Ap european History Chapter 22: The Age of Nation States



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AP European History



Chapter 22: The Age of Nation States

Chapter Overview:

  • Although conservatism was deeply entrenched across the Continent by 1850, many of the liberal and nationalists goals of the early nineteenth-century had been achieved.

    • Italy and Germany were each united under constitutional monarchies.

    • The Habsburg emperors accepted constitutional governments and recognized the liberties of the Magyars of Hungary.

    • France had become a republic.

    • Liberalism and democracy flourished in Great Britain.

  • Most liberal and nationalist developments in Europe occurred under conservative political leadership.

    • Leaders had to find new ways to secure the loyalties of their subjects.

Section One: The Crimean War (1853-1856)

  • Section Overview

    • Build-up to war

      • Russia wanted to extend its influence over the Ottoman Empire.

      • In 1851, yielding to French pressure, the Ottoman sultan had assigned care of certain holy places in Palestine to Roman Catholics which angered Russia.

      • Russia wanted to extend its control over the Ottoman provinces of Moldavia and Walachia which they occupied in the summer of 1853 under the pretext that they wanted to protect the Orthodox Christians in that region.

      • Shortly after, the Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.

    • Great European powers watched the events unfold as they didn’t want to see Russia grow too powerful.

      • France and Britain declared war on Russia

    • The War

      • First war covered by correspondents and photographers who exposed the ill-equipped and poorly commanded armies of both sides.

      • British and French seized the Russian fortress at Sevastopol in 1855 and the war ended shortly thereafter.

  • Peace Settlement and Long-term Results

    • Treaty of Paris (1856)

      • Russia was required to:

        • surrender territory near the mouth of the Danube River

        • recognize the neutrality of the Black Sea

        • renounce its claim of protector of Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire

    • Austria forced Russia from Moldavia and Walachia.

    • The Concert of Europe was shattered by the Crimean War

      • Since the great powers easily squashed the rebellions of 1848, they started to treat the Vienna settlement with less reverence

      • Generally, following the Crimean War, nations became adventurous with their foreign policies.

Section Two: Reforms in the Ottoman Empire

  • Sultan issued a decree called the Hatt-I Sharif of Gulhane

    • Ottoman leaders sought to reorganize the empire’s administration and military along European lines.

  • Tanzimat (Reorganization) Era in Ottoman History (1839-1876)

    • Liberalized the economy, ended the practice of tax farming, and sought to eliminate corruption.

    • Granted civic equality to Ottoman subjects regardless of faith

  • Hatti-I Humayun

    • Spelled out the rights of non-Muslims in the empire

      • Given equal obligations for military service and equal opportunity for state employment and admission to state schools

      • Western schools emerged in the Ottoman Empire

  • Nationalism and autonomy in the Ottoman Empire

    • In some regions, like Tunis and Egypt, local leaders were virtually independent of Istanbul.

  • Balkan wars of the late 1870s

    • Resulted in the independence of, or Russian or Austrian domination over, most of the Ottoman Empire’s European holdings

    • Ottoman response

      • Greater efforts to modernize the army and economy by building railways and telegraphs

      • Political modernization took place in 1876 when the Ottoman sultan proclaimed a constitution on the model of that of Europe.

        • Constitution called for a parliament consisting of an elected chamber of deputies and an appointed senate but left the sultan’s power mostly in tact

  • Young Turks

    • Reformists officers in the Ottoman army who were in charge of the Ottoman government when war broke out in 1914

Section Three: Italian Unification

  • Romantic Republicans

    • Carbonari (“charcoal burners”)

      • one of several secret republican societies established in Italy following the Congress of Vienna

    • Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) and Young Italy Society

      • became the most important nationalist leader in Europe

      • the goal was to drive Austria from the peninsula and establish an Italian republic

    • Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882)

      • led insurrections in Italy to promote unification

    • Count Camillo Cavour (1810-1861)—the Prime Minister of Piedmont—made unification possible through secret diplomacy and military force.

  • Cavour’s Policy

    • Piedmont—in northwestern Italy—was the most independent state on the Italian peninsula.

      • Congress of Vienna established Piedmont as a buffer between French and Austrian ambitions

    • King Victor Emmanuel I (1849-1878)

      • hired Cavour to be his Prime Minister

        • Cavour was a proven successful politician and was deeply imbued with Enlightenment ideas.

