Answer the following questions from the class discussion or report

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A.P. POLITICAL SCIENCE Name ____________________________________

MR. CRUMP Period ___________

Answer the following questions from the class discussion or report


1. Democratic Theory

a. Explain the following theories about democracy:

(1). direct democracy What are examples of direct democracy in the US today?

(2) representative democracy

(3) democratic centralism

b. Discuss the participants and the process in making democratic policy in the US. Include the political institutions, linkage institutions and the people.

c. How is power distributed in a democracy? Discuss the following:

(1) pluralism

(2) elitist democracy

(3) hyperpluralism

d. How is power distributed in the U.S.?

2. Natural Law Theory

a. What is the theory of Natural Law?

b. What was Thomas Hobbes’ (1588-1679) view of natural law?

c. What was John Locke’s (1632-1704) view of natural law?

d. What points of natural law were accepted by the Founding Fathers?

3. Define the following terms:

a. republic

b. linkage institution

c. state of nature

d. Leviathan

e. social contract

f. Second Treatise on Government

4. Discuss the following ideas taken from English Government.

a. Magna Carta

b. Parliament
c. Common Law

d. Limited Government and Judicial Review

e. English Bill of Rights

f. Constitutionalism

5. From the class report discuss the ideas taken from the French.

a. separation of powers

b. social contract

6. Define the following:

a. Baron de Montesquieu

b. Spirit of the Laws

c. Jean Jacques Rousseau

d. Social Contract

e. statutory law

f. administrative law

g. ordinance

h. common law

Answer the following by reading Chapter 1 (This is the part you fill in.)

7. What are the two basic questions to be asked about American government?

8. Why does politics exist? What two things do people normally differ about?

9. Why do people want to know the answer to who governs? Why is the answer to the second question of to what ends an important one?

10. What is meant by political power?

11. How does political power relate to the following?

a. authority

b. legitimacy
c. democracy

12. Define the following types of democracy and then give a historical example of each:

a. direct or participatory democracy

b. representative democracy

13. What is required for representative democracy to work?

14. Why did the framers of the Constitution favor representative democracy?

15. Explain how the Founders were influenced by the each of the following:

a. Aristotle
b. Locke

16 What is the difference between majoritarian politics and elitist politics?

17. Explain the following theories concerning political elites:

a. class view (Marx)

b. power elite view

c. bureaucratic view (Weber)

d. pluralist view

18. Why is it difficult to define American politics with one single political theory?

19. What evidence exists to show that U.S. politics is not necessarily a self-seeking enterprise in which everybody is out for personal gain?

20. What explains the fact that politics changes?

Answer the following from our class oral reports (you do not have to fill this part in, it should be in your notes from the oral reports)


Explain the ideas for the U.S. Constitution taken from the following:

1. Virginia House of Burgesses (1619)

2. Mayflower Compact (1620)

3. New England Town Meetings

4. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)

5. Colonial Governments

6. Declaration of Independence

7. Articles of Confederation

8. Define or identify the following:

a. Magna Carta

b. Sir Edward Coke (pronounced Cook)

Know the following from our class discussion


1. What were the immediate causes of the Constitutional Convention?

2. Who attended the Constitutional Convention? Who was conspicuously absent?

3. Explain the ideological battlegrounds at the Convention.

4. When and where did the convention convene? What was the procedure for voting?

5. What were the main compromises at the Constitutional Convention?

6. Why could the Constitutional Convention be considered a miracle?

  1. How can the Constitution be amended formally? How can it be amended informally?

  1. Explain the content and important points included in the Federalist Papers #10 and #51 (class report)

9. Define or identify the following:

a. George Washington
b. James Madison

c. Benjamin Franklin

d. Alexander Hamilton
e. George Mason
f. James Wilson
g. Gouvernor Morris
h. living Constitution
i. Federalist Papers (purpose and authors)

Chapter 2 (Answer the following questions by reading Chapter 2) Fill this part in

10. What ideas (plural) were similar in the French and American revolutions?

11. Explain what the colonists meant by “higher law” or natural rights. What were these natural rights?

12. What was the purpose of the Declaration of Independence? What is an unalienable right?

13. What was the “real revolution” against the British about?

14. What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

15. Why were the Founders mistrustful about democracy?

16. What were the differences between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan?

17. Explain why separation of powers and federalism became key parts of the Constitution?

18. How did James Madison’s views of human nature affect the framing of the Constitution?

19. List the reasons why the anti-federalists opposed the Constitution.

20. Summarize the James Madison main ideas in Federalist Papers #10 and #51.

a. Federalist No. 10

b. Federalist No. 51

21. Why wasn’t a bill of rights included in the Constitution? Why was one eventually added?
22. Why did the Founding Fathers fail to address the question of slavery?
23. Summarize Charles Beard’s analysis of the economic motives of the Founding Fathers in his book An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution.
24. What evidence has been found to contradict Beard’s analysis?
25. Explain some of the proposed Constitutional reforms and the debate pro and con for their adoption.

a. reducing the separation of powers

b. making the system less democratic

c. Who do you think is right?

