Ap 9-22 practice test

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1. Galileo was found guilty of heresy and condemned by the Inquisition on the grounds that he:

a. publicly advocated Copernicus' heliocentric system

  b. left the Roman Catholic Church and became a Protestant

c. used his telescope to explore the heavens

d. actively supported the Gallican cause in France against papal supremacy

e. discovered the law of universal gravitation

2. In the first half of the 17th century , the Austrian Hapsburgs subdued revolt and centralized control in their territories by doing which of the following
a. allying with the urban middle classes and encouraging commercial development

b. emancipating the peasantry and encouraging agricultural development

c. waging warfare against rebel groups and supporting the Catholic Reformation

d. creating a customs union to promote trade and acquiring new territories to supply merchants with raw materials

e. establishing a national church headed by the Hapsburg emperor and redistributing former church properties
3. Which of the following were strongholds of Protestantism by 1600?
  a. Austria and Germany

b. Northern Italy and Southern Germany

c. Scandinavian and Northern Germany

d. Hungary and Northern Germany

e. Poland and Austria
4. In the period between 1871 and 1914, European governments regarded public education for the masses as important primarily because it would

a. provide society with well-informed and responsible citizens

b. ensure that children received comprehensive religious instruction

c. ensure that laborers were informed participants in the union movement

d. discourage emigration to the New World

e. lead to woman suffrage

5. Which of the following statements best describes the writers of the Romantic school?

a. They continued the traditions of the Enlightenment.

b. They were advocates of increased political rights for women

c. They based their writing on scientific and mathematical models.

d. They modeled their work on the classics of Greece and Rome.

e. They stressed emotion rather than reason.

6. Which of the following was a major characteristic of the English monarchy in the 18th century?

a. its growing wealth due to effective taxation policies

b. its growth in power because of its many victories over the French

c. a steadily widenening discrepancy between it theoretical and its real powers

d. it refusal to support the emerging cabinet system

e. a return to its “divine right” position of the 17th century

7. The result of the Tennis Court Oath was the formation of the

a. Third Estate

b. National Assembly

c. Second Estate

d. Sans-culottes

e. Estates General

8. All of the following are true of the Land and Freedom Society EXCEPT

a. It was comprised of young Russians

b. It was based on the Populism movement

c. It adhered to the principles of Alexander Herzen

d. It split into two factions

e. It staged the assassination of Alexander II

9. Which of the following is an accurate characterization of England in the period 1688-1715?

a. a constitutional monarchy controlled by an aristocratic oligarchy

b. a merchant republic increasingly under Dutch dominance

c. a puritan theocracy

d. a democracy practicing religious toleration

e. an absolute monarchy

10. Louis XVI convened the Estates General in order to :

a. raise tax revenues

b. resolve the question of voting rights for the peasantry

c. gain support for an expedition to quash the rebellion in the colony of Saint Dominique

d. gain support for war against England

e. gain support for his push to end papal power in France

11. The Concordat of 1801

a. made Napolean “ consul for life”

b. created a temporary peace between France and Russia

c. made Napolean Emporer of France

d. forbade the areas of Europe controlled by Napoleon trading with great Britain

e. reconciled France with the Roman Church

12. Which of the following accurately illustrates the reciprocal nature of innovation on the Second Industrial Revolution?

a. All of the above

b. The increase in the demand for coal created by the introduction of steam power

c. The demand for more and improved steam engines created by the development of the iron and steel industries

d. The need for a railway system to transport iron and steel

e. The increased demand for iron and steel created by the development of the railroad

13. Which event occurred during the radical stage of the French Revolution?

a. Napolean’s military dictatorship

b. Formation of the national assembly

c. The Storming of the Bastille

d. The Great Fear

e. The Terror

14. Which of the following facilitated the counter-revolutionary triumph within the Hapsburg Empire in 1849?

a. The adoption of a new constitution that provided for regional autonomy

b. The neutrality of Serbia

c. The lack of cooperation among nationalities in the Hapsburg Empire

d. The military intervention by the Ottoman Empire

e. The loyalty of the Slavs and the Germans to the monarchy

15. Absolute monarchy declined in pre-1789 France primarily because of the

a. decline in the French population

b. strength of peasant uprisings

c. increased power of the Estates-General

d. growth of judicial and aristocratic opposition

e. king’s refusal to involve France in foreign wars

16. The Napoleanic Code was officially known as the Civil Code of

a. 1810

b. 1808

c. 1802

d. 1806

e. 1804
17. Which of the following is true of the scientific revolution ?

