Ap chapter 18 test bank



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AP CHAPTER 18 TEST BANK


1.Among the causes of the French Revolution was the

A. excessive spending of King Louis XVI.

B. rise of the National Assembly.

C. Reign of Terror.

D. loss of the Old Regime.


2.In Pre-Revolutionary France, estates were

A. homes of noble men.



B. social classes.

C. systems of taxation.

D. clubs for radicals.
3. The main obstacle to solving financial problems was

a. the extravagant lifestyle of Louis XVI

b. the unwillingness of the Third Estate to pay more

c. the fact that both the nobility and the clergy were exempt from most taxes

d. foreign wars

e. a bad economy
4.At the start of the Estates General, members of the Third Estate refused to have their credentials officially recognized because


  1. They resented that the three estates met and voted separately

  2. They doubted that decisions would be made by fully democratic means

  3. The aristocracy also refused to show credentials

  4. They resented the attempt to include peasant within the Third Estate

  5. The king refused to hold future meetings of the Estates General

5.Prior to the Revolution in France, there was great fear of a poor grain harvest because



  1. Bread was the mainstay of the working-class diet; high grain prices meant malnutrition, disease, and starvation

  2. Factory workers would have to be paid more

  3. The queen had little sympathy for the poor

  4. There would be foreign competition

  5. All of the above

6..Which of the following groupings represents the membership of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd estates respectively?



  1. Clergy; nobility; commercial and professional middle class

  2. Nobility; clergy; commercial and professional middle class

  3. commercial and professional middle class, nobility;clergy

  4. clergy; commercial and professional middle class;nobility

7.The proposed gabelle of Charles do Calonne was a tax on



  1. Marriage

  2. Newspapers

  3. Salt

  4. Sugar

  5. Land

8. The primary problem facing Louis XVI in the late 1780s was



  1. Peasant unrest

  2. British naval expansion

  3. The poverty of the French nation

  4. The refusal of the the Third Estate to pay taxes

  5. The bankruptcy of the monarchy

10 Early in the French Revolution, The National Assembly agreed to peasant demand for an end to all things feudal in order to



  1. Restore law and order

  2. Get the support of the san-culottes

  3. Carry out Rousseau’s Social Contract

  4. Punish the nobility for not supporting the third estate

  5. Carry out the principles for the new constitution

11. Louis XVI convened the Estates General in order to :

a. gain support for an expedition to quash the rebellion in the colony of Saint Dominique

b. gain support for war against England



c. raise tax revenues

d. gain support for his push to end papal power in France

e. resolve the question of voting rights for the peasantry

12.The French parlements spoke for the interests of this group

a. the guilds

b. the poor

c. the peasantry

d. the aristocracy

e. the clergy
13.He was responsible for the introduction of the revolutionary land tax that all landowners would have to pay regardless of their social status

a. Charles Alexandre de Calonne

b. Louis XV

c. Rene Maupeou

d. Jacques Necker

e. Louis XIV
14.The parliament of Paris declared that only the

a. parliament itself could institute new taxes

b. National Assembly could institiute new taxes

c. People’s assembly could institute new taxes

d. Estates General could establish new taxes

e. king could institute new taxes
15.The Second Estate of the Estates General were made up of the

a. clergy



b. nobility

c. peasants

d. middle class

e. artisans


16.By which of the following ways did the aristocracy attempt to limit the influence of the Third Estate?

a. they demanded that each estate have an equal number of representatives

b. they levied excessive “luxury” taxes on the estate

c. they attempted to disband the estate all together

d. they prevented delegates from attending the Estates General

e. They demanded that each individual should have a vote in the Estates General

17.The cahiers, or grievance lists, prepared prior to the meeting of the French Estates General in 1789 showed that the people wanted