26. How would you answer the question, “Were women left out of the Constitution?”

27. Explain two ways that the Constitution may be amended. (see box on p. 44)

28. Define the following:

a. Articles of Confederation

b. Shay’s Rebellion
c. Great Compromise
d. faction
e. Federalists / Anti-Federalists
f. ex post facto law
g. bill of attainder
h. writ of habeas corpus
i. line item veto


Answer the following from our class discussion:

1. How are the powers divided between the states and the national government in the

U.S. Constitution?

2. Discuss the evolution and development of federalism in the U.S. Include the following:

a. Dual Federalism

b. Decline of dual federalism (1861-1933)

c. Cooperative Federalism (1933-1960)

d. Creative Federalism (1960-1980)

e. Competitive or New Federalism (1980 to present)

3. What is the future of federalism?

4. Define the following:

a. Unitary system

b. confederation
c. enumerated powers
d. reserved powers
e. concurrent powers
f. implied powers
g. prohibited powers
h. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
i. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
j Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
j. Supremacy Clause
k. Full faith and credit clause
l. US vs. Lopez (1995)

Chapter 3

Answer the following questions by reading Chapter 3 (Fill in this part)

1. Define federalism. How does federalism affect our lives today?

2. Since the adoption of the federal Constitution, what has been the single most persistent source of political conflict? How did our debate differ from Great Britain and other countries?

3. Explain the differences between federal and centralized (unitary) systems of government. What are some examples of each one? (see figure 3.1)

4. What were the goals of the Founders in adopting federalism?

5. Explain how the competing political interests of the Constitutional Convention led to the adoption of the federal system.

6. What does the Tenth Amendment say about federalism? How has it been used today?

7. Explain the different views of federalism espoused by Hamilton and Jefferson.

8. Why was the case of McCullough v. Maryland (1819) such an important case on the issue of federalism? What were the results of the case?

9. What was nullification? Why was this doctrine important in US history?

10. What is dual federalism?

11. How does interstate commerce affect dual federalism?

12. What evidence exists to show that dual federalism is not entirely dead?
13. What is the significance of the following cases in regards to federalism?

a. US v. Lopez (1995)

b. US v. Morrison (2000)

c. Printz v. US (1997)

14. What Supreme Court decisions have not supported greater state sovereignty?

15. What have been some of the beneficial effects of federalism? What have been the bad effects?

16. Describe each of the following three ways in which state constitutions have opened the doors to direct democracy.

a. initiative

b. referendum

c. recall

17. What is a grant-in aid? How did they get started?

18. Why did the grant-in-aid system grow rapidly?

19. Why did federal money seem so attractive to the states? (explain four reasons)

20. What changes occurred in federal grants-in-aid in the 1960s? Why did these changes occur?

21. What is the intergovernmental lobby? What purpose does it serve?

22. What is the difference between a categorical grant and a block grant?
23. Explain why categorical grants have grown more rapidly than block grants.
24. Why is there a rivalry among the states over block grants? What are some of the distribution formulas for block grants?
25. Explain the difference between mandates and conditions of aid with respect to federal grant programs.

26. What do most mandates deal with? How have they grown so much?

27. What are some of the problems associated with mandates? What is a waiver?
28. How have federal courts helped fuel the growth of mandates?

29. Why isn’t accepting conditions-of-aid exactly voluntary to states?

30. Why have state officials discovered that “free federal money” isn’t exactly “free”?

31. What did President Reagan do to change federalism? How did the states respond to his programs?

32. What is the devolution revolution?

33. Despite devolution, what evidence exist to show that the era of big government is not over?
34. What are some of the results of devolution?
35. Why does Congress pass so many laws that create so many problems for governors (states) and mayors (cities)?

36. Define the following:

a. sovereignty
b. unitary system
c. confederal system or confederation
d. “necessary and proper” clause

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