Ans: (a) All tall; (b) 3/4 tall, 1/4 dwarf; (c) all tall; (d) 1/2 tall, 1/2 dwarf



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Chapter 3

3.1 On the basis of Mendel’s observations, predict the results from the following crosses with peas: (a) a tall (dominant and homozygous) variety crossed with a dwarf variety; (b) the progeny of (a) self-fertilized; (c) the progeny from (a) crossed with the original tall parent; (d) the progeny of (a) crossed with the original dwarf parent.
Ans: (a) All tall; (b) 3/4 tall, 1/4 dwarf; (c) all tall; (d) 1/2 tall, 1/2 dwarf.

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3.2 Mendel crossed pea plants that produced round seeds with those that produced wrinkled seeds and self-fertilized the progeny. In the F2, he observed 5474 round seeds and 1850 wrinkled seeds. Using the letters W and w for the seed texture alleles, diagram Mendel’s crosses, showing the genotypes of the plants in each generation. Are the results consistent with the Principle of Segregation?
Ans: Round (WW) ´ wrinkled (ww) ---> F1 round (Ww); F1 self-fertilized ---> F2 ¾ round (2 WW; 1 Ww), ¼ wrinkled (ww). The expected results in the F2 are 5493 round, 1831 wrinkled. To compare the observed and expected results, compute c2 with one degree of freedom; (5474 – 5493)2/5493 + (1850 – 1831) 2/1831 = 0.263, which is not significant at the 5% level. Thus, the results are consistent with the Principle of Segregation.

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3.3 A geneticist crossed wild, gray-colored mice with white (albino) mice. All the progeny were gray. These progeny were intercrossed to produce an F2, which consisted of 198 gray and 72 white mice. Propose a hypothesis to explain these results, diagram the crosses, and compare the results with the predictions of the hypothesis.
Ans: The data suggest that coat color is controlled by a single gene with two alleles, C (gray) and c (albino), and that C is dominant over c. On this hypothesis, the crosses are: gray (CC) albino (cc) ® F1 gray (Cc); F1 ´ F1 ® 3/4 gray (2 CC: 1 Cc), 1/4 albino (cc). The expected results in the F2 are 202.5 gray, 67.5 albino. To compare the observed and expected results, compute c2 with one degree of freedom: (198 - 202.5)2/202.5 + (72 - 67.5)2/67.5 = 0.4, which is not significant at the 5% level. Thus, the results are consistent with the hypothesis.

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3.4 A woman has a rare abnormality of the eyelids called ptosis, which prevents her from opening her eyes completely. This condition is caused by a dominant allele, P. The woman’s father had ptosis, but her mother had normal eyelids. Her father’s mother had normal eyelids.

(a) What are the genotypes of the woman, her father, and her mother?

(b) What proportion of the woman’s children will have ptosis if she marries a man with normal eyelids?
Ans: (a) Woman’s genotype Pp, father’s genotype Pp, mother’s genotype pp; (b) ½

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3.5 In pigeons, a dominant allele C causes a checkered pattern in the feathers; its recessive allele c produces a plain pattern. Feather coloration is controlled by an independently assorting gene; the dominant allele B produces red feathers, and the recessive allele b produces brown feathers. Birds from a true-breeding checkered, red variety are crossed to birds from a true-breeding plain, brown variety.

(a) Predict the phenotype of their progeny.

(b) If these progeny are intercrossed, what phenotypes will appear in the F2, and in what proportions?
Ans: (a) Checkered, red (CC BB) ´ plain, brown (cc bb) ® F1 all checkered, red (Cc Bb); (b) F2 progeny: 9/16 checkered, red (C- B-), 3/16 plain, red (cc B-), 3/16 checkered, brown (C- bb), 1/16 plain, brown (cc bb).

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3.6 In mice, the allele C for colored fur is dominant over the allele c for white fur, and the allele V for normal behavior is dominant over the allele v for waltzing behavior, a form of discoordination. Give the genotypes of the parents in each of the following crosses:

(a) colored, normal mice mated with white, normal mice produced 29 colored, normal and 10 colored, waltzing progeny;

(b) colored, normal mice mated with colored, normal mice produced 38 colored, normal, 15 colored, waltzing, 11 white, normal, and 4 white, waltzing progeny;

(c) colored, normal mice mated with white, waltzing mice produced 8 colored, normal, 7 colored, waltzing, 9 white, normal, and 6 white, waltzing progeny.


Ans: (a) colored, normal (CC Vv) ´ white, normal (cc Vv); (b) colored, normal (Cc Vv) ´ colored, normal (Cc Vv); (c) colored, normal (Cc Vv) ´ white, waltzing (cc vv).

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3.7 In rabbits, the dominant allele B causes black fur and the recessive allele b causes brown fur; for an independently assorting gene, the dominant allele R causes long fur and the recessive allele r (for rex) causes short fur. A homozygous rabbit with long, black fur is crossed with a rabbit with short, brown fur, and the offspring are intercrossed. In the F2, what proportion of the rabbits with long, black fur will be homozygous for both genes?
Ans: Among the F2 progeny with long, black fur, the genotypic ratio is 1 BB RR: 2 BB Rr: 2 Bb RR: 4 Bb Rr; thus, 1/9 of the rabbits with long, black fur are homozygous for both genes.

