Ap comparative government and politics final ap exam vocabulary review



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AP Comparative Government and Politics 5/29/2016

Walter Payton College Prep High School




THINGS TO KNOW…

AP COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

FINAL AP EXAM VOCABULARY REVIEW

2009


GENERAL CONCEPTS

Natural Rights Philosophies—Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau

Ideologies: (Liberalism, Classical Liberalism, Neo-Liberalism, Conservatism, Fascism, Communism, Anarchism, Socialism, Totalitarianism, Libertarianism)

Treaty of Westphalia—Nations, States, and Nation-States

Oligarchy

Technocrat, Autocrat

Political socialization

Interest Aggregation

Interest Articulation

Political Culture

Agents of Political Socialization


  • Family

  • Schools

  • Religion

  • Peer Groups

  • Social Class Gender

  • Mass Media

  • Interest Groups

  • Political Parties

Interest Groups and interest group pluralism

Competitive Elections

Plurality (First past the post, winner-take-all) elections

Proportional representation

Separation of Powers (Checks and balances; branches of government)

Bureaucracy

Cabinet Coalition

Causation/Correlation

Command Economies

Market Economies

Mixed Economies

Development—import substitution

Democratic Presidential Regime

Parliamentary Regime

Semi-presidential

Authoritarian Regime

Assemblies (types, functions)

Nightwatchmen state

Police State

Welfare State

Legitimacy and authority (traditional, charismatic, rational-legal)

Sovereignty

Democratization and types of democracy

Indicators of democratization (in Mexico notes)

Marketization

Party systems (one, two, multi)

Bicameral/unicameral legislatures

Electoral processes

Presidential v Parliamentary regimes

Head of government v head of state

Unitary, federal, and confederate government systems

Co-optation

Civil society

Caucuses


Corporatism (state, neo)

Patron-client networks

Judicial review

Social cleavages (cross-cutting v coinciding)

Social capital

Supranational organizations (WTO, EU, UN, NATO)

Sovereignty

Referendum

Demographics (ethnicity, class, etc.)

Politics of protest

Modernism and Post-modernism (Max Weber)

Common Law

Code Law

Globalization (debates, positive/negative consequences)

Illiberal democracy

Devolution v Integration

Linkage institutions

Regime change v Government change

Revolution

Samuel P. Huntington’s “Clash of Civilizations” (Mr. Westbrook assigned this reading and we discussed it later as part of your reading on Islam and Democracy)


ADVANCED DEMOCRACIES V AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES
GREAT BRITAIN

Beveridge report

Keynesianism

Devolution to N. Ireland, Scotland, Wales

BBC

Most disadvantaged party because of electoral system



Gradualism

Insularity

Vote of no confidence

Collective consensus

Collective responsibility

Bill of Rights

Magna Carta

Glorious Revolution

“Constitution of the Crown”

Effect of Marxism

Welfare state

Good Friday Agreement

Irish Republican Army (IRA)

Oxbridge


Ethno-nationalism

Trades Union Congress

Quangos

Public policy (Iraq, healthcare, etc)



Noblesse oblige

Politics of protest

Question Time
Branches of government (duties, constraints, etc):

Prime Minister

Parliament

Monarchy


Cabinet

Shadow Cabinet

Parliament v Government

House of Lords v House of Commons

Life and hereditary peers

Judiciary

Law Lords

Bureaucracy

“The Loyal Opposition”

“shadow cabinet”

Backbenchers

Speaker of the House


Major Leaders:

Winston Churchill

Margaret Thatcher—“The Iron Lady”

Tony Blair

Gordon Brown

David Cameron (Conservative Party Leader)



Major Parties:

Labour—The Third Way

Conservative--Tories

Liberal Democrat

Plaid Cymru

Sinn Fein

Scottish Nationalist Party
European Union:

Issues with Great Britain

The Euro

Sovereignty and the EU

Democratic deficit

Requirements for membership (stable democracy, market economy, willingess to accept EU laws)

Euroskeptics

Three pillars—trade and currency, justice and home affairs, joint defense policies

Maastricht Treaty of 1991 (created the EU)

Treaty of Amsterdam (common immigration policies)

Enlargement fatigue

European Court of Justice


IRAN

Shiism v Sunnism

Zoroastrianism, Baha’i

Hidden Imam

Revolution of 1979 and subsequent constitution

Constitution of 1905-1909

White coup

Theocracy v democracy

Appointments by political institutions

Policymaking

Jurist’s Guardianship (velayat-e-faqih)

Sharia

Qanun

Faqih

Factionalism

Ethnic and religious minorities

Clerical authority

Presidential Election of 2005

Majles election of 2004

Rentier state

Secularism v fundamentalism

Statists v free-marketers

OPEC


Democratization under Khatami—“Tehran Spring”
Branches of government (duties, constraints, etc):

Judiciary

Guardian Council

Supreme Leader



Majles

Assembly of Religious Experts

President

Revolutionary Guard



Major Political Leaders

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

Muhammad Khatami

Muhammad Mossadegh

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Al Khamenei

Reza Shah and Muhammad Reza Shah

Major Dynasties

Achaemenian Empire

Safavids

Qajars


Pahlavis

Major Political Parties

Khordad Front

Islamic Iran Participation Front

Oppressed political parties

Reformers v conservatives
COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST SOCIETIES
COMMUNISM

Bourgeoisie and proletariat



Communist Manifesto and Karl Marx

Dictatorship of the Proletariat

Democratic centralism

Maoism


Nomenklatura—Russia and China

Revolution (dictatorship) of the proletariat

Vladimir Lenin

“vanguard of the revolution”

Alienation

Phases of history (barbarism, feudalism, capitalism, communism)

Forces of Production

Economic base

Superstructure
RUSSIA

Asymmetric federalism

Bolsheviks v Mensheviks

Civil Society in Russia—Nashi, free speech, etc.