  1. Freedom of religion and the press

  2. Equality before the law

  3. Equal taxation

  4. Equal opportunity for positions in government

  5. All of the above

18. The cahiers de doleances presented to the king included all of the following grievances EXCEPT criticism of

a. indirect taxes

b. the hunting rights of the aristocracy



c. the institution of monarchy as a whole

d. corruption

e. government waste
19. When the French people drew up cahiers(list of grievances) in 1789 for the Estates to consider, which of the following would NOT have been likely

a. the peasants wanted relief from feudal dues

b. the bourgeoisie called for access to high office in the military and government

c. shopkeepers wanted an end to unnessary taxes on commerce



d. the nobles wanted an expansion of royal power

e. the clergy wanted protection of monastic


20. Throughout the winter and spring of 1789, the high prices for this commodity produced riots

a. wine


b. cotton

c. beef


d. cheese

e. bread
22.Maupeou wished to do away with the old parlements of France because

  1. They interfered with the king’s efforts to raise an army

  2. The judges were frequently corrupt

  3. They blocked tax reform by declaring new measures unconstitutional

  4. They had close ties to the Church

  5. They were carryovers from the Middle Ages and, therefore, hopelessly out of touch with modern politics

23. Which of the following characterized European warfare between the Peace of Utrecht (1713) and the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789)?



(A) Standing armies pursuing limited strategic goals

(B) Citizen armies fighting for their native lands

(C) Feudal armies fighting for their lords

(D) Mass armies pursuing global strategies

(E) Highly mobile armies unhampered by traditional defenses
24. Which of the following best characterizes eighteenth-century France just prior to the Revolution of 1789 ?

(A) The economic status of the peasantry was improving dramatically.

(B) The aristocracy’s power had eroded completely.

(C) The privileges of the clergy were declining.



(D) The French monarchy was experiencing a deepening financial crisis.

(E) The participation of the bourgeoisie in legislative affairs was increasing dramatically


25. Absolute monarchy declined in pre-1789 France primarily because of the
(A) growth of judicial and aristocratic opposition

(B) strength of peasant uprisings

(C) increased power of the Estates-General

(D) king’s refusal to involve France in foreign wars

(E) decline in the French population
26. Which of the following best describes the French Third Estate?

(A) The palace at the Tuileries, which was the chief royal residence after Versailles and the Louvre

(B) The nobility of the robe, who acquired noble rank by purchase

(C) The non-noble, nonclerical section of the Estates-General

(D) The revolutionary faction that launched the Reign of Terror

(E) Counterrevolutionary provinces that resisted the National Assembly

29. Which of the following best describes the French Third Estate?

(A) The palace at the Tuileries, which was the chief royal residence after Versailles and the Louvre

(B) The nobility of the robe, who acquired noble rank by purchase



(C) The non-noble, nonclerical section of the Estates-General

(D) The revolutionary faction that launched the Reign of Terror

(E) Counterrevolutionary provinces that resisted the National Assembly
30.The calling of the Estates-General in France by King Louis XVI in 1789 was the direct result of:

(A) an uprising of the sans-culottes in Paris

(B) France's defeats in the Seven Years' War by Great Britain

(C) the impact of the ideology advocated in the American Revolution



(D) the failure of the Assembly of Notables to endorse the monarch's program of tax reform

(E) the recommendation by the French Director General of Finance, Jacques Necker


31. The immediate cause of the outbreak of revolution in 1789 was

  1. Grinding poverty among all classes of society

  2. Government oppression

  3. The ideas of the philosophes

  4. The insensitivity of Marie Antoinette

  5. The government’s financial crisis

32. Louis XVI of France convened the Estates General in 1789 for the first time in over 150 years becausand state

e. e


  1. He wanted to show support for the growing democratic movement

  2. He wanted approval to exempt the First and Second Estates from taxation

  3. He wanted approval for taxing all landowners in the realm

  4. He needed funds to help support the American cause against the British

  5. He needed a legislative body to check the powers of Parlement of Paris

33. Which best describes the Third Estate prior to the French Revolution?

a. it consisted of the peasantry

b. the First and Second Estates outnumbered it in terms of population



c. it included the middle class, peasants, and urban workers

d. it had the right to tax peasants for its own profit

e. it was an expempt for the tithe

34. The least important impact of the American Revolution on France was

a. providing young men with a taste of revolutionary action and ideals

b. providing a revolutionary role model

c. providing revenge against the hated English

d. increasing burdens of the state

e. providing proof tat a republic could be created and function


35. The list of grievances, or cahiers de doleances, brought by the members of the Estates-Genral to Versailles in 1789 called for

a. the immediate overthrow of Louis XVI

b. unvisersal adult suffrage

c. tax equity

d. the separation of church

e. renewal of provincial and city charters

37. When the French people drew up cahiers(list of grievances) in 1789 for the Estates General to consider, which of the following would NOT have been likely



