Ap 13 testbank key



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AP 13 TESTBANK KEY


1. Which of the following most accurately describes the political system of the Dutch republic of the seventeenth century?

(A) Popular democracy

(B) Rule by an absolute monarch

(C) Rule by wealthy merchants

(D) Control by feudal lords

(E) Rule by yeoman farmers
2.In the 17th century, the Netherlands became a haven for

Former monarchs



Religious minorities

Political radicals

Those seeking relief from high taxation

Former mercenaries


3. The Dutch Republic rose to prominence in seventeenth-century Europe because of which of the following factors?
(A) Its agricultural innovations

(B) Its military strength

(C) Its literary creativity

(D) Its religious unity



(E) Its shipping and commerce
4. In the late 17th century, which of the following countries led continental Europe in shipbuilding, navigation, and commerce and banking?

a. France

b. Russia

c. The Netherlands

d. Denmark

e. Spain
5. By the early 17th century, which of the following European nations was the greatest commercial power in Europe?

a. England

b. France

c. The Netherlands

d. Spain


e. Sweden
6. The leadership of the Dutch revolts(1566-1648) sought all of the following EXCEPT

a. an alliance with the English Catholics

b. the end of the Inquisition

c. the end of excessive taxation

d. the elimination of the rule of foreign officials

e. an alliance with French Protestants
7. The 16th century revolt in the Netherlands was largely inspired by

a. an economy that was mire in recession

b. English support for the Dutch rebels

c. strict language laws imposed by the Spanish that blocked the use of Dutch for correspondence

d. the failure of the Netherlands and Spain to agree on how best to use the vast Spanish overseas empire

e. economic, political, and religious tensions in the relations between the Netherlands and Spain
8. In the 1600s, the Dutch Republic differed from its neighbors in all the following ways EXCEPT that it had

No king


A higher standard of living

Religious toleration

A thriving textile industry

Reliable banking


9. ______________ developed a large cash crop out of tulip cultivation

The Netherlands

Belgium

France


Germany

Switzerland



England

10.Which of the following resulted from the English Reformation?

a. immediate wholesale persecution of Catholics in England

b. establishment of the English monarch as head of the Church of England

c. the pope’s naming of Henry VIII as “Defender of the Faith”

d. papal recognition of the English church as independent, but still affiliated with Rome

e. a revolt by members of the English aristocracy opposed to the Reformation


11.A majority consequence of the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 was

a. assured independence of the Union of Utrecht

b. freedom of the seas for the English and Dutch

c. security of Protestantism in the Dutch republic and in England

d. major expenses for Spain to rebuild her fleet

e. all of the above

13.Which of the following was a major characteristic of the English monarchy in the 18th century

a. a return to its “divine right” position of the 17th century

b. a steadily widenening discrepancy between it theoretical and its real powers

c. its growth in power because of its many victories over the French

d. it refusal to support the emerging cabinet system

e. its growing wealth due to effective taxation policies


14. After the defeat of King Charles I in the English Civil War and his execution in 1649, England was governed for a decade by

(A) a democratic republic with universal suffrage



(B) a commonwealth led by Oliver Cromwell and his son

(C) a constitutional monarchy under King James II

(D) the king of Scotland

(E) a parliamentary council dominated by egalitarians


15.James I agreed to a new translation of the Bible in his one concession to the

Catholics



Puritans

Levellers

House of Commons

Arminians

16.The the Anglican Church broke from Rome before altering Roman Catholic dogma indicates that

Henry started the English Reform ation because he couldn’t get a divorce sanctioned by the Pope

Henry’s lust for Anne Bolyn motivated him to reject his devout Catholicism

Because Henry was eager to have a male heir, he urged Parliament to pass the Act of Supremacy

Thomas Cranmer issued the divorce that precipitated the Reformation in return for his appointment as Archbishop of Cantabury

Many factors, including resentment of papal states , contributed to the English Reformantion
17.The period of British history 1649-1660, in which Britain was ruled without a monarch is known as

