Ap euro Free Response Questions Chapter 1 – Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance



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AP Euro Free Response Questions
Chapter 1 – Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance


  1. To what extent and in what ways did women participate in the Renaissance?




  1. Analyze the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. Use at least THREE specific works to support your analysis.




  1. Using examples from at least two different states, analyze the key features of the “new monarchies” and the factors responsible for their rise in the period 1450 to 1550.


Chapter 2 – Reformation and Religious Warfare in the Sixteenth Century


  1. “Leadership determines the fate of a country.” Evaluate this quotation in terms of Spain’s experience under Philip II.




  1. Discuss the political and social consequences of the Protestant Reformation in the first half of the sixteenth century.




  1. To what extent did political authorities influence the course of the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century?




  1. Evaluate the influence of Renaissance humanism on Catholic reforms and the Protestant Reformation.




  1. Analyze the impacts of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation) on the social order of sixteenth-century Europe.


Chapter 3 – Europe and the New World: New Encounters, 1500-1800


  1. Compare and contrast the religious policies of TWO of the following: Elizabeth I of England, Catherine de Medici of France, Isabella I of Spain.




  1. Explain how advances in learning and technology influenced fifteenth- and sixteenth-century European exploration and trade.




  1. Explain the reasons for the rise of the Netherlands as a leading commercial power in the period 1550-1650.




  1. Analyze the effects of the Colombian exchange (the interchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World and the New World) on the population and economy of Europe in the period 1550 to 1700.


Chapter 4 – State Building and the Search for Order in the Seventeenth Century


  1. Discuss the relationship between politics and religion by examining the wars of religion. Choose TWO specific examples from the following: Dutch Revolt, French Wars of Religion, English Civil War, Thirty Years’ War.




  1. Describe and analyze how overseas expansion by European states affected global trade and international relations from 1600 to 1715.




  1. Analyze at least TWO factors that account for the rise and TWO factors that explain the decline of witchcraft persecution and trials in Europe in the period from 1580 to 1750.




  1. Account for the growth and decline of European witch hunts in the period 1500 to 1650.




  1. Analyze the factors that prevented the development of a unified German state in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.




  1. Analyze the reasons for the decline of the Holy Roman Empire as a force in European politics in the period 1517 to 1648.




  1. Compare and contrast the economic factors responsible for the decline of Spain with the economic factors responsible for the decline of the Dutch Republic by the end of the seventeenth century.




  1. Analyze various ways in which the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) represented a turning point in European history.



Chapter 5 – Toward a New Heaven and Earth: The Scientific Revolution


  1. Explain the development of the scientific method in the seventeenth century and the impact of scientific thinking on traditional sources of authority.




  1. Assess the impact of the Scientific Revolution on religion and philosophy in the period 1550 to 1750.




  1. Analyze the impact of TWO cultural and/or technological developments on European education in the period 1450 to 1650


Chapter 6 – The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment


  1. Compare and contrast two theories of government introduced in the period from 1640 to 1780.




  1. Describe and analyze the influence of the Enlightenment on both elite culture and popular culture in the eighteenth century




  1. Analyze the intellectual foundations of religious toleration in eighteenth-century Europe.




  1. Compare and contrast the political ideas of Hobbes and Locke.




  1. Analyze how Galileo, Descartes, and Newton altered traditional interpretations of nature and challenged traditional sources of knowledge.


Chapter 7 – The Eighteenth Century: European States, International Wars, and Social Change


  1. Machiavelli suggested that a ruler should behave both “like a lion” and “like a fox.” Analyze the policies of TWO of the following European rulers, indicating the degree to which they successfully followed Machiavelli’s suggestion. Choose two: Elizabeth I of England, Henry IV of France, Catherine the Great of Russia, Frederick II of Prussia.




  1. In what ways and to what extent did absolutism affect the power and status of the European nobility in the period 1650 to 1750? Use examples from at least TWO countries.




  1. Compare and contrast the goals and major policies of Peter the Great of Russia (ruled 1682-1725) with those of Frederick the Great of Prussia (ruled 1740-1786).




  1. Identify features of the eighteenth-century Agricultural Revolution and analyze its social and economic consequences.




  1. Louis XIV declared his goal was “one king, one law, one faith.” Analyze the methods the king used to achieve this objective and discuss the extent to which he was successful.



  1. How and to what extent did the Commercial Revolution transform the European economy and diplomatic balance of power in the period from 1650 to 1763?




