Ante-nicene fathers



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150150 Luke xix. 8.

151151 That is, as Harvey observes, the natural man, as described in Rom. ii. 27.

152152 Matt. v. 27, 28.

153153 Matt. v. 21, 22.

154154 Matt. v. 33, etc.

155155 Matt. v. 20.

156156 Matt. xix. 21.

157157 Luke vi. 29–31.

158158 Matt. v. 41.

159159 Matt. v. 45.

160160 John xv. 15.

161161 Jas. ii. 23.

162162 John viii. 58.

163163 John xvii. 5.

164164 John xv. 16.

165165 John xvii. 24.

166166 Isa. xliii. 5.

167167 Matt. xxiv. 28.

168168 Luke xv. 22, 23.

169169 Rev. i. 15.

170170 Ex. xxv. 40.

171171 1 Cor. x. 11.

172172 Deut. v. 22.

173173 Ezek. xx. 24.

174174 [Acts vi. 3–7. It is evident that the laity elected, and the apostles ordained.]

175175 Amos v. 25, 26.

176176 In accordance with the Codex Bezae.

177177 Acts vii. 38, etc.

178178 Ex. xxxiii. 2, 3.

179179 Matt. xix. 7, 8.

180180 1 Cor. vii. 12.

181181 1 Cor. vii. 6.

182182 1 Cor. vii. 25.

183183 1 Cor. vii. 5.

184184 Matt. xx. 5.

185185 [Note this stout assertion of the freedom of human actions.]

186186 Gen. vii. 9–11.

187187 Ezek. xx. 12.

188188 Ex. xxi. 13.

189189 Col. ii. 11.

190190 Deut. x. 16, LXX. version.

191191 The Latin text here is : “Sabbata autem perseverantiam totius diei erga Deum deservitionis edocebant;” which might be rendered, “The Sabbaths taught that we should continue the whole day in the service of God;” but Harvey conceives the original Greek to have been, thn kaqhmerinhn diamonhn th" peri ton Qeon latreia".

192192 Rom. viii. 36.

193193 Matt. vi. 19.

194194 Jas. ii. 23.

195195 Massuet remarks here that Irenaeus makes a reference to the apocryphal book of Enoch, in which this history is contained. It was the belief of the later Jews, followed by the Christian fathers, that “the sons of God” (Gen. vi. 2) who took wives of the daughters of men, were the apostate angels. The LXX. translation of that passage accords with this view. See the articles “Enoch,” “Enoch, Book of,” in Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible. [See Paradise Lost, b. i. 323–431.]

196196 Deut. v. 2.

197197 1 Tim. i. 9.

198198 [Hearts and souls; i.e., moral and mental natures. For a correct view of the patristic conceptions of the Gentiles before the law, this is valuable.]

199199 i.e., the letters of the Decalogue on the two tables of stone.

200200 Deut. viii. 3.

201201 Deut. v. 22.

202202 Deut. x. 12.

203203 Deut. xxx. 19, 20.

204204 [Most noteworthy among primitive testimonies to the catholic reception of the Decalogue.]

205205 Deut. iv. 14.

206206 Matt. xii. 36.

207207 Matt. v. 28.

208208 Matt. v. 22.

209209 1 Pet. ii. 16.

210210 1 Sam. xv. 22.

211211 Latin, “aures autem perfecisti mihi;” a reading agreeable to neither the Hebrew nor Septuagint version, as quoted by St. Paul in Heb. x. 9. Harvey, however, is of opinion that the text of the old Latin translation was originally “perforasti;” indicating thus an entire concurrence with the Hebrew, as now read in this passage. [Both readings illustrated by their apparent reference to Ex. xxi. 6, compared with Heb. v. 7, 8, 9.]

212212 Ps. xl. 6.

213213 Ps. li. 17.

214214 Or, “the beauty,” species.

215215 Ps. l. l9.

216216 Ps. l. 14, 15.

217217 Isa. i. 11.

218218 This passage is not now found in holy Scripture. Harvey conjectures that it may have been taken from the apocryphal Gospel according to the Egyptians. It is remarkable that we find the same words quoted also by Clement of Alexandria. [But he (possibly with this place in view) merely quotes it as a saying, in close connection with Ps. li. 19, which is here paritally cited. See Clement, Paedagogue, v. iii. cap. xii.]

219219 Jer. vi. 20.

220220 Jer. vii. 2, 3.

221221 Jer. vii. 21.

222222 Jer. ix. 24.

223223 Isa. xliii. 23, 24.

224224 Isa. xlvi. 2.

225225 Jer. xi. 15.

226226 Isa. lviii. 6, etc.

227227 Zech. vii. 9, 10.

228228 Zech viii. 16, 17.

229229 Ps. xxxiv. 13, 14.

230230 Hos. vi. 6.

231231 Matt. xii. 7.

232232 Grabe has a long and important note on this passage and what follows, which may be seen in Harvey, in loc. See, on the other side, and in connection with the whole of the following chapter, Massuet’s third dissertation on the doctrine of Irenaeus, art. vii., reprinted in Migne’s edition.

