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1.Of the following, the major political opponent of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was

a. Pope Clement VII

b. Henry VIII of England

c. Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden

d. Francis I of France

e. Phillip II of Spain

2.Which of the following ws the primary cause of the Hapsburg-Valois feud, which dominated European international politics in the 16th century?

a. the differences in the religious positions taken by the two families during the Protestant Reformation

b. the refusal of Charles of Hapsburg to marry a Valois princess

c. competition for colonies overseas

d. the conflicting political ambitions of the two families

e. clashing territorial interests in southern Germany

3.Probably, the major attraction of Calvinism for French nobles was

  1. A desire fro religious freedom

  2. A form of revolt against the strongly Catholic monarchy

  3. The Calvinist bent toward hard work and monetary reward

  4. Fundamental disagreements with the Catholic Church

  5. The fact that Calvin was French by birth

4.The teachings of which of the following had the greatest impact on the Reformation in Scotland?
(A) Ignatius of Loyola

(B) John Calvin

(C) Martin Luther

(D) Desiderius Erasmus

(E) Ulrich Zwingli

5. The principle of “he who rules; his religion” was established by

  1. The Edict of Nantes

  2. The Papacy in Rome

  3. The Geneva Convention

  4. The Peace of Augsburg in 1555

  5. The inquisition

6. Elizabeth I of England and her contemporary, Henry IV of France. have been called politiques because they believed that
(A) doctrinal unity was necessary to political unity

(B) religious questions were as important as political questions

(C) religion was the most important part of politics

(D) political leaders should not be involved in religious questions

(E) theological controversy should be subordinate to political unity
7.“Poverty, considered a virtue by the Catholic Church, became shameful to the Calvinists. The middle class found in Calvinism a justification for the pursuit of wealth.”
This passage implies that Calvinism may have been a powerful influence in the development of which of the following ?

  1. Communism

  2. Capitalism

  3. Nationalism

  4. Democracy

  5. Science

8.Protestant values, sometimes differing for one sect to another, helped in the development of which of the following

  1. capitalism, nationalism, monasticism

  2. science, capitalism, nationalism

  3. the coe princes of conciliar movement, science, democracy

  4. nationalism, individualism, clerical celibacy

  5. science, nationalism, monasticism

9.Calvinism in France

  1. Often served as a cloak for noble independence

  2. Was rejected by the peasants

  3. Had little impact on the nobility

  4. Was rejected by the middle class and artisans

  5. Became the official state religion

10.Which of the following were strongholds of Protestantism by 1600?

  1. Northern Italy and Southern Germany

  2. Poland and Austria

  3. Hungary and Northern Germany

  4. Scandinavian and Northern Germany

  5. Austria and Germany

11.At the end of the French Wars of Religion, Henry IV converted from Calvinism to Catholicism because he

  1. Was threatened with death unless he converted

  2. Had genuine differences with Calvinist teachings

  3. Wanted to gain control over Paris

  4. Had undergone a genuine religious conversion

  5. Hoped to gain the support of Catholic Spain

12.In the early 16th century, one’s religion was determined by

  1. One’s ruler

  2. One’s personal conscience

  3. The bishop of diocese

  4. One’s parents

  5. God

13.When Henry IV remarked, “Paris is well worth a mass”, he was referring to

  1. His prayers for the fall of the city during his siege of it

  2. His expected vist during he Easter season

  3. His conversion to Catholicism to gan popular favor

  4. His conversion to Calvinism to gain support of the Huguenots

  5. His visit with the Pope to gain absolution

14.The Edict of Nantes, issued by Henry IV in 1598, was on eof the most significant acts of his reign because of all the following reasons EXCEPT

  1. It was one of the first governmental guarantees of religious freedom in Europe

  2. It granted Huguenots civil and political equality with Catholics

  3. It continued the bitter civil war between Catolic and Protestant

  4. It brought peace to Frane

  5. To ban private duels within the realm

15.The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre was part of which larger conflict?

  1. French religious wars of the late 16th century

  2. Thirty Years War

  3. English Civil War

  4. War of Spanish Succession

  5. War of Jenkins’ Ear

16.The French Wars of Religion involved all of the following EXCEPT

  1. Aristocratic resentment at royal authority

  2. Antagonism between Calvinists and Catholics

  3. A weakened monarchy following the death of Henry II

  4. Spanish interference in French political affairs

  5. The refusal of the politiques to view France as anything other than a purely Catholic nation

17.The most successful politique was

  1. Oliver Cromwell

  2. Philip II of Spain

  3. Mary I of England

  4. Francis I of France

  5. Elizabeth I of England

18.Which event starkly marked the beginning of the French wars of religion?