        • Cavour was a strong monarchist and rejected republicanism.

        • Promoted free trade, railway construction, etc, in order to prove to the rest of Europe that Italy was capable of governing itself

        • Established National Societies throughout Italy in order to proclaim the benefits that unification would bring the Italian peninsula.

        • King Victor Emmanuel I and Cavour sought help from France to defeat Austria

    • French Sympathies

      • Cavour helped the French and British in the Crimean War by sending 10,000 troops to help them capture Sebastopol and subsequently earned a spot at the peace conference where his artful diplomacy impressed Napoleon III of France.

      • By opposing Mazzini and his nationalist uprisings, Cavour preached a moderate liberal, monarchist alternative to both republicanism and reactionary absolutism in Italy.

      • Cavour and Napoleon III met in 1858 and worked out a plan to bait Austria into a war in Italy.

    • War with Austria

      • On June 4, the Austrians were defeated at Magenta, and on June 24 at Solferino.

      • Meanwhile, revolutions had broken out in Tuscany, Modena, Parma, and the Romagna provinces of the Papal States.

      • Although the coalition of French and Piedmont’s troops was crushing the Austrians, Napoleon III concluded peace with Austria at Villafranca.

        • Piedmont received Lombardy and later that year, Parma, Modena, Tuscany, and the Romagna voted to unite with Piedmont.

        • Venetia, however, remained under Austrian control.

    • Garibaldi’s Campaign

      • Cavour decided to pursue complete unification of northern and southern Italy.

      • Cavour sent Garibaldi with 1,000 troops to capture Palermo and went on to capture the kingdom of Naples and most of the territory in the Papal States, except Rome itself which was reserved for the papacy.

      • In 1860 Naples and Sicily voted to join a united Italy.

  • The New Italian State

    • In March 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of Italy.

    • Opposition

      • Republicans resented monarchy

      • Clerics were appalled at the conquest of the Papal States.

      • In the South, people opposed domination by the northern Piedmont.

    • The new government

      • Parliament consisted of two houses

        • senate appointed by the king

        • chamber of deputies elected by a narrow franchise.

      • King as supreme executive

    • Conquest of Venice and Rome

      • Venice joined a united Italy after Italy agreed to enter an alliance with Prussia against Austria in the Austro-Prussian War.

      • France protected Rome until the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 when they withdrew; Rome was annexed by Italy and made its capital.

    • Italia irredenta, or ”unredeemed Italy” was one reason for Italian support for the Allies against Austria and Germany during World War I as Austria still maintained possession of the cities of Trent and Trieste in Italy.

Section Four: German Unification

  • Section Overview

    • A unified Germany, which two generations of German liberals had sought, was actually achieved for the most illiberal reasons.

    • Although unification seemed impossible in 1850, a series of domestic political changes and problems within Prussia occurred that led to unification.

      • In 1858, Frederick William IV was determined to be insane and his brother, William I, took over the throne and William, less idealistic than Frederick William IV, immediately enlarged the Prussian military.

      • The Prussian Parliament, created by the constitution of 1850, refused to approve the new taxes to increase the size of the army and the monarchy and Parliament came to a deadlock.

  • Bismarck

    • Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)

      • Came from the Junker nobility

      • Attended a university and displayed an interest in German unification

      • In the 1840’s he was elected to the provincial diet and earned a reputation for being reactionary but later mellowed into a conservative.

      • He became Prussian ambassador to Russia and France

    • Bismarck was appointed prime minister in 1862

      • He immediately moved against the liberal Parliament

      • Bismarck claimed that the Prussian constitution permitted the government to carry out its functions on the basis of previously granted taxes; therefore, taxes could be collected and spent despite parliamentary refusal to vote them.

        • The army and bureaucracy supported this interpretation of the constitution.

    • Bismarck sought ways to use German nationalism as a strategy to enable Prussian conservatives to outflank Prussian liberals.

    • The Danish War (1864)

      • The kings of Denmark had long ruled over the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein but the Danish Parliament attempted to make them part of Denmark in 1863.

      • Prussia and Austria sent their militaries to prevent the move.

      • Convention of Gastein

        • Austria was put in charge of Holstein and Prussia in charge of Schleswig.