The Restoration

The Glorious Revolution

The Commonwealth

The English Civil War

e.The Norman Conquest

18. The principal reason England reverted to a monarchical form of government following the Interregnum of Oliver Cromwell lay in Cromwell’s

(A) ineffective mercantilist policy

(B) inability to establish broad popular support for his government

(C) inability to impose religious uniformity

(D) ineffective foreign policy

(E) inability to control dissidents in the army


19.The Restoration of Charless II to the throne in 1660 indicates that many Englishmen

Hoped that Calvinism would remain a viable part of English religious life

Were unsympathetic to the ideas of john Locke

Had never chosen sides in the struggle between King and Parliament

Had a deep affection for the Stuart dynasty

Were tired of what they perceived to be the anarchism of the English Republic
20.The Bristish seemed to profit LEAST in 1713 from the settlement of the War of Spanish Succession in which of the following ways

They got Gibraltar

Theygot the asiento, the slave trade with Spanish America

The Southern Netherlands went to Austria



The throne of Spain went to the Bourbons

They got Newfoundland and Nova Scotia


21.Probably the most significant long tern result of the Puritan Revolution (11643-1660) was

The restoration of the Stuarts to the throne

The issuance of the Petition of Rights

The increased authority of Parliiament

The vindication of the divine right of the onarchy

The recognition of Calvinism as England’s official religion
22.Which of the following was NOT a provision of the Declaration of Rights, 1689?

Only Parliament can levy taxes



The king may maintain a standing army without the consent of Parliament

All laws must be made of the consent of the Parliament

The right of trial by jury is guaranteed

Due process of law is guaranteed

23.Wllian and Mary’s ascension to the English thro of Parliament to oraise taxesne in 1689

Restricted the right of Parliament to raise taxes

Nullified the Declaration of Rights

Was founded on the divine-right theory



Indicated the supremacy of Parliament

Restored the Tudor dynasty


24.That England developed a constitutional government that can be explained by all of the following EXCEPT

The English kins rejected the divine right theory

The Tudor monarchs, lacking a legitimate claim to the throne , had to cooperate with Parliament

The English gentry blurred the sharp class distinction s between the nobility and middle classes that existed elsewhere in Europe

Revolution strengthened the role of Parliament

a tradition of individual rights served as the basis for constitituionalism

25.The Glorious Revolution of 1688 was a turning point in British history because

The Roundheads defeated the Cavaliers and executed the king making Parliament the supreme power in the nation

It marked Roman Catholicism’s return to both England and Scotland as an official state religion

The French vowed to stay out of British international affairs as a result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688

Puritans gained supreme power throughout the country and they threatened another civil war if Oliver Cromwell’s reforms were not reinstated



It was accompanied by the English Bill of Rights that limited monarchial authority significantly
26. Which of the following was a primary result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688?

(A) The establishment of universal male suffrage

(B) The restoration of Roman Catholicism to both England and Scotland

(C) The limitation of monarchical power

(D) The execution of Charles I

(E) The triumph of Puritanism

27.Which of the following is most true of the Glorious Revolution of 1688?



It represents the triumph of constitutionalism in Britain

It brought democracy to Britain

It began the Restoration Period in Britain

It began the Commonwealth Period in Britain

It ended the Commonwealth Period in Britain
28.Oliver Cromwell’s New Model Army differed from the Cavalier forces under Charles I by

Its emphasis on cavalry

Deemphasizing the role of religion

Its recruitment of continental mercenaries



Providing regular pay for soldiers and for paying for supplies taken from farmers

Remaining on the defensive


29.The relative peace of the Restoration Period in England broke down when

Oliver Cromwell



James II ascended to the throne

Charles II ascended to the throne

Elizabeth I ascended to the throne

A Protestant fleet invaded form the Netherlands


30.Which of the following would NOT be included in a list of the causes kof the English Civil War(1642-1646)

