Answer key for Tour of Brussels Noah Morris, Billy Storm, and Jordan Safran Introduction



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Answer key for Tour of Brussels

Noah Morris, Billy Storm, and Jordan Safran

Introduction

Brussles was an important city during the Rennisance for its architechture, science, and art. Many people visit Brussels to this day to see the legacies from when it was very popular in the Rennisance.  From the famous scientist Andreas  Vesalius, to the astounding artist Pieter Breugel, a great diversity of discovery and creativity is seen to be the offspring of the city of Brussels, Belgium. Not only is Brussels known for the matter of science and art, but also it is also well known for a variety of architecture and sites. Town Hall is an example of the amazing work done by many architects and has be revised a large amount of times likewise to that of the studies in Brussels. Brussels names is derived from the Old Flemish word Broekzele, meaning marshland, since the city was originally built on an island in the river Senne. Brussels is first mentioned in a 7th century manuscript. The traditional year of the establishment of Brussels is said to be 580, when Saint Géry (or Saint Gorik), the Bishop of  Cambrai made an  escape from the Forest of Soignes. He then later built a chapel to the site.In the 9th century, the (now to be known as) Brussels developed into a town. Under the name of Gallia Belgica, after the fall of Rome the Franks took over the area. Frankish Merovingian dynasty followed in line taking rule of the area, followed by the Carolingians. In the10th century Charlemagne's empire was divided between his grandsons (the Treaty of Verdun)- Lothar(one of the grandsons) had founded a fortress in Brussels in 979. This is now considered the official date of the establishment of Brussels. Throughout the years, Brussels' population has been growing. From 57,000 in 1755 when the first census was held, to 104,000 in 1830. Today Brussels is the capital to the European Union and the NATO( North AtlanticTreaty Organization). This, along with many other factors, has made Brussels an important city in Europe and also the world.  

Geography

Brussels is located in the center of nothern belgium. The countries that surround  Belgium is Germany, Luxembourg, France, and the Netherlands. Brussels borders the Wallonia and Flemish regions in Belgium. There are two main parts of Brussels- upper town and lower town. Brussels is close to the North Sea in Western Europe. The city of Brussels is located on a tributary of the Rhine River, likewise is Bruges, a near by city also in Belgium.



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Important People

Charles VII Albert: (6 August 1697 – 20 January 1745) A man named Charles Albert was born in August 6, 1697. This man would later become a Holy Roman Empire Emperor. He would be known for being the first emperor to not be a part of the House of Habsburg since the 15th century. He was the son of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, who was also an important figure in the Holy Roman Empire. He was a part of the very powerful Wittelsbach family. However, during some of his life, in the War Of Spanish succession, his family was split and he was under house-arrest. His family was reunited in 1715, Charles became an elector of Bavaria in 1726. After this happened he ceased control of the German crown. He frequently tried to conquer Austria and failed every time.

Important sites

Notes Saint Michael and Saint Guida Cathedral

On the outside, the most visible elements are the twin towers. The 227-foot structures are joined by a gable featuring a niche with Saint Michael killing a dragon, or devil, depending on your interpretation. Inside there are 12 Roman columns defining the central cathedral. They represent, and are decorated with statues of the 12 apostles. The magnificent architectural achievement was built during and through the Renaissance. 1000: Church established.



  • 1047: Relics of Saint Guilda arrive.

  • 1226: Choir constructed.

  • ~1450: Nave and towers built.

  • ~1490: Western facade completed.

  • 1669: Pulpit constructed.

  • 1861: Formal staircase built.

Station A: ART

Notes:

The kind of painting in which Breugal focused on was peasant life. He painted them in partying, feasting, and working. Many people considered him as a Flemish peasant but this was not a true fact, which holds the same for other painters. The reason for this is that many people often associate an artist's status/personality with their work. One of the most famous of his paintings was the one seen to the right otherwise known as  Breugel affected art of the Renaissance by not only his many paintings, but also his rich colors, vivid details, and balanced use of space that made his painting seem very realistic.
A common style of art used in Brussels, Belgium is the style of Surrealism. This art style Surrealism  uses visual imagery from the subconscious mind to create art without the intention of logical comprehensibility. The style of Surrealism although not the same as the art style used in Brussels during the Renaissance, shows several similarities. Paul Devlaux a Belgian artist, had painted this style in Belgium focusing on nude paintings of women and skeletons set in mysterious settings. He studied painting and architecture at the Academie des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. Along with the artist Rene Magritte, these artists are very important to the current art style used in Brussels today, and are very famous for their 




  1. What did Breughel’s art work focus on?

It was focused on Peasant life and other activities that peasants are a part of, such as marriages and parties.

  1. What is surrealism?

A common style of art used in Brussels, Belgium is the style of Surrealism. This art style Surrealism  uses visual imagery from the subconscious mind to create art without the intention of logical comprehensibility.

Activity: Draw a quick sketch of a picture that could be considered surreal.