233233 Matt. xxvi. 26, etc.

234234 Mal. i. 10, 11.

235235 [One marvels that there should be any critical difficulty here as to our author’s teaching. Creatures of bread and wine are the body and the blood; materially one thing, mystically another. See. cap. xviii. 5 below.]

236236 Rev. v. 8. [Material incense seems to be always disclaimed by the primitive writers.]

237237 Matt. v. 23, 24.

238238 Deut. xvi. 16.

239239 The text of this passage is doubtful in some words.

240240 Luke xxi. 4. [The law of tithes abrogated; the law of Acts. ii. 44, 45, morally binding. This seems to be our author’s view.]

241241 Gen. iv. 7, LXX.

242242 The Latin text is: “ne per assimulatam operationem, magis autem peccatum, ipsum sibi homicidam faciat hominem.”

243243 Matt. xxiii. 27, 28.

244244 Matt. xxiii. 26.

245245 Jer. xxii. 17.

246246 Isa. xxx. 1.

247247 Gen. iv. 7.

248248 John xix. 11.

249249 Isa. lxvi. 3.

250250 Phil. iv. 18.

251251 The text here fluctuates between quod offertur Deo, and per quod offertur Deo. Massuet adopts the former, and Harvey the latter. If the first reading be chosen, the translation will be, “the Word who is offered to God,” implying, according to Massuet, that the body of Christ is really offered as a sacrifice in the Eucharist; if the second reading be followed, the translation will be as above. [Massuet’s idea is no more to be found, even in his text, than Luther’s or Calvin’s. The crucial point is, how offered? One may answer “figuratively,” “corporally,” “mystically,” or otherwise. Irenaeus gives no answer in this place. But see below.]

252252 Comp. Massuet and Harvey respectively for the meaning to be attached to these words.

253253 Mark iv. 28.

254254 “Either let them acknowledge that the earth is the Lord’s, and the fulness thereof, or let them cease to offer to God those elements that they deny to be vouchsafed by Him.”—Harvey.

255255 That is, according to Harvey, “while we offer to Him His own creatures of bread and wine, we tell forth the fellowship of flesh with spirit; i.e., that the flesh of every child of man is receptive of the Spirit.” The words kai omologounte" . . . egersin, which here occur in the Greek text, are rejected as an interpolation by Grabe and Harvey, but defended as genuine by Massuet.

256256 See Harvey’s long note on this passage, and what immediately follows. [But, note, we are only asking what Irenaeus teaches. Could words be plainer,—“two realities,”—(i.) bread, (ii.) spiritual food? Bread—but not “common bread;” matter and grace, flesh and Spirit. In the Eucharist, an earthly and a heavenly part.]

257257 The text fluctuates between dominationi and donationi.

258258 Prov. xix. 17.

259259 Matt. xxv. 34, etc.

260260 [The Sursum Corda seems here in mind. The object of Eucharistic adoration is the Creator, our “great High Priest, passed into the heavens,” and in bodily substance there enthroned, according to our author.]

261261 Rev. xi. 19.

262262 Isa. xl. 12.

263263 Eph. i. 21.

264264 Jer. xxiii. 23.

265265 The Latin is, “et universum eum decurrerint.” Harvey imagines that this last word corresponds to katatrecwsi, but it is difficult to fit such a meaning into the context.

266266 Gen. ii. 7.

267267 Gen. i. 26.

268268 This quotation is taken from the Shepherd of Hermas, book ii. sim. 1.

269269 Mal. ii. 10.

270270 Eph. iv. 6.

271271 Matt. xi. 27.

272272 Rev. iii. 7.

273273 1 Pet. ii. 23.

274274 Col. i. 18.

275275 Prov. iii. 19, 20.

276276 Prov. viii. 22–25. [This is one of the favourite Messianic quotations of the Fathers, and is considered as the base of the first chapter of St. John’s Gospel.]

277277 Prov. viii. 27–31.

278278 Luke i. 71, 75.

279279 Matt. v. 8.

280280 Ex. xxxiii. 20.

281281 Luke xviii. 27.

282282 Some read “in filium” instead of “in filio,” as above.

283283 A part of the original Greek text is preserved here, and has been followed, as it makes the better sense.

284284 Deut. v. 24.

285285 Hos. xii. 10.

286286 1 Cor. xii. 4–7.

287287 John i. 18.

288288 Isa. vi. 5.

289289 Ps. xxii. 15.

290290 Deut. iv. 24.

291291 Ex. xxxiv. 6, 7.

292292 Num. xii. 8.

293293 Ex. xxxiii. 20–22.

294294 Matt. xvii. 3, etc.

295295 1 Kings xix. 11, 12.