  1. The duke of Guise surprising a Protestant congregation in Champagne and massacring many worshipers

  2. The issuing of the January Edict

  3. The leak, to the Catholics, of the kidnapping plot to take Francis II from his Guise advisors

  4. The death of Francis II

  5. The crowning of Francis II as king of France

19.King Henry IV stunned France, Spain, and the pope by

  1. Declaring France Protestant, but hoping it to remain politically weak

  2. Executing two hundred militant Protestants

  3. Declaring France Catholic but hoping it would remain politically weak

  4. Publically abandoning the Catholic faith and embracing Protestantism

  5. Publically abandoning the Catholic faith and embracing Catholicism

20. Which of the following is NOT true of the Edict of Nantes(1598)?

a. it was issued by Henry IV of France

b. it allowed the practice of Protestantism in France

c. it was responsible for the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

d. it was revoked by Louis XIV

e. it was accepted by the French Huguenots
21.The Edict of Nantes in 1598 did which of the following?

a. ensured Anglo-French cooperation throughout the 17th century

b. created a French church separated from papal authority

c. ended the War of the Spanish Succession

d. proclaimed the toleration of of Calvinism

e. precipitated the French Wars of Religion

22.The Edict of Nantes issued by Henry IV of France did which of the following?

a. recognized the rights of the French Protestants

b. made public the king’s conversion to Roman Catholicism

c. settled the Bourbons on the French throne

d. ordered the Spanish out of France

e. announced French entry into the war between the Spanish and the Dutch
23.The Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day in 1572

a. marked the renewal of religious civil war in France

b. resulted in the slaughter of Catholic leaders

c. marked the end of Protestantism in France

d. restored religious toleration in France

e. was perpetrated by Huguenot mobs

24.Which of the following individuals said, “Paris is worth a mass

a. Cardinal Richelieu

b. Henry IV

c. Louis XIII

d. Catherine de Medici

e. Louis XIV


25.Elizabeth I brought religious calm to England by

  1. Allowing priests to marry

  2. Authorizing a translation of scripture into English

  3. Acknowledging the civil rights of Catholics

  4. Requiring only outward conformity to Anglicanism

  5. Giving religious freedom to all groups

26.Lady Jane Grey was

  1. A wife of Henry VIII

  2. The mistress of an 18th century French salon

  3. A young woman whose relatives tried to seize the English throne in her name, following the death of Edward VI

  4. A Shakespearian actress

  5. A leader of the Gaelic movement in 20th century Ireland

27.The greatest achievement of the English sailor Francis Drake was

  1. Attacking Spanish galleons and seizing gold and silver from the New World

  2. Defending England against the Spanish Armada

  3. Expanding British naval and commercial power

  4. Succeeding as a favorite of Queen Elizabeth I

  5. Becoming the second European commander to circumnavigate the globes

28. Following the death of her half-sister Mary Queen Elizabeth of England pursued which of the following religious policies?

  1. She followed her father’s example and refused to embrace either Protestantism or Catholicism

  2. She followed Mary’s policy by keeping England within the Catholic Church

  3. She began a massive persecution of Catholics on the charge of heresy

  4. She broke with Rome and established a moderate Protestant church

  5. She waited to make a decision on religious matters until many years into her reign

29.“There reigneth all abuse, carnal liberty, enormity, sin and Babylonian confusion. Take away kings, princes, rulers, magistrates, judges, and such estates of God’s order, no man shall sleep in his own house or bed unskilled, no man shall keep his wife, children or possessions in quietness, all things shall be common; and there needs must follow all mischief and utter destruction both of souls, good and commonwealth
The homily, read from a pulpit in Elizabethan England, was primarily an attempt to convince people to

  1. Attend the services of the Church of England

  2. Accept the social hierarchy

  3. Accept Elizabeth as their queen

  4. Challenge the status quo

  5. Guard their family and property

30. The Council of Trent (1545-1563) was the major body through which

(A) Spain strengthened its position against the Turks

(B) the house of Hapsburg gained control over Italy

(C) the Roman Catholic church reformed itself

(D) European states entered into economic cooperation

(E) Puritans and Catholics were reconciled

31.All of the following were significant accomplishments of the English durning the reign of Elizabeth I EXCEPT

  1. The Thirty-Nine Articles completed the English Reformation

  2. Her foreign policy encouraged the independence of the Netheralnds, a commercial and colonial rival of Spain

  3. She weakened the power of Spain, bastion of Catholic orthodoxy

  4. She satisfied the Puritans who had criticized the Anglican liturgy as too close to Catholicism

  5. She encouraged nationalism and the development of a unique culture

32. A primary goal of Philip II of Spain was to

a. grant toleration to religious minorities

b. create a monarchy accessible to the people

c. reunite the Spanish and Austrian Hapsburg empires

d. strengthen the Spanish economy

e. maintain Spanish control of the Netherlands

33.The leadership of the Dutch revolts (1566-1648) sought all of the following EXCEPT

a. an alliance with the English Catholics

b. the end of the Inquisition

c. the end of excessive taxation

d. the elimination of the rule of foreign officials

e. an alliance with French Protestants


34. The Pieter Brueghal painting (circa 1569) shown above depicts the massacre of villagers in

  1. the Netherlands by Spanish troops

  2. Russia by Ottoman troops

  3. Spain by English troops

  4. France by Swedish troops

E Hungary by Austrian

35. The 16th century revolt in the Netherlands was largely inspired by

a. an economy that was in recession

b. English support for Dutch rebels

c. strict language laws imposed by the Spansih that blocked the use of Dutch for official correspondence

d. the failure of the Netherlands and Spain to agree on how best to use the wealth created from the vast Spanish overseas empire

e. economic, poltical, and religious tensions in the relations between the Netherlands and Spain