  1. Analyze the methods and degrees of Russian political and social reform from the period of Peter the Great (1689-1725) through Catherine the Great (1762-1796).




  1. Describe and analyze the changes that led to Europe’s rapid population growth in the eighteenth century.




  1. Analyze the extent to which Frederick the Great of Prussia and Joseph II of Austria advanced and did not advance Enlightenment ideals during their reigns.




  1. Analyze the impact of the major developments of the Commercial Revolution on Europe’s economy and society in the period 1650 to 1789.


Chapter 19 – A Revolution in Politics: The Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon


  1. How and to what extent did Enlightenment ideas about religion and society shape the policies of the French Revolution in the period 1789 to 1799?




  1. Britain and France were engaged in a geopolitical and economic rivalry during the eighteenth century. Identify the factors that contributed to this rivalry, and assess the results for both countries over the period 1689 to 1789.




  1. Identify the grievances of the groups that made up the Third Estate in France on the eve of the French Revolution, and analyze the extent to which ONE of these groups was able to address its grievances in the period 1789 to 1799.




  1. Assess the ways in which women participated in and influenced TWO of the following.

    1. The Renaissance

    2. The Reformation

    3. The French Revolution


Chapter 20 – The Industrial Revolution and its Impact on European Society


  1. Discuss three developments that enabled Great Britain to achieve a dominant economic position between 1700 and 1830?




  1. Discuss how the two structures shown above reflect the societies and cultures that produced them. (pictures of Arc de Triomphe and Crystal Palace)


Chapter 21 – Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, 1815-1850


  1. Analyze three examples of the relationship between Romanticism and nationalism before 1850.




  1. Compare and contrast political liberalism with political conservatism in the first half of the nineteenth century in Europe.




  1. Analyze the shifts in the European balance of power in the period between 1763 and 1848.




  1. Analyze how economic and social developments affected women in England in the period from 1700 to 1850.




  1. Referring to specific individuals or works, discuss the ways in which TWO of the following expressed the concept of nationalism in the nineteenth century.

    1. Artists

    2. Composers

    3. Writers


Chapter 22 – An Age of Nationalism and Realism, 1850-1871


  1. Compare and contrast the foreign policy goals and achievements of Metternich (1815-1848) and Bismarck (1862-1890).




  1. Analyze the similarities and differences in the methods used by Cavour and Bismarck to bring about the unification of Italy and Germany, respectively.


Chapter 23 – Mass Society in an “Age of Progress,” 1871-1894


  1. Analyze how and why Western European attitudes toward children and child-rearing changed in the period from 1750-1900.




  1. Discuss the impact of industrialization and urbanization on working-class families from 1750 to 1900.




  1. Analyze the problems and opportunities associated with the rapid urbanization of Western Europe in the nineteenth century.




  1. To what extent did the structure of Russian government and society affect its economic development in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries?


Chapter 24 – An Age of Modernity, Anxiety, and Imperialism, 1894-1914


  1. Evaluate how the ideas of Charles Darwin and Sigmund Freud challenged Enlightenment assumptions about human behavior and the role of reason.




  1. Describe and analyze responses to industrialization by the working class between 1850 and 1914.




  1. Historians speak of the rise of mass politics in the period from 1880 to 1914. Define this phenomenon and analyze its effects on European politics in this period.




  1. Compare and contrast the relationship between the artist and society in the Renaissance/Reformation period to the relationship between the artist and society in the late nineteenth century.




  1. European women’s lives changed in the course of the nineteenth century politically, economically, and socially. Identify and explain the reasons for those changes.




  1. Analyze the ways in which TWO of the following groups challenged British liberalism between 1880 and 1914.

Feminists

Irish Nationalists

Socialists


  1. Analyze artistic and literary responses to industrialization over the course of the nineteenth century.




  1. Analyze the development of the various forms of European socialism in the 1800s.


Chapter 25 – The Beginning of the Twentieth-Century Crisis: War and Revolution


  1. Compare and contrast the degree of success of treaties negotiated in Vienna (1814-1815) and Versailles (1919) in achieving European stability.




  1. Compare and contrast the extent to which the French Revolution (1789-1799) and the Russian Revolution (1917-1924) changed the status of women.




  1. Contrast the impact of nationalism in Germany and the Austrian Empire from 1848 to 1914.




  1. Compare and contrast the crises in state authority that precipitated the French Revolution in 1789 and the February and October Revolutions in Russia in 1917.