The religion of Charles I’s wife

Wars with Spain and France

The invasion of a Protestant army form the Netherlands

The invasion of England by the Scots

Parliament’s refusal to fund the war with Scotland without reform
31.The English Civil War immediately resulted in

An end to the Stuart monarchy

Religious toleration for Catholics

Reopening of the theaters

More power for Parliament

A virtual dictatorship by Oliver Cromwell
32.The Enlgish Parliament disagreed with all the following policies of Charles I EXCEPT his

Claim of divine right

High church religious policy

Demands for money



Authorization of translation of scripture

Refusal to call Parliament


33.During the Interregnum, English Puritans outlawed blood sports such as bearbaiting because the

Puritans opposed cruelty to animals

Public saw the sports as entertaining

Sports violated the teaching of scripture

Sports drew people away from the theaters

Sports invited sinful gambling and drinking
35.Religious toleration by the English government from 1534, when the English Reformation began, to 1689, when Toleration Act was passed

Guaranteed the right to worship to all Christian sects

Denied the right to worship to all except Anglicans

Denied only the right to worship to atheists

Periodically denied to Catholics the right to worship

Was verified, at times denying then guaranteeing freedom of worship to different sects
36.Which of the following is NOT true of the “Glorious Revolution” of 1689?

It established, once and for all, the right of Parliament to levy taxes

It established that the monarchy and Parliament ruled England together

It reflected the theories of government of Thomas Hobbes

It was supported by the theories of John Locke

It marked the supremacy of constitutionalism in England
37.King Charles I of England was forced to call a parliament in 1640 following

The outbreak of a rebellion in Scotland

The declaration of war between France and England

The demands of Parliament to be called into session

A mass public outcry demanding that a new parliamentary session by called

A declaration of royal bankruptcy
38.During the English Revolution, the Levellers advocated the idea that

All private property should be abolished

The economic playing field needed to be leveled to allow for greater opportunities for the poor

The monarchy had to be restored



All men should have the vote regardless of whether they own property

There was a contract between the government and the people

39.The “Diggers” a group that emerged during the English Revolution, believed that

The monarchy must be based on popular support

England needed to become a theocracy

Enclosure laws needed to be enforced



Private ownership of land should be abolished

Property belonging to supporters of Charles I should be redistributed to the landless


40.The relative peace of the Restoration Period in England broke down when

Oliver Cromwell did



James II ascended to the throne

Charles II ascended to the throne

Elizabeth I ascended to the throne

A Protestant fleet invaded from the Netherlands


41.The English Parliament during the period from 1600 to 1715

Was a relatively new institution

Wasa exclusively an institution of the nobility

Was an institution opposed to monarchy



Was the institution in which nobles, merchants, and professionaliis formed an alliance to oppose the absolutist goals of the Stuart monarchs

Was in favor of a one-man, one-vote system of democracy


42.In the 18th century in England was a time when Parliament was able to strengthen its power over the monarchy, mainly because

Of the documents William and Mary had to sign in 1689

Rich merchants and landowners controlled the House of Commons

Parliament controlled the government’s purse



The first two Hanover kings hardly spoke English and were concerned with English affairs

Parliament was elected by universal male suffrage


43.During the 16th and 17th centures, while France developed absolutism , the English monarchy was check by

A strong peasantry

A few powerful and independent noble families

A Bill of Rights guaranteeing individual freedoms

The Anglican Church

A strong parliament

44.In the period 1600-1715, the English had the greatest success in resisting the absolutist designs of their monarchs for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

The nobility forged an alliance with a wealthy and powerful merchant and professional class

The English nobility was the most powerful in all of Europe

The Parliament was an old and respected institution

The Stuart monarchs were perceived to have Catholic leaning and sympathies

The English economy was weel developed and diversified


45.Which of the following is an accurate characterization of England in the period 1688-1715

a. a puritan theocracy

b. an absolute monarchy

c. a democracy practicing religious toleration

d. a merchant republic increasingly under Dutch dominance

e. a constitutional monarchy controlled by an aristocratic oligarchy
46.“Kings are justly called gods for that they exercise a manner or resemblance of Divine power on Earth.”

