Answer a, b, and c



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Answer a, b, and c.
a. Briefly explain ONE example of how contact between Native Americans and Europeans brought changes to Native American societies in the period of 1492 to 1700.

b. Briefly explain a SECOND example of how contact between Native Americans and Europeans brought changes to Native American societies in the same period.

c. Briefly explain ONE example of how Native American societies resisted change brought by contact with Europeans in the same period.
ANS





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a.

Possible responses include the following:

Native American population declined as a result of disease and warfare (leading to “mourning wars” between Native American tribes). Many Native Americans were enslaved and/or subjected to forced labor (the encomienda system). Traditional tribal economies changed as a result of increased trade with Europeans. Native Americans and Europeans began to intermarry in Spanish and French colonies, producing racially mixed populations and caste systems. Some Native Americans converted to Christianity. The introduction of new crops and livestock into Native American societies changed settlement patterns. Domestic animals brought by Europeans changed the environment and destroyed Native American crops. Views on gender roles, family, and property changed as a result of European influence. The introduction of guns, other weapons, and alcohol stimulated cultural and demographic changes in some Native American societies. Alliances with European nations changed politics and policies within and among tribes.



b.

Possible responses include the following:

One additional example from the same time period, as described above.

c.

Possible responses include the following:

A brief explanation of one example of Native American resistance to changes brought about by contact with Europeans in this period, such as:

Tribes sometimes worked to preserve their traditional tribal cultures, beliefs, language and worldviews rather than accept or adapt to European ways of life; some Native American people responded to European contact with violence and warfare, as in Metacom’s Rebellion (King Philip’s War) and the Pueblo Revolt (Pope’s Rebellion); some Native Americans maintained their traditional religions rather than converting to Christianity; Native Americans sometimes chose to flee rather than accept enslavement by Europeans; tribes sometimes formed alliances with one another, such as Metacom’s alliance of tribes in New England, in order to resist encroaching European colonial societies; some tribes formed alliances with some Europeans to resist and wage war on other Europeans (or to play one European nation against another).

1.During the mid-18th century, new pressures began to unite the British colonies, sparking an independence movement and ultimately a war against England.


a. Briefly explain ONE political or economic pressure faced by the colonies during this time.

b. Briefly explain ONE action taken by the colonists to address the pressure explained in Part A.

c. Briefly explain ONE response by the British government to the action explained in Part B.
ANS





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a.

Possible responses include the following:

Among the political pressures faced by the colonists were taxes imposed by the British Parliament even though the colonies had no representation in Parliament. These taxes included the Stamp Act, The Townshend Duties, and the Tea Act, among others.

The Proclamation of 1763 imposed by the British attempted to limit colonial settlement to the lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. This was an attempt to appease American Indians living in the areas to the west.

Economic pressures included a range of new tax laws, among which were the Sugar, Stamp, Townshend, Navigation, and Currency Acts. All were attempts to raise revenue from the colonies and/or control colonial trade in favor of Great Britain.



b.

Possible responses include the following:

The colonists reacted to British actions in a number of ways. Passage of the Stamp Act led to the convening of the Stamp Act Congress. The Townshend Duties led to nonconsumption (boycott) actions as well as the formation of groups such as the Sons of Liberty and the Daughters of Liberties. Occasional protests led to acts of mob violence, which led to events such as the Boston Massacre. The passage of the Tea Act led to the Boston Tea Party.



c.

Possible responses include the following:

The British government responded in a variety of ways. While they did repeal the Stamp Act in response to colonial protests, the British Parliament simultaneously passed the Declaratory Act, which reiterated Parliament’s sovereignty over the colonies. While the Townshend Duties were also repealed, the British government responded by sending troops to restore order in Boston. And the Boston Tea Party led to a series of repressive measures known as the Coercive Acts, which required, among other actions, that colonists house and feed British soldiers (quartering).




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