Collective farms—collectivization

Confederation of Independent States –unites the 15 former republics of the Soviet Union and Russia

Public Policy (the economy, foreign policy, relationship with the former republics, relations with the West, Terrorism, civil society development)

Conflict in Chechnya

Constitution of 1993

Federal government structure

Stalin’s Five Year Plans

Glasnost

Perestroika

Head of government v Head of state in Russia (technical v reality)

Kulaks

Russian mafia’s role in politics



Oligarchy

Peter the Great and the “Window on the West”

Proportional representation (7% threshold)

Semi-Presidentialism

Russian Orthodox Church

Muslim population in Russia

Khrushchev’s “Secret Speech”

“Shock Therapy”

Slavophile v Westernizer

Stalinism

State corporatism (Gazprom)

Totalitarianism

Tsarism
Branches of Government (duties, constraints, etc):

Central Committee and Politburo

Constitutional Court

Duma and Federation Council


Major Political Leaders:

Mikhail Gorbachev and his three-pronged reforms

Nikita Khrushchev

Vladimir Putin

Boris Yeltsin and the post-communist transition
Major Political Parties

Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF)

Liberal Democrat Party

United Russia Party

Yabloko

CHINA

Autonomous regions

Cadres

Collectivism



Confucianism

The Cultural Revolution

Democratic centralism

Dual role

Dysnastic cycles

Egalitarianism

Ethic of struggle

Factionalism



Fang-shou

Falon Gong religious movement

Floating population

Four Modernizations of Deng Xiaoping

Free market socialism

“Gang of Four”



Guanxi

The Great Leap Forward

Globalization—debates and effects on China

Han Chinese and other ethnic groups

Household responsibility system

“iron rice bowl”

The Long March

Mandate of Heaven

“Middle Kingdom”

Mass line

“a new socialist countryside” for the rural poor

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in China

“One country, two systems”—Britain and Hong Kong

Parallel Hierarchies

Patron-client system

Political elite and guanxi

Privatization of business

Rule of law in China

Self-reliance

Special Economic Zones (SEZs)

State corporatism

Socialist Market Economy

Township and village enterprises (TVEs)

“Two Chinas”—Taiwan and Mainland

Youth League
Branches of Government AND Party (duties, constraints, etc):

Central Committee

Central Military Commission

National Party Congress

People’s Courts, procuratorate

People’s Liberation Army

People’s National Congress

Politburo/Standing Committee


Major Political Parties

Chinese Communist Party (CCP)

Nationalist Party of Chiang Kai-Shek (Taiwan)
Major Political Leaders:

Chiang Kai-Shek

Deng Xiaoping (economic theory)

Hu Jintao

Hu Yaobang

Jiang Zemin

Mao Zedong

Sun Yat-Sen

Wen Jiabao

Township and village enterprises (TVEs)

“Two Chinas”—Taiwan and Mainland

Youth League


DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND EMERGING ECONOMIES
Development

Dependency Theory

Economic Sectors (primary, secondary, tertiary)

Export-oriented industrialization

Import subsitution

Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)

GNP per capita

Westernization

GATT/WTO

Human Development Index (HDI)

Freedom House Score
MEXICO

Amerindians

Camarillas

Caudillos

Chiapas Rebellion

Co-optation

Corporatism (state and neo)

Cristeros Rebellion



Ejidos

Election reform (Federal Electoral Commission)

EZLN (Zapatistas)

Informal Economy(illicit trade)

Mestizos

“Mexican Miracle”



Mexicanidad

NAFTA


Para-statals

Patron-client system

PEMEX

Pendulum theory



Plurality v proportional representation

Politicos

Porfiriato

Spanish Colonialism

Sexenio


Technicos

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Public Policy (economy, immigration, oil, trade, election reform, democratization)
Branches of Government (duties, constraints, etc):

President

Chamber of Deputies

Senate


Judiciary
Major Political Parties:

PAN


PRD

PRI


EZLN
Major Political Leaders:

Felipe Calderon

Cuauhtemoc Cardenas

Lazaro Cardenas

Porfirio Diaz

Father Miguel Hidalgo

Vicente Fox

Benito Juarez

Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador

Pancho Villa

Emiliano Zapata
NIGERIA

Republic of Biafra

Civil Society in Nigeria

Coup d’etat

Public policy (economy, electoral fraud, democratization, oil, health)

Corporatism (state)

Demographic (ethnic) layout: Hausa-Fulani, Igbo, Yoruba

Indirect rule

British colonialism

Informal economy

Independent National Election Commission (INEC)

Jihad


Kinship-based politics

Military control of government

“the national question”

NGOs


Para-statals

Patrimonalism

Prebendalism

Plurality electoral system

Type of government system

Rent-seeking

Revenue sharing

Sharia law

Structural adjustment program

“true federalism” movement

Branches of Government (duties, constraints, etc):

National Assembly (Senate and House of Representatives)

Executive

Judiciary

Local Government
Major Political Parties

ANPP


PDP

Action Congress


Major Political Leaders

Atiku Abubakar

Ibrahim Babangida

Olusegun Obasanjo

Umaru Yar’Adua

STUDY HARD!!!





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