Which of the following was most likely to agree with this statement?

a. Sir Thomas More

b. James I of England

c. Napolean III of France

d. Pope Pius IX

e. George III of England


France

47.The revolt against France’s increasingly centralized monarchy in 1648-1652 is generally known as

a. the Mazarinade

b. Colbertism



c. the Fronde

d. the siege of La Rochelle

e. the Pazzi Conspiracy

48.Which of the following is true of Cardinal Richelieu(1585-1642)?

a. he led the French church in opposition to the monarchy

b. he expelled the Huguenots from France



c. he strengthened the intendant system method of local government

d. he effectively abolished the sale of offices and tax farming in in France

e. he supported the French nobility against the monarchy
49.Which of the following reforms of Louis XIV most helped him to take direct control of absolute the local political and economic administration?

a. the intendant administrative system

b. the Palace of Versailles as a “gilded cage”for the nobility

c. a policy for regional war for state aggrandizement

d. the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes to establish a state religion

e. creation of a powerful standing army
50.Louis XIV built his great palace of Versailles for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

a. to control the aristocracy

b. to show on a grand scale the wealth and power of the French monarchy

c. the rule outside the confines of Paris

d. to make it a center of French culture

e. to allow for better communications with his people
51.The degree of absolutism achieved by the 17th century Bourbon monarchy in France is best explained by

a. relatively low degree of religious turmoil in 17th century France

b. the fact that 17th century France was a republic

c. the series “little ice ages” that characterized the climate of the 1600s

d. the availability of cheap housing for the rural poor


52. The later baroque style is known for

a. its retrained use of color

b. its minimalist aesthetic

c. it rigorous realism

d. its soothing contemplative qualities

e. its extreme ornamentation

53.In France, in the 17th century, “nobles of the sword” differed from “nobles of the robe” in that the former were

a. wealthier

b. part of the old traditional landed nobility dating back to the middle ages

c. given special privileges in the Estates General

d. all to maintain manorial courts on their estates

e. banned from engaging in commerce


54.Cardinal Richelieu extended the power French royalty with the intendant system

a. a centralized administrative system

b. a medal of honor for the musketeers

c. a series of fortified cities in France

d. a tax that local nobles could levy

e. a standing army of 400000 trained troops
55.As chief minister to Louis XIII of France, Cardinal Richelieu was able to

a. disband the private armies of the great French aristocrats

b. strip away the autonomy of the few remaining Portestant towns

c. build a strong administrative bureaucracy

d. strip provincial aristcrats and elites of their administrative power

e. all of the above
56.Louis XIV built his great palace of Versailles for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

a. to control the aristocracy

b. to show the grand scale the wealth and power of the French monarchy

c. to rule outside the confines of Paris

d. to make it the center of French culture

e. to allow for better communications with his people
57.In 17th century France, the intendants were

a. archbishops of certain diosceses



b. representatives of the king who governed each district

c. delegates to the Estates General

d. judges in the parlements

e. Huguenots military leaders

58.The system of intendants was established in 17th century France primarily to

a. empower the French nobility



b. implement royal policies locally

c. make the peasantry return to the land

d. collect taxes from the towns

e. improve France’s ability to fight foreign wars

59.In the second half of the 17th century, which of the following countries dominated European culture, politics, and diplomacy?