      • Bismarck’s diplomacy

        • He gained Russian support by helping squash a revolt that broke out in Poland.

        • He persuaded Napoleon III to stay neutral in an Austro-Prussian conflict.

      • In April 1866, Bismarck promised Italy Venetia if it attacked Austria in support of Prussia when the war broke out.

    • The Austro-Prussian War (1866)

      • Conflict between Austrian and Prussian troops erupted over the administration of Schleswig and Holstein.

      • One June 1, 1866, Austria appealed to the German Confederation to intervene in the dispute.

      • Bismarck claimed that this request violated the provisions of the Convention of Gastein and declared war on Prussia.

      • Seven Weeks’ War

        • Prussia defeated Austria at Koniggratz in Bohemia..

      • Treaty of Prague

        • Austria only lost Venetia

        • Permanently excluded the Austrian Habsburgs from German affairs and established Prussia as the only major power in Germany,

    • The North German Confederation

      • In 1867, Prussia annexed Hanover, Hesse Kassel, Nassau, and the city of Frankfurt, all of which supported Austria during the war.

        • All states north of the Main River were referred to as the North German Confederation

      • North German Confederation

        • Militarily it was united with Prussia

        • President of the Confederation was the King of Prussia and Bismarck was named chancellor

        • Two house legislature

          • Bundesrat (federal council)

            • composed of members appointed by the governments of the states

          • Reichstag (lower house)

            • Chosen by universal male suffrage.

        • Chancellor had to propose all laws which limited the power of the Reichstag

      • Bismarck crushed the Prussian liberals by making the monarchy and the army the most popular institutions in the country.



  • The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire (1870-1871)

    • Prince Leopold, a member of the Hohenzollern family and Catholic cousin of William I, was appointed King of Spain.

    • France objected to the appointment sent its ambassador to Prussia, Count Vincent Benedetti (1817-1900), to consult with William I.

    • On July 13, 1870, Leopold’s father renounced the candidacy of his son as he feared it would bring Prussia into war with France.

    • Bismarck, who wanted war with France, released an edited telegram from William I in which he insulted the French ambassador.

    • The French government fell for Bismarck’s bait and declared war on Prussia on July 19.

    • The War

      • The Prussian army, along with troops sent by the North German Confederation, easily demolished the French army.

      • On January 21, 1871, Paris was besieged and the French government surrendered after suffering a terrible defeat at the Battle of Sedan.

    • Peace Settlement

      • From the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles, Bismarck proclaimed the German Empire and united it under the authority of William I.

      • Germany annexed Alsace and part of Lorraine and forced the French to pay a large indemnity.

    • Affects of German Unification

      • A new powerful state emerged in north central Europe that was rich in natural resources and talented citizens.

      • A united Germany was a conservative victory

Section Five: France—From Liberal Empire to Third Republic

  • Section Overview

    • Historians divide the reign of Napoleon the third into two eras:

      • Years of authoritarian rule following his coup of power in 1851 when he controlled the legislature, censored the press, and harassed political dissidents.

        • He was supported by the army, property owners, French Catholic Church, peasants, and business people.

      • From the mid-1850s onward, he began to implement liberal concessions

        • Created a free-trade policy with Great Britain

        • Permitted freer debate in the legislature

        • Relaxed press laws

        • Lifted many restrictions on unions

        • Agreed to a liberal constitution that placed ministers beneath the law

    • Napoleon III was captured, and the Second Empire destroyed, at the Battle of Sedan in the Fanco-Prussian War

      • Shortly after Napoleon III’s capture, a republic was claimed in Paris

  • The Paris Commune

    • National Assembly following the Franco-Prussian War

      • Dominated by monarchists

      • Executive power given to Adolphe Thiers (1797-1877)

        • Thiers negotiated the settlement with Prussia

    • Parisian response to the siege of Paris

      • Having suffered during the siege of Paris, the people of Paris scorned the monarchist National Assembly—which operated from Versailles—and created new municipal government called the Paris Commune.

      • Paris Commune

        • Intended to administer Paris separately from the rest of France

        • The French army surrounded Paris on May 21 and slaughtered nearly 20,000 inhabitants and took control of the city

        • Marxists regarded the Paris Commune as a genuine proletarian government that the French bourgeoisie had suppressed.