  1. The peasants wanted relief from feudal dues

  2. The bourgeoisie called for access to high office in the military and government

  3. Shopkeepers wanted an end to unnecessary taxes on commerce

  4. The nobles wanted an expansion of royal power

  5. The clergy wanted protection of monastic lands

40. The significance of the storming of the Bastille was that



  1. It put ammunition into the hands of the Paris crowd

  2. It marked the beginning of a radical phase of the revolution

  3. It freed important leaders from prisoners

  4. It demonstrated that the crowd could be an important ally for the Assembly

  5. It demonstrated that the crowd was tired of monarchy

41. The Great Fear of the summer 1789



  1. Politicized the urban workers of Paris

  2. Catalyzed a European coalition against the French Revolution

  3. Put greater pressure on the Assembly to enact more radical legislation

  4. Strengthened the position of the nobility

  5. Demonstrated the desperation of an overtaxed peasantry

42.When members of the Third Estate took the Tennis Court Oath (1789) at the start of the French Revolution, they were attempting to

A. establish a military government.

B. draft a new national constitution.

C. restore the king to power.

D. persuade Napoleon to gain power.


43.The Bastille was a symbol of royal power because

  1. The king used it as his residence in Paris

  2. It had housed political prisoners

  3. Wheat for bread was stored there

  4. It was located at Versailles

  5. It was built by Louis XVI with forced labor

44.The significance of the women’s march on Versailles on October 5, 1789 was that



  1. It led to cheaper bread prices

  2. It resulted in the king being brought back to Paris

  3. The leaders of the march were immediately arrested

  4. It was used by the Jacobins as justification for the elimination of Girondists

  5. It marked the only instance in which women participated in the events of the revolution

45. The Tennis Court Oath refers to an oath taken by the



a. National Assembly to give France a constitution

b. monarchy of Louis XVI to squelch any hint of possible rebellion with the utmost severity

c. National Assembly to unite all those not of noble birth or clerical relations and represent “the people” of France

d. monarchy of Louis XVI to bring France’s people together as on

46.The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was modeled after the


  1. American colonies’ Declaration of Independence

  2. Magna Carta

  3. Declaration of Rights adopted by Virginia

  4. Tennis Court Oath

  5. American colonies’ 1787 constitiution

47.The result of the Tennis Court Oath was the formation of the



  1. Sans-culottes

  2. Second Estate

  3. Third Estate

  4. National Assembly

  5. Estates General

48.In What is the Third Estate?, Abbe Sieyes called for



  1. The elimination of the Third Estate

  2. The creation of a republic

  3. The overthrow of the monarchy

  4. A dominant role for commoners in French political kllife

  5. The boycott by the Third Estate of the proceedings at Versailles

49.The decision by the representatives of the Third Estate to declare themselves, on 17 June 1789, to be the National Assembly of France signified



  1. Their intention to form a republic

  2. Their belief that political sovereignty belonged to the nation as a whole

  3. Their intention to overthrow the monarchy

  4. Their belief in democracy

  5. Their willingness to go to war with Germany

50.In the French Revolution, the March to Versailles that occurred in October of 1789 illustrates



  1. The conservative nature of the sans-culottes

  2. The power of the French army

  3. The beginning of the radical phase of the revolution

  4. The fact that the crowds of Paris did not yet look upon Louis XVI as their enemy

  5. The brilliance of Napolean as a military leader

51.Which of these first demonstrated that popular protest would play a role in the French Revolution?

A. The reign of the Committee of Public Safety.

B. The trial of Louis XIV.

C. The fall of the Bastille.

D. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy.


52.The “Great Fear” in the summer of 1789 was the result in rumors that

  1. The harvest was far smaller than expected

  2. The great French estates were not to be broken up and redistributed among the peasants

  3. The monarchy was about to be restored

  4. Aristocrats were plotting to attack peasants

  5. French farms would be collective

53.Sieyes’s What is the Third Estate? Argued that



  1. The clergy and the nobility contributed little to the life of the country

  2. The estates should vote by estates

  3. The third estate should have the right to vote

  4. Taxes on the poor should be reduced

  5. All citizens should be equal before the law

54. The first political use of the terms “right” and “left” was to describe the


(A) division of France into predominantly Protestant and predominantly Roman Catholic areas

(B) seating arrangements in the French National Assembly chamber during the French Revolution

(C) party alliances in the English House of Commons during the debates prior to the American Revolution

(D) two wings of the Versailles palace that housed the Roman Catholic and the Huguenot nobility

(B) factions in the English Parliament that supported James II or William of Orange


55. During the Great Fear:

a. the nobility refused to make concessions to the peasantry

b. peasants demanded the execution of Louis XVI

c. Aristocrats in Paris went into hiding

d. the liberal nobles attained new titles and wealth

e. peasants reclaimed the rights and property they had lost to aristocratic resurgence
56. The sequence of events that led to the French Revolution of 1789 is best summarized by which of the following?