a. England

b. the Netherlands

c. Russia



d. France

e. Prussia


WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION

60.In 1713 Emperor Charles VI sought approval of the Pragmatic Sanction in order to guarantee the



a. indivisibility of the Hapsburgs’ lands

b. border between Holland and the Austrian Netherlands

c. dynastic union of the Hapsburgs and the Romanovs

d. succession of the Bourbons to the Spanish thrones

e. succession of the English throne to the Hanover family
61.As allies in the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War, the English and the Dutch were somewhat limited in the they

a. were not wealthy enough to contribute large sums of money

b. were too far away to be useful

c. were not terribly interested in the politics of Continental Europe



d. were primarily naval powers, so they could offer only limited army support

e. changed sides between wars, so their loyalties were somewhat confused


62.After the War of Succession, Maria Theresa was disappointed because

a. Austria lost the Southern Netherlands, which she owned since 1713

b. Austria was forced to pay indemnities to Prussia

c. the nations of Europe turned on Austria and allied with Frederick of Prussia



d. Frederick kept Siliesia, which he had seized in 1740

e. Hungary revolted against Austria


63.The War for Spanish Succession (1740-1748) was caused by

a. Prussian expansionist aims

b. a revolt of Austrian nobles

c. The Pragmatic Sanction

d. French aggression

e. all of the above
64.The Hapsburg Emperor Charles VI (1711-1740) issued his Pragmatic Sanction in order to

a. provide for the division of his territories after his death

b. allow him to partition Poland

c. allow him to trade Protestant lands that he ruled in Germany for Catholic lands elsewhere



d. guarantee the succession of his eldest daughter to the throne

e. eliminate serfdom in his territories


65.Which of the following was the primary cause of the Hapsburg-Valois feud, which dominated European international politics in the 16th century?

a. the differences in the religious positions taken by the two families during the Protestant Reformation

b. the refusal of Charles of Hapsburg to marry a Valois princess

c. competition for colonies overseas

d. the conflicting political ambitions of the two families

e. clashing territorial interests in southern Germany

66.The Peace of Utrecht (1713-1714) altered the balance of power in Europe by

a. checking French expansion

b. decreasing Austrian territorial holdings

c. decreasing England’s colonial empire

d. granting sovereignty over Belgium to the Netherlands

e. granting independence to Spain’s New World Colonies
67.Which of the following characterized European warfare between the Peace of Utrecht(1713) and the outbreak of the French Revolution?

a. standing armies pursuing limited strategic goals

b. citizens armies fighting for their native lands

c. feudal armies fighting for their lords

d. mass armies pursuing global strategies

e. highly mobile armies unhampered by traditional defenses
68.Of the following, which was the most important result of the Peace of Utrecht(1713)?

a. it allowed the unification of the thrones of France and Spain

b. it weakened Great Britain’s effort to replace France as the leading colonial power

c. it divided the Spanish colonial empire between the French and the British

d. it dealt a blow to the Austrian Hapsburgs, who had expected to acquire Gibraltar

e. it ended the efforts of Louis XIV to dominate contintental European politics
Prussia

69.The source of Prussian power in the 18th century was

Bismark’s genius

Prussia’s industrial strength

Prussia’s diplomatic alliances

Prussia’s geographical position



Prussia’s powerful military
70. Which of the following is true about the rulers of both Austria and Prussia during the 17th century

a. they patterned their society after that of the Ottoman Empire

b. they succeeded in avoiding war for most of the century

c. they created centralized, unified nation-states

d. they abolished serfdom

e. they maintained permanent standing armies
71.Which of the following is true of Frederick William I , king of Prussia from 1713-1740?

a. he lived lavishly off the taxes this his bureaucracy collected



b. he built a first-rate army and infused Prussian society with military values

c. he refused to employ commoners in his bureaucracy

d. he recruited tall soldiers from all of Europe to fight in his frequent wars

e. he encouraged the development of local self- government


72.Prussia has been called “a state built around an army”, meaning that

a. the kings were recruited form the High Command



b. in a nation of separate states, the army was a unifying force

c. the Junkers were militarists

d. the army ruled the monarchy

e. universal conscription was the rule


73.Prussian power in the 18th century was primarily based on its

a. standing army

b. geographic location

c. well-trained diplomatic corps

d. military alliance with Great Britain

e. economic right
74.The acquisition of which of the following territories during the mid 18th century helped to establish Prussia as a great power

a. Bohemia

b. Bavaria

c. Brandenburg



d. Silesia

e. Saxony


75.In 17th and 18th century Prussia, the Junkers supported the monarchy and served in the army in return for

a. the right to sell their lands

b. control of an independent national parliament

c. toleration of their religious diversity

d. exemption from all taxes

e. virtually absolute power over their serfs
76.In the 16th and 17th centuries Prussia expanded its territory mainly through