296296 Isa. xlii. 3.

297297 Ezek. i. 1.

298298 Ezek. ii. 1.

299299 John i. 18.

300300 “This text, as quoted a short time ago, indicated ‘the only-begotten Son;_0’ but the agreement of the Syriac version induces the belief that the present reading was that expressed by Irenaeus, and that the previous quotation has been corrected to suit the Vulgate. The former reading, however, occurs in book iii. c. xi. 5.”—Harvey.

301301 Dan. iii. 26.

302302 Dan. vii. 13, 14.

303303 Dan. vii. 4.

304304 Rev. i. 12.

305305 Rev. i. 17.

306306 Ex. xxxiii. 20.

307307 Rev. v. 6.

308308 Rev. xix. 11–17.

309309 Hos. i. 2, 3.

310310 Acts xv. 15.

311311 1 Cor. vii. 14. [But Hosea himself says (xii. 10), “I have used similitudes;” and this history may be fairly referred to prophetic vision. Dr. Pusey, in his Minor Prophets, in loc., argues against this view, however; and his reasons deserve consideration.]

312312 Hos. i. 6–9.

313313 Rom. ix. 25, 26.

314314 The text is here uncertain; and while the general meaning of the sentence is plain, its syntax is confused and obscure.

315315 Irenaeus seems here to have written “three” for “two” from a lapse of memory.

316316 Matt. xxi. 31.

317317 Gal. iii. 5–9; Gen. xii. 3.

318318 Massuet would cancel these words.

319319 Rom. ix. 10–13; Gen. xxv. 23.

320320 Rom. ix. 13; Mal. i. 2.

321321 Gen. xxv. 26.

322322 Rev. vi. 2.

323323 John xix. 15.

324324 Ps. ii. 8.

325325 The text of this sentence is in great confusion, and we can give only a doubtful translation.

326326 [Leah’s eyes were weak, according to the LXX.; and Irenaeus infers that Rachel’s were “beautiful exceedingly.” Canticles, i. 15]

327327 Isa. iv. 4.

328328 John xiii. 5.

329329 This spurious quotation has been introduced before. See book iii. 20. 4.

330330 Eph. iv. 9.

331331 So Harvey understands the obscure Latin text, “id quod erat inoperatum conditionis.”

332332 Matt. xiii. 17.

333333 Rom. iii. 30.

334334 John iv. 35, etc.

335335 Matt. i. 20, etc.

336336 Luke iv. 18.

337337 Isa. lxi. 1.

338338 Acts. viii. 27; Isa. liii. 7.

339339 Acts ii. 41, iv. 4.

340340 1 Cor. xv. 10.

341341 [A clear note of recognition on the part of our author, that St. Paul’s mission was world-wide, while St. Peter’s was limited.]

342342 Eph. i. 21.

343343 Phil. ii. 8.

344344 Matt. iii. 9.

345345 Eph ii. 20.

346346 [Note, the Gentile Church was the old religion and was Catholic; in Christ it became Catholic again: the Mosaic system was a parenthetical thing of fifteen hundred years only. Such is the luminous and clarifying scheme of Irenaeus, expounding St. Paul (Gal. iii. 14–20). Inferences: (1) They who speak as if the Mosaic system covered the whole Old Testament darken the divine counsels. (2) The God of Scripture was never the God of the Jews only.]

347347 Gen. xxxviii. 28, etc.

348348 John iv. 37.

349349 1 Cor. iii. 7.

350350 Jer. ix. 2. [A “remote dwelling-place” rather (staqmon escaton according to LXX.) to square with the argument.]

351351 [The touching words which conclude the former paragraph are illustrated by the noble sentence which begins this paragraph. The childlike spirit of these Fathers recognises Christ everywhere, in the Old Testament, prefigured by countless images and tokens in paternal and legal (ceremonial) forms.]

352352 Matt. xiii. 44.

353353 Matt. xiii. 38.

354354 Harvey cancels “non,” and reads the sentence interrogatively.

355355 Dan. xii. 4, 7.

356356 Jer. xxiii. 20.

357357 The Latin is “a multis justis,” corresponding to the Greek version of the Hebrew text. If the translation be supposes as corresponding to the Hebrew comparative, the English equivalent will be, “and above (more than) many righteous.”

358358 Dan. xii. 3.

359359 The text and punctuation are here in great uncertainty, and very different views of both are taken by the editors.

360360 Luke xxiv. 26, 47. [The walk to Emmaus is the fountain-head of Scriptural exposition, and the forty days (Acts i. 3) is the river that came forth like that which went out of Eden. Ecclesiasticus iv. 31.]

361361 Matt. xiii. 52. [I must express my delight in the great principle of exposition here unfolded. The Old Scriptures are a night-bound wilderness, till Christ rises and illuminates them, glorying alike hill and dale, and, as this author supposes, every shrub and flower, also, making the smallest leaf with its dewdrops glitter like the rainbow.]



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