(A) Lafayette’s call for democracy, royal suppression of the National Assembly, Robespierre’s leading a peasant revolution

(B) Peasant uprisings, royal abdication, election of the National Assembly

(C) Franco-Austrian war, urban riots, convening of the Assembly of Notables

(D) Widespread famine, repression of riots, guerrilla war

(E) Royal financial crisis, convening of the Estates General, storming of the Bastille

57.The main purpose of the women’s march to Versailles in October 1789 was to


(A) provide the National Assembly and the king with a declaration of support

(B) protest the seizure of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette by the National Guard

(C) present the women’s concerns to Marie-Antoinette

(D) ensure the king’s support for the Declaration of Rights and cheap bread for Paris

(E) protest the lack of representation for women in the National Assembly


.

58. Although the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, is celebrated as the “start of the French Revolution, “ the first act of revolution may have been the resolve of the Third Estate to write a constitution. It is of



  1. The first session of the Estates General

  2. The swearing of the Tennis Court Oath

  3. The storming of the Tuileries

  4. The forming of the National Assembly

  5. The public proclamation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights”

59. What document supporting a new order of government has the above line as its first article?



  1. The Declaration of Independence

  2. The US Constitution

  3. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

  4. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense

  5. What Is The Third Estate?

60. In the French Revolution, the March to Versailles that occurred in October of 1789 illustrates



  1. The conservative nature of the sans culottes

  2. The power of the French army

  3. The beginning of the radical phase of the revolution

  4. The fact that the crowds of Paris did not yet look upon Louis XVI as their enemy

  5. The brilliance of Napolean as a military leader

61.Which of the following forced Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette to return to Paris from Versailles?



  1. An assassination attempt

  2. An angry mob of Parisian women

  3. The fall of the Bastille

  4. the Paris Parlement

e. a destructive fire set by the sans-culottes
62.The event most responsible for turning the people of Paris against Louis XVI was

  1. His attempt to flee Paris in 1791

  2. His decision to execute Robespierre

  3. His decision to raise taxes

  4. His decision to crush the Paris Commune

  5. His decision to issue the Civil Constitution of the Clergy

63.During the French Revolution, assignats the new paper money, were backed by



  1. Church property

  2. Noble property

  3. Gold

  4. Silver

  5. Tax revenues

.64. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy



  1. Allied the clergy with the Assembly

  2. Curbed the power of the clergy but alienated many Catholics

  3. Brought the Assembly greater support among the Catholic population

  4. Reaffirmed the central place of the Church in the French government

  5. Made Catholicism illegal in France

65.During the French Revolution, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy required



  1. The conversion fo churches into “temples of reason”

  2. The clergy’s swearing an oath of loyalty to the state

  3. That the Church turn over its property to the government

  4. That the Church no longer collect the tithe

  5. That nuns renounce their vows

66. Which of the following best describes the form of government pursued by the National Constituent Assembly?

a. oligarchy

b. democracy

c. dictatorship

d. constititutional monarchy

e. theocracy


67. Sieyes’ What is the Third Estate? Argued that

a. the clergy and the nobility contributed little to the life of the country

b. the estates should vote by estates

c. the third estate should have the right to vote

d. taxes on the poor should be reduced

e. all citizens should be equal before the law
68. When members of the Third Estate took the Tennis Court Oath (1789) at the start of the French Revolution , they were attempting to

a. establish a military government



b. draft a new national constititution

c. restore the king

d. persuade Napolean to gain power
69. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens was modeled after the

a. American colonies’ Declaration of Independence

b. Magna Carta

c. Declaration of Rights adopted by Virginia

d. Tennis Court Oath

e. American colonies’ 1787 constitution
70. The result of the Tennis Court Oath was the formation of the

a. sans-culottes

b. Second Estate

c. Third Estate



d. National Assembly

e. Estates General

71..During the French Revolution, emigres were


  1. Members of the Jacobin group

  2. Women who were denied admission to the Convention

  3. Foreigners who wanted to join the sans-culottes in the Revolution

  4. Aristocrats who relocated on the French border and tried to stimulate a counter-revolution

  5. Immigrants from the French colonies who sought political refuge in France

72. They Chapelier Law in France originated during the Revolution and remained in place for many years. The Chapelier Law



