Antietam: a bloody Affair



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Bull Run: A Great Awakening
Rose Greenhow – Spy
Battle of Bull Run

Antietam: A Bloody Affair


Union Blockade


Dividing the Confederacy
Battle of Antietam

Union’s strategy:



  1. Surround the South by land and sea to cut off trade

  2. Divide the Confederacy into sections

  3. Capture Richmond


  • She used her friendship with Union leaders to learn plans of when and how they would attack

  • Secretly delivered those plans to the Confederate leaders



  • Soldiers headed out of Washington for Richmond

  • Politicians and society people followed the army to see the exciting battle and end the rebellion.

  • With the secret plans, Confederate soldiers waited to attack the Union army outside of Manassas

  • Onlookers watched in horror at the brutality of war

  • Confederates won the Battle of Bull Run, and it was clear that the war was not going to be over quickly



  • Strategy: Anaconda Plan (Same strategy as Bull Run)



  • Union navy launched a blockade of all southern ports to close ports to foreign ships to stop all exports of cash crops and not allow in any supplies


  • Union forces moved to divide the Confederacy and gain control of the Mississippi River, not allowing the Confederacy to ship supplies or goods up and down



  • One of the bloodiest battles in the war

  • In a single day of fighting, more Americans were killed than in the War of 1812 and the Mexican-American War combined.

Gettysburg: A Turning Point


The Emancipation Proclamation

Draft

The Battle of GettysburgKey Terms:



  1. emancipation – the act of freeing people from slavery

  2. draft – a system of requiring citizens to join their country’s armed forces

  3. habeas corpus – a written order from a court that gives a person the right to a trial before being jailed



  • As war continued, Lincoln had to face the issue of slavery and wanted to discourage Europeans who opposed slavery from assisting the Confederacy

  • Freeing slaves would make the South lose a large part of its workforce

  • The proclamation declared slaves in all Confederate states would be free

  • Slaves in Border States were not affected because Lincoln did not want those states still loyal to the Union to secede.

  • The Confederate states did not free their slaves because they were not part of the Union, nor did they listen to Lincoln.



  • Both the North and the South had run out of volunteers

  • Both pass laws for a draft to gain soldiers to fight the war

  • Under both laws, men could avoid the army by paying a substitute to take his place

  • This changed the attitude of the war, it was remarked as “a rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight”



  • Both sides were tired of war

  • General Lee was confident that he could risk an invasion of the North

  • Hoped to capture a northern city and that would convince the North to seek peace and end the war

  • Both sides met in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania for a 3 day battle

  • Confederates tried to find weak points in the Union lines

Opposition on the Union Home Front

Draft Riots

The Gettysburg Address



  • Confederate General Pickett charged across the low ground separating the Union forces

  • Pickett’s Charge marked the farthest most point in the North reached by any Confederate troops

  • By the end of the 3-day battle, the losses were staggering, 17,500 Union soldiers and 23,000 Confederate soldiers were killed or wounded

  • General Lee lost a third of his army and from that point on, he would only fight a defensive war on southern soil



  • Lincoln faced problems on the home front from people that wanted the war to end

  • Northern Democrats were interested in restoring peace than saving the Union or ending slavery

  • Other northerners opposed the war and were sympathetic to the Confederate cause

  • In Maryland, a border state, pro-slavery mobs attacked Union soldiers, Lincoln had to send troops to keep order

  • Lincoln suspends habeas corpus, and people who were suspected of disloyalty were jailed without a trial


  • With the Emancipation Proclamation and the new draft laws, some northerners resented being forced to fight to end slavery

  • Some protested the new draft law saying that Lincoln was creating a dictatorship

  • Riots broke out in New York City for 4 days, some targeted African Americans, killing almost 100 African Americans over the 4 days

  • Troops had to come in a restore order



  • Four months after draft riots, Lincoln went to Gettysburg where the thousands of men who died, were buried in a new cemetery overlooking the battlefield

  • Lincoln’s speech did not last more than 4 minutes, but what he said would be remembered.


  • He reminded his audience that the war was a test of the nation, and that the nation can survive as long as we remember that the soldiers that died, died defending the idea of liberty that was defined in the Declaration of Independence


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