Cold War

    2. reunited Germany

    3. recognized Croatian independence

    4. recognized Slovenian independence

    5. set up a plan for creating a European monetary union with a single currency

  1. Opposition to the Maastricht Treaty was based on all of the following considerations EXCEPT

    1. resentment against the proliferation of EU regulations and large bureaucracy

    2. fear of undermining national sovereignty

    3. the belief that ordinary people would pay for monetary union by reduced social services

    4. the belief that the new currency would be easily manipulated and controlled by the United States

    5. fear of undermining popular control of government through national elections

  1. All of the following contributed to the emergence of the international youth culture in the 1960s EXCEPT

    1. mass communication and youth travel.

    2. postwar baby boom meant that young people made up a large part of the population, thus influencing the society as a whole.

    3. shift to a leaner, healthier lifestyle with nutrition and exercise as a base of society meant young people would be looked to for leadership.

    4. postwar prosperity and greater equality gave young people purchasing power.

    5. prosperity meant good jobs were readily available and young people could be a little unconventional and still get hired.

  1. The youth counterculture of the late 1950s and 1960s was characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

    1. experimentation with communal living

    2. unconventional sexual behavior

    3. new artistic styles

    4. anger at the injustices of racism and imperialism

    5. the embrace of materialism

  1. The photograph above of students leading a wave of social unrest that almost toppled De Gaulle’s Fifth Republic occurred in

    1. 1956 b. 1960 c. 1968 d. 1975 e. 1981

  1. The photograph above of the fall of the Berlin Wall would most likely have been taken in

    1. 1956

    2. 1968

    3. 1975

    4. 1989

    5. 2003

  1. The Manhattan Project was responsible for the development of

    1. jet aircraft

    2. radar

    3. the atomic bomb

    4. computers

    5. code-breaking algorithms

  1. When describing class distinctions and barriers of European post-World War II society all of the following terms could be used EXCEPT

    1. democratic

    2. fuzzier


    1. relaxed

    2. rigid

  1. The growth of the middle class in the postwar era has been attributed primarily to

    1. increased demand for technologists and managers

    2. the strength of family-owned businesses

    3. the high birthrate among this class

    4. increased opportunities for new businesses

    5. high taxes on the wealthy

  1. The leveling of European society was a product of all of the following EXCEPT

    1. social welfare programs

    2. increased immigration resulting from decolonization

    3. a rising standard of living and standardized consumer goods

    4. higher taxes on the rich

    5. high demand by government and corporations for technologists and managers

  1. Approximately what percentage of persons in the West educated in science and technology have been involved in weapons production in the postwar era?

    1. One-twentieth

    2. One-tenth

    3. One-fifth

    4. One-fourth

    5. One-half

  1. The misery index is a measurement that

    1. combines inflation and unemployment rates

    2. measures per capita levels of malnutrition and disease

    3. combines expenditures for oil and government deficits

    4. links per capita income to oil imports

    5. combines infant mortality rates and levels of illiteracy

  1. Simone de Beauvoir was

    1. an influential author in the postwar feminist movement

    2. Minister of Culture in Charles de Gaulle’s government

    3. a French Resistance fighter executed by the Nazis

    4. Secretary of the French Communist Party during the strikes and riots of 1947

    5. President of the Sorbonne during the student uprising of 1968

  1. Common goals of the women’s movement included all of the following EXCEPT

    1. eliminating discrimination in the workplace

    2. elimination of male-dominated governments

    3. legislation to legalize abortion and divorce

    4. support for programs to help single parents

    5. support for affordable day care

  1. The essence of Willy Brandt’s policies toward the Eastern bloc was

    1. to seek peace and reconciliation

    2. the reunification of Germany

    3. to reduce the influence of NATO in Germany

    4. to establish German neutrality in the cold war

    5. to reassert German claims to majority-German areas of eastern Europe

  1. Gorbachev’s encouragement of reform movements in Poland and Hungary was a repudiation of the __________ Doctrine

    1. Brezhnev

    2. Truman

    3. Stalin

    4. Glasnost

    5. Détente

  1. Gorbachev’s goal in initiating Perestroika and Glasnost was to

    1. introduce capitalism but prevent political democracy.

    2. enforce the Brezhnev Doctrine on the Soviet satellites.

    3. outmaneuver his rival, Boris Yeltsin.

    4. respond to criticisms from U.S. President Ronald Reagan.

    5. reform the Soviet system in order to maintain it.