        • Anarchist influences

          • Socialism of the Paris Commune had its roots in Blanqui and Proudhon’s anarchism as it did not want a worker’s state, but a nation of relatively independent , radically democratic enclaves.

    • Victory of the French government over the Paris Commune symbolized the power of the centralized nation-state.



  • The Third Republic

    • National Assembly forms a republican government because the monarchists members could not figure out who should be king

      • Both Bourbon and Orleans families claim right to throne

        • Bourbon claimant, the count of Chambord, had no sons and, therefore, no heir

        • Deal was made to make Chambord king with the son of the duke of Orleans as the heir

        • Chambord refused to become king unless the tricolor revolutionary flag was replaced by the white flag of the Bourbon family

        • National Assembly refused to accept the symbolism of political absolutism represented by the white flag of the Bourbon family

      • The monarchist in the National Assembly elected Marshal Patrice Mac Mahon (1808-1893), a conservative army officer, as president and expected him to prepare for a monarchist restoration.

    • Still without a king in 1875, the National Assembly decided to standardize its political system.

      • Legislature

        • Chamber of Deputies

          • elected by universal male suffrage

        • Senate

          • chosen indirectly

      • President

        • Elected by members of the two legislative houses

    • By 1879, Mac Mahon resigned and republicans held firm control over the national government.

    • The Third Republic withstood much criticism and ruled quite effectively.



  • The Dreyfus Affair

    • On December 22, 1894, a French military court found Captain Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) guilty of passing secret information to the German army.

      • Evidence against him was not compelling and was later revealed to have been fabricated.

      • Since he was Jewish, Dreyfus became an easy scapegoat and was sent to Devil’s Island in French Guiana.

    • Investigation was reopened in 1896 and a different military officer was charged with the crime, but a military court acquitted him on all charges.

    • Division in France over the Dreyfus affair

      • The army, French Catholic Church, political conservatives, and anti-Semitic newspapers contended that Dreyfus was guilty.

      • Liberals, radicals, and socialists demanded a new trial for Dreyfus.

        • In 1898, the novelist, Emile Zola (1840-1902) published a newspaper article titled “I accuse” in which he contended that the army denied Dreyfus due process and had suppressed or forged evidence.

          • Zola was convicted of libel and fled to England.

    • Secrets continued to leak to Germany and the newly accused officer committed suicide in prison.

    • Another military trial convicted Dreyfus but the president immediately pardoned him.

Section Six: The Habsburg Empire

  • Section Overview

    • Habsburg failure to modernize

      • In the age of national states, liberal institutions, and industrialism, the Habsburg domains remained primarily dynastic, absolutist, and agrarian.

      • Habsburgs responded to the revolts of 1848-1849 by asserting absolutism.

    • Reforms in the Habsburg Empire in the mid-nineteenth century

      • Ministers of Emperor Francis Joseph (1848-1916) attempted to impose a centralized administration on the empire.

        • The imperial government amounted to a military and bureaucratic regime dominated by German-speaking Austrians.

        • The following administrative decisions were made:

          • Hungary, which was radically revolutionary in 1848, was divided into military districts.

          • Roman Catholic Church controlled education

    • Relationship between Austria and Russia and its implications

      • Austria refused to support Russia in the Crimean War; consequently, Tsar Alexander II would not be willing to help crush popular uprisings in Hungary as Tsar Nicholas I had done in 1849.

    • Austria realized it was time to reform.



  • Formation of the Dual Monarchy

    • The October Diploma (1860)

      • issued by Francis Joseph

      • created a federation among the states and provinces of the empire

        • included local diets dominated by the landed classes and one imperial government

      • Magyar nobility of Hungary rejected it

    • February Patent (1861)

      • Issued by Francis Jospeh

      • Established a bicameral imperial parliament, or Reichsrat, with an upper chamber appointed by the emperor and an indirectly elected lower chamber

      • Magyars, again, rejected it and sent no delegates to the legislature

      • This government prevailed in Austria proper until 1918.

      • Civil liberties were not guaranteed, armies could be levied, and taxes raised without parliamentary consent.

    • Magyar problem

      • Prussian defeat of Austria in 1866 and the exclusion of Austria from German affairs meant that Francis Joseph had to come to terms with the Magyars.

      • Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867—transformed the Habsburg Empire into a dual monarchy known as Austria-Hungary

        • Francis Joseph was crowned king of Hungary in Budapest in 1867.

        • Except for a common monarch, army, and foreign relations, Austria and Hungary became almost wholly separate states.

          • Separate parliaments

            • Each years, sixty parliamentary delegates from each state met to discuss mutual interests.



  • Unrest of Nationalities

    • Hungary

      • Political loyalty was based on nationality because Hungary had been recognized as a distinct part of the monarchy on the basis of nationalism

    • Rest of Austria Hungary, the principle of legitimacy meant dynastic loyalty to the emperor and many of the other nationalities wanted to achieve the same settlement as that of the Magyars in Hungary

      • Czechs, the Ruthenians, the Romanians, and the Croatians opposed the compromise as it allowed German-speaking Austrians and Hungarian Magyars to dominate all other nationalities within the empire.

      • Czechs were most vocal and proposed “trialism,” or a triple monarchy but Hungary would not accept it.

    • Nationalism was vibrant in Austria-Hungary by 1914

      • It became a major source of political instability for all of central and eastern Europe

        • Poles, Croats, Czechs wanted independent states

        • Ukranians, Romanians, Italians, and Bosnians, saw themselves as potentially linked to Russia

    • Dominant German population of Austria proper was loyal to the emperor

      • Austro-Germans often hated the non-German national groups of the empire and many were anti-Semites.

        • These sentiments influenced a young Adolf Hitler.

    • Unresolved problems in central and Eastern Europe and directly led Europe into World War I, then World War II, and many of these same ethnic resentments continue to fester today.

Section Seven: Russia—Emancipation and Revolutionary Stirrings

  • Reforms of Alexander II

    • Russia’s humiliating defeat in the Crimean War led to major changes in its domestic policy and instituted the most extensive restructuring of Russian society since Peter the Great.

    • Abolition of Serfdom

      • It was abolished because Russia was the only region in the country that still practiced serfdom.

      • Serfdom was economically inefficient.

      • Serfs gained the right to marry without their lord’s approval, to buy and sell property, to sue in court, and to pursue trades.

      • Serfs, however, were not granted free title to their land but had to make payments to the landlord over a period of 49 years

      • After suffering another defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905

    • Reform of Local Government

      • The authority of village communes replaced that of the landlords under the serfless system.

      • Role of village elders

        • Settled family quarrels, imposed fines, issued internal passports that were required for peasants to move from one locale to another, and collected taxes

      • Zemstvos, or councils, were established to give nobles some authority in the provinces.

      • Western European legal traditions—including equality before the law, impartial hearings, uniform procedures, judicial independence, and trial by jury—were introduced into Russia.

    • Military Reform

      • Problems in Russia’s military

        • Serving in Russia’s military during the eighteenth century included 25 years of mandatory service and most soldiers never saw their homes again.

        • Villages were raided and many serfs rounded up to join the ranks of the army

      • Reforms of 1860

        • Lowered the period of service to 15 years

        • Relaxed discipline measures

      • Reforms of 1874

        • Enlistment period changed to 6 years active service and 9 years in reserves.

        • All males subject to military service after the age of 20

    • Repression in Poland

      • Polish Rebellion of 1863

        • Nationalists attempted to overthrown Russian dominance in Poland.

      • Alexander II’s Reaction

        • Ended serfdom in Poland to punish the Polish nobility.

        • Russian law, language, and customs were imposed on all areas of Polish life.

      • Alexander’s enemies

        • Russian serfs did not feel reform was pushed far enough

        • Russian nobility and the wealthier and educated segments of society resented the tsar’s refusal to allow them to play a meaningful role in government.

        • After an attempt on his life in 1866, Alexander II ruled Russia more and more like a police state.



  • Revolutionaries

    • Critics of the tsarist regime in Russia

      • Alexander Herzen (1812-1870)

        • Lived in exile in London

        • Published a newspaper called The Bell that proposed reformist ideas

      • Impact of Herzen

        • Populism

          • Student revolutionary groups formed who sought a social revolution based on the communal life of Russian peasants.

        • Land and Freedom was the chief radical society.