  1. Established wage and price controls

  2. Made it illegal for women to participate in political clubs

  3. Declared labor unions and strikes illegal

  4. Established equal taxation

  5. Made all citizens equal before the law

73.The Chapelier Law

a. expunged residual feudal fees

b. put a protective tariff on wine imports



c. forbade workers’ associations

d. put an end to eccesiatical taxes

e. granted female suffrage
74. The Roman Catholic Church

a. accepted the French Revolution

b. was a driving force behind the French Revolution

c. enthusiastically supported the French Revolution

d. ignored the French Revolution

e. condemned the French Revolution
75. Which of the following caused the deepest and most persistent internal opposition to the French Revolution?

(A) The Great Fear

(B) The storming of the Bastille

(C) The publication of Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France

(D) The advent of the Thermidorean reaction

(E) The enactment of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
76. The most significant impact of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy on the course of the French Revolution was


  1. The alliance it created between the clergy and the National Assembly

  2. That it made the clergy subservient to the state

  3. That it alienated much of the Catholic population from the revolution

  4. Its reaffirmation of the central place of the Church and the French government

  5. That it made Catholicism illegal in France

77.The Civil Constitution of the Clergy



  1. Allied the clergy with the Assembly

  2. Curbed the power of the clergy but alienated many Catholics

  3. Brought the Assembly greater support among the Catholic population

  4. Reaffirmed the central place of the Church in the French government

  5. Made Catholicism illegal in France

78. Which of the following alienated the most French Catholic clerics and believers?



  1. The provision of freedom of religion in the Declaration of the Rights of Man

  2. The determination of the various revolutionary governments to collect taxes from the Third Estate

  3. The seizure of church lands

  4. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

  5. The abolition of monasteries

79. The event most responsible for turning the people of Paris against Louis XVI was



  1. His attempt to flee Paris in June of 1791

  2. His decision to execute Robespierre

  3. His decision to raise taxes

  4. His decision to crush the Paris Commune

  5. His decision to issue the Civil Constitution of the Clergy

80. Which of the following did not contribute to the radicalization of the French Revolution



  1. Austria and Prussia’s declaration of war on the French Republic

  2. The flight to Varennes

  3. Factionalization of the Assembly

  4. The execution of Louis XVI

  5. The rise of the sans culottes

81. During the Jacobins domination of France in 1793, the government did all of the following EXCEPT



  1. Institute the metric system

  2. Make all property communal

  3. Change the calendar

  4. Set price limits on bread

  5. Attempt to move the people away from their allegiance to Catholicism

82.The sans-cullottes



  1. Were tied to the Girondists

  2. Recoiled from the use of violence

  3. Failed to recognized the legitimacy of the National Guard

  4. Were primarily peasants

e.Consisted of the working class people of Paris

83. In his Reflections on the Revolution in France(1790) Edmund Burke was critical of



  1. British failure to formulate an effective response to events in France

  2. The removal of Louis XVI from the throne

  3. France’s inability to evolve from constitutional monarchy to republic

  4. France’s refusal to honor its national debt

  5. The rapid diminishing of the authority of the monarchy and the Church

84. Who were the sans culottes, and what was their role in the revolution?



  1. They were the bourgeois factory owners who supported the revolution financially

  2. They were the leaders of the revolution who ran the new government

  3. They were an underground political party who supported the monarchy

  4. They were poor city dwellers who added zeal and brutality to the revolution

  5. They were scholars who created a new calendar for the republic

85. Many historians divide the French Revolution into these three distinct stages:



  1. “The Great Fear,” “The Reign of Terror” and “The Directory”