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Station B: Science

Notes:


In the year of 1553 Andreas started his practice in the medical field, this was at the university of Paris. He studied anatomy with Johan Guinter. By the time 1537 he had published his first book, it was title a paraphrase of the nine book of rhazes. In this book he made a considerable effort to substitute Latin terms for the heavily used Arabic terminology. His next piece of major work was Tabulae anatomicae sex. In this book he drew six sheets of anatomy, it was completed in 1538. This book was such a success that his sheets were reprinted in Cologne, Paris, and Strasbourg. One of his most famous pieces of work is De humani corporis fabrica libri septem. Inthis (7 books on the construction of the human body), which contains seven volumes. This book was published in 1453 in  Basel, Switzerland. The first of these volumes had to do with bones, and although it included no major advancements it was altogether correct. The second book was about the muscle and was known as a masterpiece. however his next book was much less than a masterpiece-( the subject was blood vessels). Book four was about the nerves and although it included a great advance on things about the nerves, it was outmoded. Book 5 was excellent and dealt with the abdominal organs- e.g. the the liver and stomach. Book 6 dealt with the chest and neck followed by book 7 which was devoted to the brain. These volumes would prove wrong Galen and Aristoltle's previous theories. Galen thought that men had one more rib than women this was diproven in his sixth volume. The reason that Galen thought this was true was because he mostly worked on animals, where this fact held true.  On the other hand, Vesalius was able to use real human corpses, that he stole a local cemetery, he stole these bodies because he was dedicated to science. Aristotle believed that the heart was the center of the mind and of emotions, this was proved incorrrect in his fourth and seventh volumes. Vesalius realized that the true center of the mind is the brain, which gives its instructions by means of the nerves system

  1. What was the name of Vesalius most famous book and how many volumes were there? Explain the volumes.

One of his most famous pieces of work is De humani corporis fabrica libri septem. Inthis (7 books on the construction of the human body), which contains seven volumes. This book was published in 1453 in  Basel, Switzerland. The first of these volumes had to do with bones, and although it included no major advancements it was altogether correct. The second book was about the muscle and was known as a masterpiece. however his next book was much less than a masterpiece-( the subject was blood vessels). Book four was about the nerves and although it included a great advance on things about the nerves, it was outmoded. Book 5 was excellent and dealt with the abdominal organs- e.g. the the liver and stomach. Book 6 dealt with the chest and neck followed by book 7 which was devoted to the brain.

  1. Who did Vesalius test his experiments on? How did he obtain these beings?

Vesalius was able to use real human corpses, that he stole a local cemetery; he stole these bodies because he was dedicated to science

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Activity: Make an origami heart, with the directions below. Explain why this picture of a heart is incorrect and draw a picture that is of a correct heart. - According to Vesalius’s studies. Label the different parts.



Station C: Architecture

Notes


The town hall was created because Brussels was an important trading commercial crossroad between Bruges, cologne, and France. English furs, French wine, and German beers were all exchanged here before its bombing in 1695. Construction on the town hall began in 1402, it finished in 1455 when a gilded statue of St. Michaels slaying the devil was put on top of the Town Hall Tower. This statue had stayed there until 1996 out of the way of harms reach. The construction of this building greatly represents the growing power of Brussels as the capital of the dukedom of Brabant. The original town hall which is now the left wing was completed in 1405.  On March 3rd 1444 the original building was extended as well. This process was finished by 1449.  The extension of Town Hall was created because of a rivalry between Brussels and the city of Leuven. Eventually,  the rest was of the tower was completed in 1455. 

The Grand Palace is significant for its representation of Brussels. Town Hall (Grand Palace) is the first thing many people think of in association to Brussels; it can be similarly compared to that of France and the Eiffel tower for its popularity amongst the city. Many tourists to this day venture to the Grand Palace to view the history and hardships intertwined in to the making and development of the Palace. Without this magnificent piece of architectural achievement Brussels would still be an enriching city, but it is clearly  shown how important this building is to ongoers and visitors of Brussels. 



Architects 

- The architect of the left wing of Town Hall was believed to be Jacob Van Theimen. Jacob Theimen was finally finished the left wing in 1405. 

- Jan Van Ruyseroeck built the tower that still crowns the building today. This tower included the statue of St. Michael slaying the devil. 


  1. What part of the Grand palace includes the statue of St. Michael slaying the devil?

Who was the architect of this area?

The statue of St. Michaels slaying the devil was put on top of the Town Hall Tower. This statue had stayed there until 1996 out of the way of harms reach.- it was built by Jan Van Ruyseroeck.



  1. Once Town Hall was created what types of objects were traded there? Give 3 examples.

  1. German beers

  2. English furs

  3. French wines

Activity:

Order the following events in building Town hall from first to last

Write in what occurred this year.


1402

The beginning of all construction on Town

Hall began. Before Town Hall there was only stone houses built in a circle.



1405

The original Town Hall was completed. However, this part of Town Hall is only the left wing now.

1444

The original building (now the left wing) was being extended.

1449

The completion of the rest of the building expansions. Not just the left wing anymore.

1455

The tower was finally finished, the finishing touches were added. This finishing touch being the statue of St. Michael slaying the Devil.

1695

Town Hall was left ashes as it was bombed by the French leader, Marshal de Villeroy. Although it would later be rebuilt it was a major setback.

Legacy and Conclusion

The Renaissance was time for growth and development in all categories of the mind and physical achievement. Brussels shows a great amount of the development that is evident in all areas were the Renaissance left its' mark. Andreas Vesalius made many discoveries that still remain known facts to this day. For this reason, and for multiple others categorized under his tremendous achievements he has been honored by having a college built under his name. This is one of the more recent affects of the Renaissance on our society. Along with many others, Brussels is a city of peace and magnitude that stands solemnly and gracefully as it is a proud soldier who is humble and daring. It is not afraid to show its wounds yet it basks in the glory of its magnificence. Brussels is truly a city that thrives on the development of those who visit and has used this to make its way in to the grand city it is today. Had the renaissance not occurred than theres a good chance that Brussels would have on less college. 


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