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3.8 In shorthorn cattle, the genotype RR causes a red coat, the genotype rr causes a white coat, and the genotype Rr causes a roan coat. A breeder has red, white, and roan cows and bulls. What phenotypes might be expected from the following matings, and in what proportions?

(a) red red;

(b) red roan;

(c) red white;

(d) roan roan.
Ans: (a) all red; (b) ½ red, ½ roan; (c) all roan; (d) ¼ red, ½ roan, ¼ white.

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3.9 How many different kinds of F1 gametes, F2 genotypes, and F2 phenotypes would be expected from the following crosses:

(a) AA aa;

(b) AA BB aa bb;

(c) AA BB CC aa bb cc?

(d) What general formulas are suggested by these answers?
Ans:

F1 gametes F2 genotypes F2 phenotypes

(a) 2 3 2

(b) 2 ´ 2 = 4 3 ´ 3 = 9 2 ´ 2 = 4

(c) 2 ´ 2 ´ 2 = 8 3 ´ 3 ´ 3 = 27 2 ´ 2 ´ 2 = 8

(d) 2n 3n 2n, where n is the number of genes

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3.10 A researcher studied six independently assorting genes in a plant. Each gene has a dominant and a recessive allele: R black stem, r red stem; D tall plant, d dwarf plant; C full pods, c constricted pods; O round fruit, o oval fruit; H hairless leaves, h hairy leaves; W purple flower, w white flower. From the cross (P1) Rr Dd cc Oo Hh Ww (P2) Rr dd Cc oo Hh ww,

(a) how many kinds of gametes can be formed by P1?

(b) How many genotypes are possible among the progeny of this cross?

(c) How many phenotypes are possible among the progeny?

(d) What is the probability of obtaining the Rr Dd cc Oo hh ww genotype in the progeny?

(e) What is the probability of obtaining a black, dwarf, constricted, oval, hairy, purple phenotype in the progeny?


Ans: (a) 2´2´1´2´2´2 = 32; (b) 3´2´2´2´3´2 = 144; (c) 2´2´2´2´2´2 = 64; (d) (1/2) ´ (1/2) ´ (1/2) ´ (1/2) ´ (1/4) ´ (1/2) = 1/128; (e) (3/4) ´ (1/2) ´ (1/2) ´ (1/2) ´ (1/4) ´ (1/2) = 3/256.

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3.11 For each of the situations below, determine the degrees of freedom associated with the 2 statistic and decide whether or not the observed 2 value warrants acceptance or rejection of the hypothesized genetic ratio.

Hypothesized Ratio Observed 2

(a) 3:1 7.0

(b) 1:2:1 7.0

(c) 1:1:1:1 7.0

(d) 9:3:3:1 5.0


Ans: (a) 1, reject; (b) 2, reject; (c) 3, accept; (d) 3, accept.

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3.12 Mendel testcrossed pea plants grown from yellow, round F1 seeds to plants grown from green, wrinkled seeds and obtained the following results: 31 yellow, round; 26 green, round; 27 yellow, wrinkled; and 26 green, wrinkled. Are these results consistent with the hypothesis that seed color and seed texture are controlled by independently assorting genes, each segregating two alleles?
Ans: On the hypothesis, the expected number in each class is 27.5; c2 with three degrees of freedom is calculated as (31 - 27.5)2/27.5 + (26 - 27.5)2/27.5 + (27 - 27.5)2/27.5 + (26 - 27.5)2/27.5 = 0.618, which is not significant at the 5% level. Thus, the results are consistent with the hypothesis of two independently assorting genes, each segregating two alleles.

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3.13 Perform a chi-square test to determine if an observed ratio of 30 tall: 20 dwarf pea plants is consistent with an expected ratio of 1:1 from the cross Dd dd.
Ans: c2 = (30 - 25)2/25 + (20 - 25)2/25 = 2, which is less than 3.84, the 5 percent critical value for a chi-square statistic with one degree of freedom; consequently, the observed segregation ratio is consistent with the expected ratio of 1:1.

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3.14 Seed capsules of the Shepherd’s purse are either triangular or ovoid. A cross between a plant with triangular seed capsules and a plant with ovoid seed capsules yielded F1 hybrids that all had triangular seed capsules. When these F1 hybrids were intercrossed, they produced 80 F2 plants, 72 of which had triangular seed capsules and 8 of which had ovoid seed capsules. Are these results consistent with the hypothesis that capsule shape is determined by a single gene with two alleles?
Ans: If capsule shape is determined by a single gene with two alleles, the F2 plants should segregate in a 3:1 ratio. To test for agreement between the observed segregation data and the expected ratio, compute the expected number of plants with either triangular or ovoid seed capsules: (3/4) ´ 80 = 60 triangular and (1/4) ´ 80 = 20 ovoid; then compute a c2 statistic with one degree of freedom: c2 = (72 – 60)2/60 + (8 – 20) 2/20 = 9.6, which exceeds the critical value of 3.84. Consequently, the data are inconsistent with the hypothesis that capsule shape is determined by a single gene with two alleles.