a. It was not a complex movement and had few false starts

b. It involved a large collective of people that numbered in the thousands

c. It amounted a rejection of Christianity

d. Everything associated with the revolution was new and groundbreaking

e. It was not rapid

18. Architecture produced in the Napoleonic Empire was influenced most by

a. Islamic structures

b. Romanesque churches

c. classical models

d. ancient Egyptian pyramids

e. Gothic churches
19. “We came here to serve God and King, but also to get rich”
The above quote best represents the views of a

a. Jesuit missionary

b. Supporter of the royalist side in the English Revolution

c. Renaissance humanist

d. Spanish conquistador

e. Florentine merchant

20. The Concordat of 1801

a. Elevated the symbolic importance of the Catholic church in France

b. Granted the Catholic church greater power independent of the French state

c. Declared Catholicism the religion of most French citizens

d. Pleased Napolean’s anticlerical supporters

e. Effectively prohibited Catholic worship in France

21. Calvinism in France

a. Was rejected by the middle class and artisans

b. Often served as a cloak for noble independence

c. Was rejected by the peasants

d. Had little impact on the nobility

e. Became the official state religion

22. All of the following can be said of the 18th century Enlightenment EXCEPT

a. It was based on the belief that unchangeable natural laws governed human society as well as the physical universe

b. The Newtonian Revolution of the previous century set in motion

c. it was optimistic and progress oriented

d. it supported the assumption that human reason could fathom the natural laws

e. it reflected acceptance of social inequities and injustice as inevitable effects of natural law

23. A factor accelerating the British government’s repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 was the

a. South Sea Bubble scandal

b. American Revolution

c. Irish potato famine

d. worldwide mechanization of grain farming

e. development of relatively inexpensive ocean transport

24. The enclosure movement in Britain was most directly a result of

a. The development of the Bessemer process

b. The failure of merchantislism

c. The development of market-oriented agriculture

d. The development of the manorial system

e. The collectivization of agriculture

25. Which of these first demonstrated that popular protest would play a role in the French Revolution?

a. The trial of Louis XIV.

b. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy.

c. The reign of the Committee of Public Safety.

d. The fall of the Bastille

26. King Gustavus of Sweden entered the Thirty Years War in 1629 in order to

a. Forestall the entry of France into the conflict

b. Defend Protestant interests iin the Holy Roman Empire

c. Neutralize the potential threat from England

d. Keep Habsburg troops from directly entering Swedish territory

e. Aid the Habsburg cause
27. The seventeenth-century English scientist Willian Harvery discovered

a. The circumference of the Earth

b. How blood circulates within the human body

c. The elliptical orbit of the Earth around the sun

d. That alchemy was a false science

e. The function of the liver

28. The main purpose of the women’s march to Versailles in October 1789 was to

a. protest the seizure of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette by the National Guard

b. protest the lack of representation for women in the National Assembly

c. present the women’s concerns to Marie-Antoinette

d. provide the National Assembly and the king with a declaration of support

e. ensure the king’s support for the Declaration of Rights and cheap bread for Paris

29. Which of the following best describes the French Third Estate?

a. Counterrevolutionary provinces that resisted the National Assembly

b. The revolutionary faction that launched the Reign of Terror

c. The nobility of the robe, who acquired noble rank by purchase

d. The non-noble, nonclerical section of the Estates-General

e. The palace at the Tuileries, which was the chief royal residence after Versailles and the Louvre

30. The Russian government from 1801 to 1855, during the reigns of Alexander I and Nicholas I, is best characterized as

a. Socialist

b. Violently opposed to the role of the Russian Orthodox Chruch

c. Open to limited democratic reforms

d. Extremely autocratic

e. Republican

31. My heart leaps up when I behold
A rainbow in the sky:
So was it when my life began,
So is it now I am a man
So be it when I shall grow old
Or let me die!