  1. Analyze the effects of nationalism on the Austrian Empire in the period 1815 to 1914.




  1. Compare and contrast how TWO of the following states attempted to hold together their empires in the period circa 1850 to 1914.

Austria

Russia


Ottoman Empire
Chapter 26 – The Futile Search for Stability: Europe between the Wars, 1919-1939


  1. How did theories in physics and psychology in the period from 1900 to 1939 challenge existing ideas about the individual and society?




  1. Compare and contrast the French Jacobins’ use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals during the Terror (1793-1794) with Stalin’s use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals in the Soviet Union during the period 1928 to 1939.




  1. Analyze the impact of the First World War on European culture and society in the interwar period (1919-1939).




  1. Analyze the ways in which technology and mass culture contributed to the success of dictators in the 1920s and 1930s.




  1. Analyze the participation of European women in the economy and in politics from 1914 to 1939. Use examples from at least TWO countries.




  1. Assess the extent to which the economic and political ideals of Karl Marx were realized in postrevolutionary Russia in the period from 1917 to 1939.




  1. Analyze anti-Semitism in Europe from the Dreyfus affair in the 1890s to 1939.




  1. Analyze how the Balkan crises from 1903 to 1914 and the crises in central and eastern Europe from 1935 to 1939 threatened Europe’s balance of power.


Chapter 27 – The Deepening European Crisis: World War II


  1. Compare and contrast the ways that seventeenth-century absolute monarchs and twentieth-century dictators gained and maintained their power.




  1. Considering the period 1933 to 1945, analyze the economic, diplomatic, and military reasons for Germany’s defeat in the Second World War




  1. Analyze the impact of the rise of militarism and the Second World War on the lives of European women. In your answer consider the period 1930 to 1950.


Chapter 28 – Cold War and a New Western World, 1945-1965


  1. Between 1945 and 1970, virtually all European colonies achieved independence. Discuss the changes within Europe that contributed to this development.




  1. Compare and contrast the victorious Allied powers’ treatment of Germany after the First World War with their treatment of Germany after the Second World War. Analyze the reasons for the similarities and differences.




  1. Analyze the factors responsible for decolonization since the Second World War.




  1. Compare and contrast the social and economic roles of the state in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe (before 1789) to the social and economic roles of the state in Europe after the Second World War.




  1. Considering the period 1918 to 1948, analyze the political and diplomatic problems faced by TWO of the following newly created Eastern European states.

    1. Austria

    2. Czechoslovakia

    3. Hungary

    4. Poland




  1. Analyze the ways in which the theories of both Darwin and Freud challenged traditional European ways of thinking about religion, morality, and human behavior in the period circa 1850-1950.


Chapter 29 – Protest and Stagnation: The Western World, 1965-1985


  1. Contrast late-nineteenth-century European attitudes and policies about race to those after 1950.


Chapter 30 – After the Fall: The Western World in a Global Age (Since 1985)


  1. Compare and contrast the political and economic policies of Joseph Stalin in the period before the Second World War and those of Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991)




  1. Compare and contrast the political and economic effects of the Cold War (1945-1991) on Western Europe with the effects on Eastern Europe.




  1. Many historians have suggested that since 1945, nationalism has been on the decline in Europe. Using both political and economic examples from the period 1945 to 2000, evaluate the validity of this interpretation.




  1. Analyze three reasons for the end of Soviet domination over Eastern Europe.




  1. Compare and contrast the relationship between artists and society in the Baroque era and in the twentieth century. Illustrate your essay with references to at least TWO examples for each period.




  1. Analyze the factors working for and against European unity from 1945 to 2001.




  1. Describe and analyze economic policies in Eastern and Western Europe after 1945.




  1. Considering the period 1953 to 1991, analyze the problems within the Soviet Union that contributed to the eventual collapse of the Soviet system.




  1. Analyze the economic and social challenges faced by Western Europe in the period from 1945 to 1989.




  1. Analyze the long-term and short-term factors responsible for the disintegration of communist rule in TWO of the following states:

Czechoslovakia

East Germany



Hungary

Poland



  1. Compare and contrast the goals and achievements of the feminist movement in the period circa 1850-1920 with those of the feminist movement in the period 1945 to the present.




  1. Analyze the political and economic effects of changing population patterns in Western Europe in the period circa 1950 to the present. Cite specific examples from at least TWO countries.


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