Marriage and inheritance

War against it neighbors

The building of a huge military force as threat

Papal decrees

All of the above

POLAND

77. Poland’s decline as a major political entity during the seventeenth century can be attributed largely to


(A) the failure of the papacy to recognize the legitimacy of the Polish kings

(B) a population decline resulting from the Thirty Years’ War

(C) the conquest o

f the kingdom by the Ottoman Turks

(D) failure of the universities to create a literate aristocracy

(E) the absence of a powerful central authority

78.Poland disappeared as an independent nation on the 18th century due to all of the following reasons EXCEPT

a. Russian, Prussian, and Austrian annexation of Polish territories

b. the Polish nobility reduced the monarchy to a powerless institution

c. France refused to intervene on behalf of the Poles

d. the nation was vulnerable due to its exposed lands without natural borders



e. the Catholic Church was unsympathetic to Polish statehood
79.Political problems in Poland around 1750 included all of the following EXCEPT

a. the nobility paid no taxes

b. the king was elected

c. the national diet could be shut down by the veto of any member

d. the king was often a foreigner

e. the king was a powerful dictator
AUSTRIA

80.The expansion of Austrian Hapsburg land in the late 17th century resulted primarily from

a. victories over the Prussians

b. victories over the Ottoman Turks

c. a series of advantageous treaties

d. a political vacuum in France

e. the support of England


81.The landholding nobles of Central and Eastern Europe differed from those in Western Europe in the period 1600-1715 in that they

a. drastically reduced in number

b. made an alliance with the middle classes

c. triumphed in their struggle with the monarchs

d. lost control of their lands

e. retained control of vast estates worked by serfs
82.During the 16th century, which dynasty ruled a dominion that stretched for the Atlantic to Eastern Europe, from the Baltic to the Mediterranean?

a. Valois

b. Hohenzollern

c. Bourbon

d. Tudor

e. Hapsburg

83.Which of the following is NOT true of the Holy Roman Empire about 1600?

a. it was made up of about 300 states

b. the Holy Roman Emperor exercised tight control over member states

c. the Holy Roman Emperor was from the Austrian Hapsburg family

d. the individual states took pride in their independence

e. they was a central diet(parliament) of the Empire


84.In the first half of the 17th century , the Austrian Hapsburgs subdued revolt and centralized control in their territories by doing which of the following

a. emancipating the peasantry and encouraging agricultural development

b. allying with the urban middle classes and encouraging commercial development

c. establishing a national church headed by the Hapsburg emperor and redistributing former church properties

d. creating a customs union to promote trade and acquiring new territories to supply merchants with raw materials

e. waging warfare against rebel groups and supporting the Catholic Reformation
85. Which of the following was the primary cause of the Hapsburg-Valois feud, which dominated European international politics in the 16th century?

a. the differences in the religious positions taken by the two families during the Protestant Reformation

b. the refusal of Charles of Hapsburg to marry a Valois princess

c. competition for colonies overseas



d. the conflicting political ambitions of the two families

e. clashing territorial interests in southern Germany


86.The expansion of the Austrian Hapsburg land in the late 17th century resulted primarily from

a. victories over the Prussians



b. victories over the Ottoman Turks

c. a series of advantageous treaties

d. a political vacuum of Europe

e. the support of England

87.The gradual decline of the Ottoman Empire which occurred during the 19th century created the most serious diplomatic and political tension between which of the following?

a. Austria and Prussia



b. Austria and Russia

c. France and Prussia

d. Russia and Greece

e. Russia and Prussia


RUSSIAN

88.Which of the following was accomplished by Peter the Great of Russia(1682-1725)?