      • Unsuccessful Attempt to Spread of Revolutionary Ideas to the Countryside

        • In the 1870s, hundreds of young Russian men and women took their revolutionary message to the countryside.

        • They intended to live with the peasants and gain their trust, but most of the peasants distrusted the revolutionaries and turned them over to the police.

        • 200 students were put on trial and most acquitted as the courts hoped this would lessen public sympathies for the revolutionaries.

      • Revolutionaries use terrorist tactics

        • Vera Zasulich (1849-1919)

          • Attempted to assassinate the military governor of Saint Petersburg

          • Jury acquitted her because the governor had a reputation for brutality

      • Land and Freedom

        • Group split into two factions

          • One advocated educating peasants and it soon dissolved

        • The People’s Will—the other of the two groups-- assassinated Alexander II on March 1, 1881.

          • Four men and two women were sentenced to death for the deed.

      • Alexander III (r. 1881-1894)

        • He rolled back his father’s reform and resorted to the repressive characteristics of his grandfather, Nicholas I.

        • Strengthened the secret police and increased censorship.

Great Britain: Toward Democracy

  • Section Overview

    • Britain symbolized the confident liberal state in the late nineteenth-century.

    • The British did not have to create new liberal institutions—as they already had them—and then learn how to live within them.



  • The Second Reform Act (1867)

    • Due to the rise in social respectability of the working classes in England, many in England agitated for the expansion of the franchise.

    • Reform League

      • Organization led by John Bright (1811-1889) brought this issue to Parliament and in 1866, Lord Russell’s Liberal ministry introduced a reform bill that a coalition of traditional conservatives and antidemocratic liberals defeated

    • Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) and the expansion of suffrage

      • Conservative leader in the House of Commons who proposed a reform bill in 1867 that was amended by Liberals so much that increased the number of voters from approximately 1,430,000 to 2,470,00

      • Thus, large numbers of working class males joined the ranks of the electorate.

      • Disraeli, knowing reform was inevitable, decided that the Conservatives should take credit for it and believed it would help solidify Conservative control in British government.



  • Gladstone’s Great Ministry (1868-1874)

    • This era witnessed the culmination of classical British liberalism and saw the following reforms:

      • institutions that remained the preserve of the aristocracy and the Anglican church were open to people from other classes and religious denominations.

      • competitive examinations for the civil service replaced patronage.

      • purchase of officers’ positions in the army was abolished.

      • voting by secret ballot was introduced

    • Education Act of 1870

      • government assumed the responsibility for establishing and running elementary schools



  • Disraeli in Office (1874-1880)

    • Disraeli succeeded Gladstone as prime minister in 1874

      • Both men believed social reform was necessary but disagreed on the means.

        • Whereas Gladstone looked to individualism, free trade, and competition to solve social problems, Disraeli believed in paternalistic legislation to protect the weak and ease class antagonisms.

      • Public Health Act of 1875

        • Biggest legislation of Disraeli’s term but it was primarily the work of his home secretary, Richard Cross (1823-1914)

        • This act reaffirmed the duty of the state to interfere with private property to protect health and physical well-being.

      • Artisan Dwelling Act of 1875

        • Government became involved in providing housing for the working class

  • The Irish Question

    • In 1880, Gladstone became prime minister again after an agricultural depression and an unpopular policy undermined the conservative government of Disraeli.

    • Major issue of Gladstone’s second term: The Irish Question

      • Irish nationalists promoted the idea of “home rule” for Ireland.

      • Irish Land League

        • led by Charles Stewart Parnell (1846-1891)

        • they wanted a land settlement since much of the land in Ireland was owned by Protestants of English descent

    • Irish land act of 1881 strengthened tenants’ rights

    • Parnell organized Irish members of Parliament to agitate for home rule in Parliament; an opportunity arose in the election of 1885 when the Irish votes were needed by Gladstone to win the election.

      • Gladstone announced his support for Irish home rule

      • Then, a group known as Liberal Unionists joined the Conservatives and defeated home rule for the Irish.

    • Ireland remained firmly under British control.

    • In 1903, the Conservatives sponsored a bill that carried out the final transfer of land to tenant ownership.

    • Home Rule Bill of 1912 granted this right to Irish but it was not to be implemented until after World War I.


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