The 19th century verse above is indicative of

a. The Romantic movement

b. Neoplatonism

c. The impressionist movement

d. The Enlightenment

e. Conservatism
32. Which of the e death of the following helps to account for the death of the liberal-nationalist alliance in 19th century Europe

a. All of the above

b. The liberals’ emphasis on individual liberty

c. The nationalists’ tendency to mythologize the past

d. The failure of liiberals to hold and use the power they had seized at the beginning of 1848

e. Theliberals’ emphasis on limited government

33. Hobbes and Locke disagreed in their belief that

a. the natural state of men is one of war

b. men tend to follow their own self interest

c. men are often ruled by passions

d. men are created equal

e. a government’s power comes from the people

34. During the 16th century, the discoveries that most capured the public imagination were made in

a. Natural history

b. Astronomy

c. Biology

d. Chemistry

e. Medicine

35. What nationality were many of the early explorers who claimed parts of North America for their sponsoring nations-Columbus, Verrazzano, the Cabots, for instance

a. Italian

b. French

c. Dutch

d. English

e. Spanish

36. The Frankfurt Assembly’ decision in 1848 to offer the Frederick William IV of Prussian the crown for a united Germany illustrates

a. the role of liberalism in the unification of Germany

b. the tension between liberalism and nationalism in mid 19th century Europe

c. the charisma of Frederick William IV

d. the power of parliamentary traditions in Germany

e. the weakness of the Germany monarchy

37. Which of the following best characterizes the social structure of the German Empire in 1871?

a. A conservative compromise between the old aristocracy and the new middle class

b. An amicable compromise between the middle class and the industrial proletariat

c. An equitable federation of the traditional German states

d. The triumph of the industrial east over the agrarian west

e. The triumph of the middle class

38. During Cavour’s administration as prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, all of the following occurred EXCEPT

a. Commerce was encouraged

b. Constitutionalism was established

c. There was industrialization

d. Manorialism was strengthened

e. The influence of the Church was diminished

39. In 1713 Emperor Charles VI sought approval of the Pragmatic Sanction in order to guarantee the

a. dynastic union of the Hapsburgs and the Romanovs

b. succession of the English throne to the Hanover family

c. indivisibility of the Hapsburgs’ lands

d. border between Holland and the Austrian Netherlands

e. succession of the Bourbons to the Spanish thrones

40. Improvements associated with the Agricultural Revolution of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries began in

a. France and Spain

b. Russia

c. Prussia and Saxony

d. Poland

e. the Low Countries and Britain

41. The economic policy known as Laissez faire

a. Was instituted by enlightened despots

b. Advocates protectionist tariffs

c. Is based on the notion that everyone has a right to do anything that they want

d. Argues that the government should act as an “invisible hand” to regulate the economy

e. Is based on the notion that human self-interest produces natural laws that govern economic behavior

42. Which of the following is true about the rulers of both Austria and Prussia during the 17th century?

a. they created centralized, unified nation-states

b. they patterned their society after that of the Ottoman Empire

c. they succeeded in avoiding war for most of the century

d. they abolished serfdom

e. they maintained permanent standing armies

43. All of the following were reforms demanded by the program of Chartism EXCEPT

a. Payment of salaries to member of the House of Commons

b. The secret ballot

c. Universal male suffrage

d. The maintenance of the property requirement for members of the House of Commons

e. Annual elections in the House of Commons
44. The Enlightenment

a. Regarded human progress as an impossibility “in this best of all possible worlds”

b. Was dramatically opposed to the Newtoniam concept of natural law

c. Rejected the claims of modern science

d. Was widely attacked by the royalty and nobility of Europe

e. Was based upon the assumption that science and reason can explain all things

45. Lady Jane Grey was

a. A young woman whose relatives tried to seize the English throne in her name, following the death of Edward VI

b. The mistress of an 18th century French salon

c. A leader of the Gaelic movement in 20th century Ireland

d. A wife of Henry VIII

e. A Shakespearian actress

46. The first phase of European contact with the rest of the world came to a close by

a. The end of the 16th century

b. The end of the 18th century

c. The end of the 17th century

d. The end of the 19th century

47. Napolean’s “Continental System” aimed at

a. Defeating other European powers and incorporating them into the French empire

b. Cutting off all British trade with the Continent

c. Free trade with the French empire

d. Establishing peace with Britain

e. Establishing members of his family as rulers of European countries defeated by France
48. According to Smith’s four-stage theory, human societies