He abolished serfdom

He expanded the Russian Empire

He launched the industrialization of Russia

He curbed the power of the nobility

He provided tax relief for the peasantry


89.Compared with the Romanov Tsars, the Bourbon monarchs of France in the period 1600-1715

Maded less use of the Church and its expertise and influence



Were less reliant on the nobility for their power

Were more absolutist in their style of government

Sought to expand their empire to a larger extent

Were more committed to the primacy of the privileges and prerogatives of the nobility


90.The reign of Peter the Great of Russia (1682-1725) resulted in

The abolition of the Russian Orthodox Church



The territorial expansion of the Russian Empire

The weakening of serfdom

A decrease in the tax burden on poor peasants

The emergence of a wealthy middle class


91.Russia participated in the expansionist trend of the late 18th century by

Defeating the Ottoman Turks in 1774

Single-handedly conquering Poland in 1775

Invading Prussia in 1770

Enacting the Pragmatic Sanction

Invading Finland in 1774
92.Which of the following was accomplished by Peter the Great of Russia(1682-1725)?

He abolished serfdom



He expanded the Russian Empire

He launched the industrialization of Russia

He curbed the power of the nobility

He provided tax relief for the peasantry


93.Compared with the Romanov Tsars, the Bourbon monarchs of France in the period 1600-1715

Maded less use of the Church and its expertise and influence



Were less reliant on the nobility for their power

Were more absolutist in their style of government

Sought to expand their empire to a larger extent

Were more committed to the primacy of the privileges and prerogatives of the nobility


94.The reign of Peter the Great of Russia (1682-1725) resulted in

The abolition of the Russian Orthodox Church



The territorial expansion of the Russian Empire

The weakening of serfdom

A decrease in the tax burden on poor peasants

The emergence of a wealthy middle class


95.Russia participated in the expansionist trend of the late 18th century by

Defeating the Ottoman Turks in 1774

Single-handedly conquering Poland in 1775

Invading Prussia in 1770

Enacting the Pragmatic Sanction

Invading Finland in 1774
96.The Law Code of 1649 is an example of the Romanov tsars’

Policy of enlightened despotism

Expansionist aims

Willlinginess to give the nobility complete control over the classes of people below them

Incompetence

Commitment to liberal reform
97. One policy Peter the Great used to make Russia a great power was to

a. decrease the tax burden on his poorer subjects



b. build a new capital where his nobles and merchants were obliged to settle

c. abolish serfdom

d. encourage national pride by using his subjects to retain traditional dress and customs

e. introduce military conscription for all adult male


98. In the 18th century, the effectiveness of the Russian monarchy was limited by

a. the enormous land area of the country

b. the independent position o the Orthodox church

c. a united, rebellious nobility

d. a prosperous middle class located in fortified towns

e. a newly free class of former serfs
99.The establishment and growth of St. Petersburg during the early 18th century was part of Peter the Great’s attempt to do which of the following ?

a. strengthen his alliances with the Baltic states

b. improve relations with the Orthodox church

c. remake Russian institutions to be as effective as those in Western Europe

d. reduce the high cost of government in the old capital Moscow

e. discourage further Russian expansion eastward into Asia
100.Peter the Great of Russia incorporated all of the following in his effort to modernize his states EXCEPT

a. a standing professional army

b. new taxation policies

c. a bureaucracy based on merit



d. a disbanding of the Cossacks

e. a new capital city with a port


101.Tsar Peter the Great of Russian forced his nobles to shave their beards because he wanted

a. to be the only one in Russia with facial hair

b. to tax them for shaving implements



c. his nobles to be prepared for war

d. them to look like nobles of Western Europe

e. to prepare them for a more modern constitutional monarchy


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