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3.15 Albinism in humans is caused by a recessive allele a. From marriages between people known to be carriers (Aa) and people with albinism (aa), what proportion of the children would be expected to have albinism? Among three children, what is the chance of one without albinism and two with albinism?
Ans: Half the children from Aa ´ aa matings would have albinism. In a family of three children, the chance that one will be unaffected and two affected is 3 ´ (1/2)1 ´ (1/2)2 = 3/8.

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3.16 If both husband and wife are known to be carriers of the allele for albinism, what is the chance of the following combinations in a family of four children: (a) all four unaffected; (b) three unaffected and one affected; (c) two unaffected and two affected; (d) one unaffected and three affected?
Ans: (a) (3/4)4 = 81/256; (b) 4 ´ (3/4)3 ´ (1/4)1 = 108/256; (c) 6 ´ (3/4)2 ´ (1/4)2 = 54/256; (d) 4 ´ (3/4)1 ´ (1/4)3 = 12/256.

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3.17 In humans, cataracts in the eyes and fragility of the bones are caused by dominant alleles that assort independently. A man with cataracts and normal bones marries a woman without cataracts but with fragile bones. The man’s father had normal eyes, and the woman’s father had normal bones. What is the probability that the first child of this couple will (a) be free from both abnormalities; (b) have cataracts but not have fragile bones; (c) have fragile bones but not have cataracts; (d) have both cataracts and fragile bones?
Ans: Man (Cc ff) ´ woman (cc Ff). (a) cc ff, (1/2) ´ (1/2) = 1/4; (b) Cc ff, (1/2) ´ (1/2) = 1/4; (c) cc Ff, (1/2) ´ (1/2) = 1/4; (d) Cc Ff, (1/2) ´ (1/2) = 1/4.

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3.18 In generation V in the pedigree in Figure 3.15, what is the probability of observing seven children without the cancer-causing mutation and two children with this mutation among a total of nine children?
Ans: 9!/(7! 2!) ´ (1/2)7 ´ (1/2)2 = 0.07

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3.19 If a man and a woman are heterozygous for a gene, and if they have three children, what is the chance that all three will also be heterozygous?
Ans: (1/2)3 = 1/8

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3.20 If four babies are born on a given day: (a) What is the chance that two will be boys and two girls? (b) What is the chance that all four will be girls? (c) What combination of boys and girls among four babies is most likely? (d) What is the chance that at least one baby will be a girl?
Ans: (a) 4 ´ (1/2)2 ´ (1/2)2 = 4/16; (b) (1/2)4 = 1/16; (c) 2 boys, girls; (d) 1 – probability that all four are boys = 1 – (1/2)4 = 15/16.

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3.21 In a family of six children, what is the chance that at least three are girls?
Ans: (20/64) + (15/64) + (6/64) + (1/64) = 42/64

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3.22 The pedigree below shows the inheritance of a dominant trait. What is the chance that the offspring of the following matings will show the trait: (a) III - 1 III - 3; (b) III - 2 III - 4?
Ans: (a) zero; (b) ½

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3.23 The pedigree below shows the inheritance of a recessive trait. Unless there is evidence to the contrary, assume that the individuals who have married into the family do not carry the recessive allele. What is the chance that the offspring of the following matings will show the trait: (a) III - 1 III - 12; (b) III - 4 III - 14; (c) III - 6 III - 13; (d) IV - 1 IV - 2?
Ans: (a) (1/4) ´ (1/2) = 1/8; (b) (1/4) ´ (1/4) = 1/16; (c) (2/3) ´ (1/2) x (1/2) = 1/6; (d) (2/3) ´ (1/2) ´ (1/2) ´ (1/4) = 1/24

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3.24 In the pedigrees below, determine whether the trait is more likely to be due to a dominant or a recessive allele. Assume the trait is rare in the population.
Ans: (a) Recessive; (b) dominant.

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    1. In pedigree (b) of Problem 3.24, what is the chance that the couple III-1 and III-2 will have an affected child? What is the chance that the couple IV-2 and IV-3 will have an affected child?

Ans: For III-1 ´ III-2, the chance of an affected child is 1/2. For IV-2 ´ IV-3, the chance is zero.

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3.26 Peas heterozygous for three independently assorting genes were intercrossed.

(a)What proportion of the offspring will be homozygous for all three recessive alleles?

(b)What proportion of the offspring will be homozygous for all three genes?

(c)What proportion of the offspring will be homozygous for one gene and heterozygous for the other two?

(d)What proportion of the offspring will be homozygous for the recessive allele of at least one gene?
Ans: (a) (1/4)3 = 1/64; (b) (1/2)3 = 1/8; (c) 3 ´ (1/2)1 ´ (1/2)2 = 3/8; (d) 1 - probability that the offspring is not homozygous for the recessive allele of any gene = 1 - (3/4)3 = 37/64.

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Difficulty: hard


3.27. The pedigree below shows the inheritance of a recessive trait. What is the chance that the couple III-3 and III-4 will have an affected child?
Ans: ½

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Difficulty: medium


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