a. Move from barbarism to civilization

b. Can be classified as hunter-gatherer, pastoral, agricultural, or knowledge worker

c. Need four social groups to succeed

d. Can be religious, secular, scientific , or superstitious

e. Have nor real moral basis

49. Philosophes criticized the Christian church for all of the following EXCEPT
Inciting wars

a. Encouraging more concern with the afterlife than with life on earth

b. Teaching that humans were fundamentally sinful

c. Taking too limited a role in national politics

d. Doctrinal disputes and intolerance

e. Inciting wars

50. Isaac Newton is best described as working in

a. The Platonic-Pythagorean tradition

b. The Copernican tradition

c. Aristotelian tradition

d. Scholastic tradition

e. Hermetic tradition

51. Between 1850 and 1914, which principle of organization became supreme by appealing to all of Europe’s classes

a. socialism

b. urbanization

c. nationalism

d. industrialization

e. internationalism

52. Which of the following is an accurate description of the outcome of the Paris Commune?

a. The Commune promoted a reconciliation between French Catholics and socialists.

b. The Commune overthrew Napoleon III

c. The Commune successfully defended Paris against the Prussian army.

d. The Commune was crushed by the French army.

e. The Commune successfully established a liberal democratic government in France.

53. “The greatest happiness for the greatest number” was the explicit goal of which of the following movements?

a. Anarchism

b. Utilitarianism

c. Romanticism

d. Pietism

e. Jansenism

54. Voltaire’s greatest concern was

a. for universal male suffrage

b. for freedom of religion and the press

c. that governmental power be shared with the nobility

d. the rights of the poor

e. the advancement of the Encyclopedia

55. The German fairy tales published in the 19th century by the brothers Grimm were something of a by-product because

a. They were really recorded by one of Napolean’s occupation soldiers

b. The stories were taken from a work of philosophy on the german volkgeist

c. They were really scholarly historians

d. They were linguist who traveled throughout the German states, studying dialects

e. They never intended the stories for publication

56. The Roman Catholic Church

a. ignored the French Revolution

b. enthusiastically supported the French Revolution

c. condemned the French Revolution

d. accepted the French Revolution

e. was a driving force behind the French Revolution

57. "By the charter granted by our late sovereign the framework knitters are empowered to break and destroy all frames and engines that fabricate articles in a fraudulent and deceitful manner."
The quotation above is a formulation of the ideas of which of the following groups?

a. Anarchists

b. Luddites

c. Socialists

d. Benthamites

e. Methodists

58. The primary advantage of growing the potato introduced from North America was that it

a. Was easy to cultivate

b. Was inexpensive to produce

c. Would grow in relatively poor soil

d. Could serve as food for both humans and animals

e. Could be stored for many months

59. By the late 17th century, witch craft trials and executions had declined in Western Europe in part because of

a. official church rejection of the concept of witches

b. decreased number of women practicing midwifery

c. growing feminist protest against persecution

d. popular uprisings and peasants resistance against persecution

e. increased number of women practicing midwifery

60. The majority of victims of the European witch craze were

a. children

b. Protestants

c. Catholics

d. women

e. men

61. They Chapelier Law in France originated during the Revolution and remained in place for many years. The Chapelier Law
a. Made all citizens equal before the law

b. Established wage and price controls

c. Made it illegal for women to participate in political clubs

d. Established equal taxation

e. Declared labor unions and strikes illegal

62. King Charles I of England was forced to call a parliament in 1640 following

a. The demands of Parliament to be called into session

b. The outbreak of a rebellion in Scotland

c. The declaration of war between France and England

d. A mass public outcry demanding that a new parliamentary session by called

e. A declaration of royal bankruptcy
63. In France, in the 17th century, “nobles of the sword” differed from “nobles of the robe” in that the former were