  1. Gorbachev’s reforms included all of the following EXCEPT

    1. freer prices

    2. more independence for state enterprises

    3. the breakup of collective farms

    4. the establishment of profit-seeking private cooperatives

    5. a relaxation of state censorship

  1. The Solidarity movement of the 1980s was led by

    1. Mikhail Gorbachev

    2. Lech Walesa

    3. Alexander Dubcek

    4. Karol Wojtyla

    5. Wojciech Jaruzelski

  1. The only Eastern bloc country that responded to the pro-democracy movement of 1989 with bloody repression was

    1. Poland

    2. Czechoslovakia

    3. East Germany

    4. Romania

    5. Hungary

  1. ______________’s Velvet Revolution ousted the communist government from power

    1. Czechoslovakia

    2. Poland

    3. Hungary

    4. Romania

    5. Lithuania

  1. The __________ of 1990 was a general peace treaty that brought an end to World War II and the cold war

    1. Helsinki Accord

    2. Dayton Accord

    3. Paris Accord

    4. Washington Accord

    5. Berlin Accord

  1. The attempted coup by the communist old guard or hardliners in the Soviet Union in August 1991 failed because of

    1. massive popular resistance, rallied around Boris Yeltsin

    2. Gorbachev’s use of the Red Army to crush the rebels

    3. the threat of NATO intervention

    4. the inability of the old guard to decide on a new leader

    5. the United States’ threat to intervene

  1. The Cold War political cartoon representing Nikita Khrushchev and U.S. President John F. Kennedy was created in response to what event?

    1. Soviet Red Army in Eastern Europe

    2. De-Stalinization

    3. Building of the Berlin Wall

    4. Vietnam War

    5. Cuban Missile Crisis

  1. According to the text, economic “shock therapy” in Russia worked poorly for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

    1. transformation of state-owned monopolies into private monopolies

    2. runaway inflation

    3. distribution of subsidies (on bread, vodka, oil and public transportation) by the Yeltsin government

    4. tendency of the Russian managerial elite to form close ties with criminal elements to intimidate rivals

    5. strength of the ruble on international currency exchanges

  1. Vladimir Putin

    1. was head of the KGB under Gorbachev.

    2. was leader of the Chechen independence movement.

    3. was elected President of Russia in 2000.

    4. was Yeltsin’s chief economic adviser.

    5. headed the coal miner’s union in the Russian Far East.

  1. European responses to the U.S. wars in Vietnam in the 1960s and in Iraq in 2003 were similar in that

    1. they created a rift between Western Europe and the United States.

    2. generally, most western European governments supported them enthusiastically.

    3. both western and eastern European states sent small numbers of troops to support the United States.

    4. they voted against the United States in the United Nations Security Council.

    5. students protested but they were in the distinct minority in Europe.

  1. Most western European nations responded to the “stagflation” crisis of the 1970s and 1980s

    1. by cutting government spending.

    2. by returning to the gold standard.

    3. by maintaining social welfare programs to help the unemployed.

    4. with increased deficit spending.

    5. with an arms buildup to provide employment.

  1. In 2001, who was put on trial for war crimes for the tradegies in the Yugoslavian civil wars?

    1. Slobodan Milosevic

    2. Nicolae Ceausescu

    3. Helmut Kohl

    4. Vaclav Havel

    5. Erich Honecker

  1. The violence accompanying the breakup of Yugoslavia can best be explained by

    1. differing experiences in post communist economic life.

    2. the conflicting nationalisms of its former members.

    3. Slav hatred of non-Slavs.

    4. interference from outside powers.

    5. conflicts between communists and anti-communists.

  1. The text argues that the decline of western European birthrates is due to

    1. the entrance of married women into careers and the related drive for gender equality

    2. increasing rates of homosexuality

    3. government policies discouraging childbearing

    4. similar attitudes toward family size of women across class lines

    5. the decline of religious belief

  1. It is estimated that between 1993 and 2003, illegal immigration into the European Union

    1. remained constant at about 50,000 persons annually

    2. dropped precipitously from 50,000 to 10,000 per year

    3. rose from 50,000 to about 500,000 persons per year

    4. was nearly eliminated by tighter border security measures

    5. rose from 50,000 to perhaps 200,000 per year

  1. According to the text, many European intellectuals see Europe’s mission in the twenty-first century as

    1. incorporating Russia into NATO

    2. strengthening nationalism in European societies

    3. reviving the welfare state

    4. promoting human rights, democracy, and prosperity outside Europe

    5. developing a joint space program

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