36.Which of the following was a major result of the Thirty Years War(1618-1648)?

a. the long term strengthening of the Holy Roman Emperor’s authority

b. the banning of Calvinism in the German states

c. establishment of strong Russian influence in the northern German states

d. the loss of as much as one-third of the German speaking population through war, plague, and starvation

e. the encouragement of rapid economic development in many German speaking cities

37.Which was a result of the Thirty Years’ War

  1. Germany replaced Austria as the predominat power in Central Europe

  2. The Hapsburg reign ended in Austria

  3. Germany was economicall devastated and it population decimated

  4. The Frech lost all influence over German affairs

  5. Sweden was victorious in all phases of the conflict

38. In 1618, the Protestants of Bohemia openly defied the Holy Roman Empire by

  1. Refusing to pay taxes

  2. Murdering the emperor’s emissaries

  3. Attacking its Catholic neighbor Bavaria

  4. Throwing the emperor’s emissaries out a window

  5. Making a deal with Richelieu of France for support of their cause

39. As a result of the Czech nobility by the Czech nobility in 1618

  1. Bohemia gained independence from the Hapsburgs

  2. The Hapsburg allowed Protestant worship

  3. The native nobility was wiped out

  4. The Bohemian parliament gained power over taxation

  5. The Czechs gain independence after the Battle of White Mountain

40.King Gustavus of Sweden entered the Thirty Years War in 1629 in order to

  1. Forestall the entry of France into the conflict

  2. Aid the Habsburg cause

  3. Neutralize the potential threat from England

  4. Defend Protestant interests iin the Holy Roman Empire

  5. Keep Habsburg troops from directly entering Swedish territory

41.The primary goal of France in entering the Thirty Years War was to

a. defend Catholicism against German Protestants

b. reduce the power of the Hapsburgs

c. punish the Swedish king, Gustavus Adolphusbon on the Spanish

d. conquer Brandenburg-Prussia

e. place a Bourbon the Spanish throne

42.The long term effect of the Thirty Years War on the German states was to

a. restrict Lutheranism to southern German states

b. initiate a long era of peace and rapid economic recovery

c. encourage unification

d. devastate the German states economies

e. increase the power of the Holy Roman Emperor

43.Which of the following is true of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden?

a. he was a devout Roman Catholic

b. he was a major participant in the Thirty Years War

c. he defeated the Russian army at the Battle of Borodino

d. he established Calvinism at the Swedish state religion

e. he set up an organization to mediate international disputes

44.During the Thirty Years War, France pursued a policy of

a. supporting the Hapsburgs against the Protestant princes and rulers

b. allowing French Protestants to fight for the Protestants even though the monarchy supported the Roman Catholics

c. supporting the Protestant princes and rulers against the Hapsburgs

d. remaining neutral

e. opposing England in order to recapture Normandy
45. King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden entered the Thirty Years War in 1629 in order to

a. forstall the entry of France into conflict

b. aid the Habsburg cause

c. neutralize the potential threat from England

d. defend Protestant interests in the Holy Roman Empire

e. keep Habsburg troop from directly entering Swedish territory

46. The Peace of Westphalia of 1648

a. brought about the end of the title of emperor within the Holy Roman Empire

b. brought official recognition to Calvinism in the Holy Roman Empire

c. officially recognized French absorption of large tracts of German territory

d. was brokered by the papacy

e. was a temporary measure that within a generation would result in new conflict in the empire

47.The Thirty Years War resulted from all of the following EXCEPT

a. the Counter Reformation

b. the growing power of he Habsburgs

c. Lutheran dissatisfaction with the Peace of Augsburg

d. Religious conflict in Bohemia

e. the expansion of Calvinism in the Holy Roman Empire

48.The primary purpose of the Peace of Augsburg(1555) was to

a. end the wars between the Hapsburgs and the Valois

b. end of the civil war between Lutherans and Roman Catholics in the German states

c. end the Thirty Years War

d. create better trade relations among German princes

e. facilitate diplomatic relations between the Holy Roman Empire and the Ottoman Turks

49. The Peace of Westphalia(1648) resulted in which of the following?

a. undisputed control over central Europe by the Hapburgs

b. the creation of a strong central government to rule the Holy Roman Empire

c. the guaranteed independence of numerous small German states

d. an end to the persecution of Protestants in the Hapsburg Empire

e. an end to the Hundred Years War
50. The religious conflicts of the 1500s and 1600s led to

a. religious toleration between Roman Catholicism and the major Protestant sects

b. a unified Christian society in Europe

c. unremitting religious riots and civil war in Spain

d. a virtual end to Hapsburg hegemony in Germany

e. the establishment of Roman Catholicism as the state religion of the United Provinces of the Netherlands

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