a. wealthier

b. given special privileges in the Estates General

c. part of the old traditional landed nobility dating back to the middle ages

d. banned from engaging in commerce

e. all to maintain manorial courts on their estates

64. By the 1870’s, most Western European governments had begun to provide all of the following EXCEPT

a. medical and health insurance

b. safety inspection of factories

c. primary schooling for children

d. municipal water and sewage disposal in urban areas

e. public parks, museums, and libraries

65. In the 1600s, the Dutch Republic differed from its neighbors in all the following ways EXCEPT that it had

a. Religious toleration

b. A thriving textile industry

c. No king

d. A higher standard of living

e. Reliable banking

66. To Europeans, the most important result of the American revolution was that it
a. Proved that the British could be defeated

b. Provided impressions of American life to those Europeans who fought

c. Opened possibilities for immigration

d. Proved that Enlightenment ideals could become reality

e. Weakened France finanacially

67. When newly arrived African came to the Americas, which of the following usually did NOT occur

a. They were grouped by ethnicity

b. They acquired new work skills

c. They went through a process of “seasoning”

d. The learned European languages

e. They received new names
68. Bismark’s strategy of increasing Prussia’s power by whatever means and strategies were necessary and useful has come to be known as

a. Realpolitik

b. The Kulturkampf

c. Lebensraum

d. Détente

e. The Schlieffen plan

69. Sieyes’s What is the Third Estate? Argued that

a. The clergy and the nobility contributed little to the life of the country

b. All citizens should be equal before the law

c. Taxes on the poor should be reduced

d. The third estate should have the right to vote

e. The estates should vote by estates

70. The Schleswig Holstein affair is an example of

a. French imperialism

b. The Risorgimento

c. German liberalism

d. Realpolitik

e. Russian conservatism

71. Many proponents of mechanism believed

a. Humans are machines whose purpose is to produce knowledge

b. Machines could do the work of humans

c. Mechanism and Christianity could not be reconciled

d. Human beings were machines, slaves to religion

e. The world can be explained in mechanical metaphors

72. The immediate cause of the outbreak of revolution in 1789 was

a. Grinding poverty among all classes of society

b. Government oppression

c. The ideas of the philosophes

d. The government’s financial crisis

e. The insensitivity of Marie Antoinette

73. Napolean’s purpose in instituting the Continental System was to

a. Create a united Europe under the leadership of France

b. Consolidate the separate states of Germany

c. Defeat England through economic war

d. Punish Russia for his ill-fated invasion

e. Unify Italy

74. Which of the following was a distinctive feature of Romanticism?

a. A focus on religious values and principles

b. The glorification of individuality

c. An abrupt end to nationalism

d. A belief that love could conquer all political differences

e. The cult of the courtier and worship of the lady

75. During the Thirty Years War, France pursued a policy of

a. supporting the Hapsburgs against the Protestant princes and rulers

b. remaining neutral

c. allowing French Protestants to fight for the Protestants even though the monarchy supported the Roman Catholics

d. opposing England in order to recapture Normandy

e. supporting the Protestant princes and rulers against the Hapsburgs

76. The event most responsible for turning the people of Paris against Louis XVI was

a. His decision to crush the Paris Commune

b. His decision to raise taxes

c. His attempt to flee Paris in 1791

d. His decision to issue the Civil Constitution of the Clergy

e. His decision to execute Robespierre

77. In Locke’s view, the relationship between rulers and the governed had as it foundation

a. Divine will

b. Injustice

c. Economic inequality

d. Trust

78. The Encyclopedia

  a. Received official support

b. Was written entirely by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert

c. Sold about 1200 copies

d. Secularized learning and spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe

e. Was written in 1750, but was not published until 1789
79. Which of the following best explains reasons for the growing tension between the aristocracy and the middle class in Europe in the 19th century

a. The middle class had little opportunity for social mobility or change in lifestyle

b. The aristocracy refused to share its power and access to political influence

c. The middle class sympathized with impoverished peasants

80. As a result of the Czech nobility by the Czech nobility in 1618

a. The Hapsburg allowed Protestant worship

b. Bohemia gained independence from the Hapsburgs

c. The Bohemian parliament gained power over taxation

d. The native nobility was wiped out

e. The Czechs gain independence after the Battle of White Mountain

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