  2. The Monarchy, the Republic, the Empire

  3. The radical, moderate, and the reactionary stages

  4. The moderate, the radical, and the reactionary stages

  5. The storming of the Bastille, of the Tuileries, of the National Convention

86. All of the following are accurate EXCEPT



  1. France had a nonrepresentative government before the French Revolution

  2. The Revolution destroyed the vestiges of manorialism

  3. The Revolution failed to end the legal inequalities between the classes

  4. The Revolution influenced French society to measure status by ability rather than birth

  5. The ideals of the French revolution spread throughout Europe

87. In Thermidor



  1. The nobility reasserted its power

  2. France was defeated by the European coalition

  3. The French monarchy was restored

  4. The sans culottes chose to govern France directly

  5. The moderate portion of the propertied bourgeoisie reasserted its power

88. The core value of the republic of virtue created by the revolution was

a. individual interests over the general will

b. public good over the private good

c. private good over public good

d. liberty for all

e. equality for all


89. Which of the following was not part of the ideology embraced by Maximilian Robespierre?

a. establishment of equal rights of women

b. renunciation of self- interested politics

c. the assault on foreign and domestic enemies of the revolution



d. embrace Christianity

e. wholehearted support of the republican government


90. Many victims of the Reign of Terror were subject to this “humane” form of execution

a. shooting

b. hanging

c. poisoning

d. starvation

e. guillotine
91. The Thermidorian reaction resulted in all of the following EXCEPT

a. a pull back from the radical revolution

b. a new constititution

c. the closing of the Paris Jacobin Club

d. the reduction of the political power of the sans-culottes

e. an end to political violence
92. During the French Revolution, the Thermidorean Reaction was


  1. At the beginning of the Directory

  2. Year One of the Republic

  3. The end of the Reign of Terror

  4. The execution of Louis XVI

  5. The coup d’etat of 1797

93. Which of the following events occurred during the Directory period of the French Revolution. 1795-1799?



  1. Napolean set up the Cisalpine Republic in northern Italy

  2. The Reign of Terror occurred

  3. The Revolutionary calendar renamed the months and days

  4. France adopted the metric system

  5. Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed

94. The phase of the French Revolution known as “Thermidor” was characterized by



  1. A reassertion of control by the nobility

  2. The defeat of France by Austrian

  3. The restoration of the monarchy

  4. The rule of the Committee of Public Safety

  5. A reassertion of control by the moderate portion of the propertied bourgeoisie

95. The French Reign of Terror is most closely associated with the:

(A) women's march to Versailles

(B) establishment of the Committee of Public Safety

(C) issuance of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy

(D) drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

(E) reform of civil and criminal law


96. The Reign of Terror

  1. Was necessary, according to Robespierre, to establish a democratic republic

  2. Was opposed by the Parisian crowd

  3. Was aimed only at the nobility

  4. Was anticlerical

  5. Was worst in the countryside

97.During the French Revolution, Robespierre asserted that terror was necessary because



  1. There was no God

  2. The revolution fought against genuine tyranny

  3. The aims of the revolution were virtuous

  4. The people were not loyal

  5. The king had betrayed the people

98. The general purpose behind the Terror was to



  1. Make France a republic by eliminating Marie Antoinette

  2. Make a statement to France’s enemies

  3. Eliminate any opposition to the revolution

  4. Clear out the overcrowded prisons

  5. Punish the clergy who refused to sign an oath of loyalty to the revolution

99.Following the end of the Reign of Terror, the Jacobins



  1. were imprisoned

  2. took control of the Republic

  3. were summarily executed

  4. were made to conform their views to the e. more moderate views of the Thermidorians

were exiled

100. The founder of civic religion, the Cult of the Supreme Being,



  1. Louis XVI

  2. Danton

  3. Rousseau

  4. Robespierre

  5. Marie Antoinette

102. By the standards of the 20th century, the slaughter of French citizens during the reign of Terror was relatively small in number. It claimed approximately how many victims?



  1. 4 million

  2. 1 million

  3. 400,000

  4. 40,000

  5. 4,000

103. Which event occurred during the radical stage of the French Revolution?



  1. Formation of the national assembly

  2. The Great Fear

  3. Napolean’s military dictatorship

  4. The Terror

  5. The Storming of the Bastille

104. All of the following precipitated the radical turn of the revolution EXCEPT



  1. The rise of the sans culottes

  2. The flight of the king

  3. The division of the Assembly into factions

  4. The execution of the kings

  5. The outbreak of war with Austria and Prussia




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